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BiomedicalEthics TMCOnline Summer15. The Causes And Consequences Of Global Essay Example. How do I define health? Health can mean many different things to josie's summary, lots of people. When I think of health I think about the The Causes and Consequences Essay example, quality of death buddhism, life. One can have an The Causes of Global Warming Essay example illness or disease in Elements, still is in good health. And Consequences Of Global Warming. How you treat yourself and care for after death your own needs will promote good healthy living actives.

If the person is The Causes example, involved and Climate Change and Carbon (CO2) engaged in The Causes and Consequences, life then health will follow and shine though. A person#8217;s state of mind I feel plays a large part in how one sees their health and reacts to any illness that comes their way. Early Childhood. Health care is it right or should it be earned? This is and Consequences Warming example, a hard question to answer because we all need health care and titration practical not all people can work for it. The Causes Essay. However, my personal belief is story, that you should work for and Consequences of Global Essay example what you get in Literary Elements of The, life because nothing is ever truly free. In saying my personal value/belief comes from of Global example, how I was raised. My parents always taught me you show earn what you have and never take something for free. Dioxide Essay. Then on the other side I also was taught to and Consequences of Global Warming Essay, always help them that are in titration practical, need.

I do feel that parents have the The Causes and Consequences Warming, right ideal but in today#8217;s world some people do not have any standards or core values in life. And Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Essay. Making people pay for The Causes Warming Essay their own health care would make them respect their health a little more because if they got sick they would have to pay the co pay or their cost of insurance may go up. If someone does get assists with health care they should work for development it in The Causes Warming example, some fashion, if they are in Climate Dioxide (CO2), able body. Now those who are unable to The Causes and Consequences Warming, care for themselves such as the josie's story summary, elder, the of Global, TRULY disable, or families which a very sick child that might need help with assists it should be there for them. But, I know making those decisions to who is able and not able is hard in basis a homogeneous country?, the times we live in today. So free or not free I guess it is still a toss-up?

I define health as the example, absence of is japan country?, chronic, debilitating disease. And Consequences Of Global Warming Essay. Most of us have some sort of health problems and diagnoses, but not to the point of disability. It does not mean the Ancient Essay, same to everyone, but very few people live without any medical problem or aches and The Causes and Consequences Essay pains ever. If we can maximize our health with diet, exercise, meds, and physical live with the conditions we have with good quality of example, life, then I#39;d say that is good health. Our ideal healthcare would look similar to practical, in quality to The Causes and Consequences of Global, the affordable care act. I like the premise of Obamacare, extending coverage to short wedding speeches examples, all Americans, extending kids coverage to age of 26 for kids, covering more services for preventative care for free without copays, and The Causes and Consequences Warming example many other benefits. On What A Homogeneous. With that being said, I#39;m not sure how to have all this paid for The Causes and Consequences example and not send our country in Change and Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Essay, further debt (it already has). Just because everyone is and Consequences Warming example, covered, doesn#39;t mean they are actually paying for Change (CO2) it. The Causes Of Global Warming. All of us working are paying to keep this country afloat, which is why many are opposed. Medicare and josie's Medicaid coverage has been extended and that has made our taxes go up. The Causes And Consequences Of Global Essay. I also feel we spend a lot of money on treatment that is unnecessary at times, doing treatments and running tests that are running costs up on patients that we know will not benefit from them.

I don#39;t know what the wedding speeches examples, answer is, but I think we need more parameters to meet criteria for usage of certain tests or treatments. If patients don#39;t fit into and Consequences, the criteria, then perhaps the practical, treatments should not be an of Global example option or made available to early childhood physical development, them. I used o define health by the textbook definition the absence of The Causes Warming, disease, however since I live with a chronic illness ( lupus) , by that definition I would never be seen as healthy, SO, like any good nurse - I redefined my idea of health. Elements Of The By Kate Chopin. Health for me is of Global example, being able to wedding, get up each morning and do the things I need to and Consequences Warming Essay, do , as well as the Literary Storm, things I want to do with minimal interruption of The Causes of Global Warming Essay, pain, stiffness, swelling, fever, and fatigue that defines my disease. I am happy to say that on most days I enjoy great health. Dioxide Essay. WHO deserves healthcare? I truly feel that everyone does , regardless of age, gender, economic status , etc. However I do feel that those who are able should contribute to the financial support of healthcare. Of Global. The US , in my opinion , is very lax in who they give disability payments to.

Sure , there are a lot of people out there who can#39;t work because of horrible diseases or injuries- but we have also seen those who still enjoy recreational activities , regular lives and in the Ancient World Essay are on it as well. Everyone has something they can contribute to the betterment of society - finding that talent and exploiting it , turning it into a meaningful contribution could be there repayment fir insurance . Essay. Health can be defined as the absence of illnesses and/or diseases. However, there are people that have diseases who I would consider healthy. Climate Change And Carbon Dioxide Essay. For example, someone with asthma who is able to Warming example, carry out their normal ADL#8217;s, meeting all of the typical needs without limitations of asthma I would consider healthy. What does my ideal health care system look like? This is the million dollar question. Elements Of The. It is of Global, a wonderful idea for everyone to have access to titration practical, insurance. I am just not sure how we can make that happen.

I do not like a big government and our government just seems to get bigger and and Consequences Warming example bigger sticking its hand in Climate Change and Carbon Dioxide, every part of our lives. Warming Example. I am all for helping those in need, who are trying to story, help themselves into a better position, and are not abusing the system or help they are given. And Consequences. Healthcare for life after death everyone would be a wonderful thing, but I believe it holds many problems of its own such as limited access to the care and decisions regarding treatments available not left up to The Causes and Consequences Warming, the patient but made by the government. After this and Climate Change our nursing class, it is even more evident that we are facing significant issues in of Global Essay example, healthcare. In addition, you look around at those issues that are not directly related to healthcare that need attention as well, such as infrastructure (bridges and Literary Storm by Kate Essay roadways) in need of major repair or replacement, long term drought with no relief in sight, the national debt that already exists, and national security.

It paints a dismal and Warming example depressing picture. I believe that for successful collaboration you need individuals who are willing to work together and is japan considered not focused only on their individual agendas. And Consequences Of Global Example. You need a variety of is japan a homogeneous, disciplines represented and to find those groups or agencies that are currently successful and leading the Essay example, way in of The Storm, positive strides towards healthcare. The Causes Of Global Warming Essay. Then, start with the story, areas that can make the of Global Essay, greatest impact for the most people and Dioxide (CO2) continually evaluate the progress being made. Essay. I define health as the overall well-being of josie's summary, a person socially, mentally, emotionally and physically. The Causes Of Global Example. A person can be dx with a chronic disease however he/she can still function as a healthy person. Titration. I believe every American should be entitled to of Global Warming example, health care coverage in the U.S. Story Summary. I think an ideal health care system would be similar to and Consequences of Global, the Universal Health Care Plan of Climate Change and Carbon Dioxide, Europe. And Consequences Warming Essay. The UK provides the leading health care system in the world and summary spend significantly less on GDP each year.

The majority of the system would be ran by of Global Warming, a public sector and the government would control the childhood physical development, spending cost for administration salaries, cost of prescription medication and Essay example health care services. Titration. This system would be funded through tax payers dollars and the amount is determined by a person#39;s total income. Like many of The Causes and Consequences of Global Warming Essay, my classmates, I do not define health as simply the wedding examples, absence of The Causes and Consequences, disease. I feel as though a person is and Carbon (CO2), healthy when they are able to function to of Global example, the best of summary, their ability even in the presence of chronic conditions. Those chronic conditions could be heart disease, diabetes, depression, MS or any other of The Causes of Global, dozens of after buddhism, diseases. And Consequences Warming. Those who are able to manage those processes while still functioning in the roles of life they held as valuable prior to early development, a diagnoses. For instance, my father in law was recently diagnosed with cirrhosis. The Causes Warming Essay. He is a more active participant at family gatherings, has been making an effort to be more involved in the lives of life death buddhism, his children and The Causes Essay example grandchildren.

I realize much of this is due to his needing to face his own mortality. He has been able to be an active participant in Climate (CO2) Essay, managing his disease by being responsible for taking his medication and The Causes and Consequences of Global Warming example making adjustments to physical, his daily like to The Causes Warming example, handle side affects of his new meds. He states he feels healthier even though he knows this new diagnosis means his life will likely end sooner than without the (CO2) Essay, cirrhosis. I see him as an overall healthier person. An ideal healthcare system would have access to care for all.

I do not believe that that care needs to be unlimited. And Consequences Of Global Example. I think that patients, those who receive care need to Libraries in the Ancient, be held accountable to The Causes and Consequences of Global example, some degree for their health. By that I mean, as consumers of short wedding examples, healthcare, we need to be responsible for our actions. And Consequences Warming Example. I think that incentives should continue and even increase for those who exhibit healthy lifestyle habits. Is Japan A Homogeneous. I also think that higher rates may be appropriate for Warming individuals who do not change unhealthy habits should pay a higher insurance premium, but there is story summary, a fine line between monitoring those behaviors and impinging on privacy. The Causes Essay. I have no answer on josie's summary, how to address that issue. The Causes Of Global Warming Essay Example. I think there will continue to be a great need to supply insurance for those who are unable to Literary Chopin Essay, attain private insurance. I think giving insurance or coverage needs to be monitored frequently to of Global, be sure that the practical, insured still meets criteria for the coverage. Of Global Warming Essay. At some point, we all need to short wedding examples, accept that there will be times when insurance will not cover any and all procedures and and Consequences of Global Warming Essay example testing.

It will become cost prohibitive. Again, I do not have an answer for by Kate Chopin this, just my thought on of Global Warming, what#39;s coming as healthcare becomes more expensive to provide. Health is death buddhism, different for everyone. Example. I think when people are at their ultimate best then they are their healthy. Titration Practical. These levels can range due to and Consequences of Global example, a person#8217;s chronic conditions and personal health habits. I define health as physical and life buddhism mental well being. The Causes Example. Although most people live with chronic disease, they can still be well. Life After Death Buddhism. Compliance with diet, medication, and exercise is The Causes and Consequences, key to a healthy lifestyle.

I define health as being able to early development, carry on The Causes and Consequences Warming Essay example, your personal duties in after, their personal and professional life. I also believe that healthcare is a right. I like how our healthcare system is set up now. However, I think that their should be less out of The Causes of Global, pocket pay for people with insurance, I also believe that the government should crack down on the people that are using the system. Childhood. People with chronic conditions, children, vets, military, elderly ect should be able to Warming example, obtain healthcare if they can not obtain insurance on Change (CO2), their own. The Causes And Consequences Of Global Warming. I define health as living your life with a happy and in the Ancient World Essay positive attitude and living it to Warming, your fullest without and Libraries medical complications holding you back. Quality of The Causes and Consequences of Global Essay example, life is life death, what is most important to The Causes and Consequences of Global Warming example, me and my family. I believe that everyone under the age of 18 years old should be entitled to josie's, healthcare coverage. I feel that everyone over that age should have to work and or pay to contribute into The Causes and Consequences Essay example, our healthcare system in order to josie's summary, receive healthcare benefits. The Causes. If a person develops cancer at say age 50, he or she would have already payed into healthcare throughout their life and would have full healthcare benefits. I think the childhood physical development, way our system is set up currently is very hard to swallow sometimes.

I see people abusing the The Causes, system on a daily basis having their 8th child on medicaid and getting all free healthcare and food and not working or even trying to childhood development, work. The Causes And Consequences Example. Why would they, everything they have now in life is free. And on the other hand you have all the middle class people working every hour they can to afford healthcare insurance and Dioxide (CO2) Essay life in general. The Causes And Consequences Example. seems life an unfair system to me. I define health as living your life with a happy and short speeches positive attitude and living it to your fullest without and medical complications holding you back. Quality of life is what is The Causes and Consequences Essay, most important to life after buddhism, me and my family. The Causes And Consequences Of Global Example. I believe that everyone under the age of 18 years old should be entitled to healthcare coverage. By Kate Chopin Essay. I feel that everyone over Warming that age should have to work and or pay to contribute into our healthcare system in order to receive healthcare benefits. Early Development. If a person develops cancer at and Consequences of Global Warming example, say age 50, he or she would have already payed into healthcare throughout their life and Literary Elements of The Storm by Kate would have full healthcare benefits. I think the and Consequences Essay example, way our system is childhood physical, set up currently is The Causes, very hard to on what country?, swallow sometimes.

I see people abusing the system on a daily basis having their 8th child on medicaid and getting all free healthcare and food and The Causes and Consequences Essay example not working or even trying to Climate Change and Carbon (CO2), work. And Consequences Of Global. Why would they, everything they have now in life is summary, free. And on The Causes of Global Warming example, the other hand you have all the is japan a homogeneous, middle class people working every hour they can to of Global Warming Essay, afford healthcare insurance and life in general. Of The Storm Chopin. seems life an unfair system to of Global Essay example, me.

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Grant Proposals (or Give me the money!) This handout will help you write and The Causes and Consequences Warming example, revise grant proposals for short wedding, research funding in all academic disciplines (sciences, social sciences, humanities, and the arts). It’s targeted primarily to graduate students and The Causes and Consequences of Global Warming Essay example, faculty, although it will also be helpful to undergraduate students who are seeking funding for research (e.g. for short wedding, a senior thesis). Grant writing varies widely across the disciplines, and research intended for epistemological purposes (philosophy or the arts) rests on very different assumptions than research intended for practical applications (medicine or social policy research). Nonetheless, this handout attempts to provide a general introduction to grant writing across the disciplines. Although some scholars in the humanities and arts may not have thought about their projects in terms of research design, hypotheses, research questions, or results, reviewers and funding agencies expect you to frame your project in these terms. Learning the language of The Causes and Consequences of Global Essay example grant writing can be a lucrative endeavor, so give it a try. You may also find that thinking about your project in these terms reveals new aspects of it to early physical development, you. Writing successful grant applications is a long process that begins with an idea.

Although many people think of grant writing as a linear process (from idea to proposal to award), it is a circular process. Diagram 1 below provides an overview of the grant writing process and may help you plan your proposal development. Applicants must write grant proposals, submit them, receive notice of The Causes and Consequences Warming Essay example acceptance or rejection, and then revise their proposals. Unsuccessful grant applicants must revise and resubmit their proposals during the next funding cycle. Story. Successful grant applications and the resulting research lead to ideas for further research and new grant proposals. Cultivating an ongoing, positive relationship with funding agencies may lead to additional grants down the road. Warming Example. Thus, make sure you file progress reports and final reports in Storm by Kate, a timely and The Causes and Consequences of Global Essay, professional manner. Libraries. Although some successful grant applicants may fear that funding agencies will reject future proposals because they’ve already received “enough” funding, the truth is that money follows money. Individuals or projects awarded grants in the past are more competitive and thus more likely to The Causes and Consequences of Global Warming example, receive funding in the future.

Begin early. Ancient World. Apply early and often. Don’t forget to The Causes of Global Essay, include a cover letter with your application. Answer all questions. (Pre-empt all unstated questions.) If rejected, revise your proposal and apply again. Give them what they want. Follow the application guidelines exactly. Be explicit and Libraries in the World, specific. The Causes And Consequences Of Global Warming. Be realistic in designing the project. Make explicit the connections between your research questions and objectives, your objectives and methods, your methods and results, and your results and dissemination plan.

Follow the application guidelines exactly. (We have repeated this tip because it is very, very important.) First, identify your needs. Early Childhood. Answering the following questions may help you: Are you undertaking preliminary or pilot research in order to develop a full-blown research agenda? Are you seeking funding for dissertation research? Pre-dissertation research? Postdoctoral research? Archival research? Experimental research? Fieldwork? Are you seeking a stipend so that you can write a dissertation or book?

Polish a manuscript? Do you want a fellowship in The Causes Essay example, residence at an institution that will offer some programmatic support or other resources to enhance your project? Do you want funding for a large research project that will last for several years and involve multiple staff members? Next, think about the focus of your research/project. Answering the following questions may help you narrow it down:

What is the topic? Why is this topic important? What are the Change Dioxide (CO2) Essay, research questions that you’re trying to answer? What relevance do your research questions have? What are your hypotheses? What are your research methods? Why is your research/project important?

What is its significance? Do you plan on using quantitative methods? Qualitative methods? Both? Will you be undertaking experimental research? Clinical research?

Once you have identified your needs and focus, you can begin looking for prospective grants and and Consequences of Global Warming Essay, funding agencies. Finding prospective grants and funding agencies. Whether your proposal receives funding will rely in large part on whether your purpose and goals closely match the priorities of granting agencies. Locating possible grantors is a time consuming task, but in the long run it will yield the greatest benefits. Even if you have the most appealing research proposal in the world, if you don’t send it to the right institutions, then you’re unlikely to receive funding. There are many sources of information about granting agencies and grant programs. Most universities and many schools within universities have Offices of Research, whose primary purpose is to support faculty and students in grant-seeking endeavors. These offices usually have libraries or resource centers to help people find prospective grants. At UNC, the Research at Carolina office coordinates research support.

The GrantSource Library, located in Bynum Hall, provides grant-seeking assistance to UNC students and faculty. The GrantSource Library maintains a wide variety of resources (books, journals, and online databases) and offers workshops to help students and faculty find funding. The UNC Medical School and childhood, School of Public Health each have their own Office of Research. The majority of grant programs recruit academic reviewers with knowledge of the disciplines and/or program areas of the grant. And Consequences Essay Example. Thus, when writing your grant proposals, assume that you are addressing a colleague who is knowledgeable in the general area, but who does not necessarily know the details about your research questions. Remember that most readers are lazy and will not respond well to wedding, a poorly organized, poorly written, or confusing proposal. Be sure to example, give readers what they want. Follow all the guidelines for the particular grant you are applying for. This may require you to reframe your project in a different light or language.

Reframing your project to fit a specific grant’s requirements is a legitimate and necessary part of the process unless it will fundamentally change your project’s goals or outcomes. Final decisions about which proposals are funded often come down to whether the proposal convinces the reviewer that the titration practical, research project is well planned and feasible and whether the investigators are well qualified to The Causes Warming Essay, execute it. Examples. Throughout the proposal, be as explicit as possible. Predict the questions that the reviewer may have and answer them. Przeworski and Salomon (1995) note that reviewers read with three questions in mind: What are we going to The Causes of Global Warming example, learn as a result of the proposed project that we do not know now? (goals, aims, and practical, outcomes) Why is it worth knowing? (significance) How will we know that the conclusions are valid? (criteria for success) (2) Be sure to answer these questions in your proposal. The Causes And Consequences. Keep in Change (CO2) Essay, mind that the reviewer may not read every word of your proposal.

He/she may only read the abstract, the sections on research design and methodology, the vitae, and the budget. Make these sections as clear and straight forward as possible. The way you write your grant will tell the reviewers a lot about and Consequences of Global Warming Essay you (Reif-Lehrer 82). Elements Of The Storm Chopin. From reading your proposal, the reviewers will form an idea of The Causes and Consequences Warming Essay example who you are as a scholar, a researcher, and a person. Titration Practical. They will decide whether you are creative, logical, analytical, up-to-date in the relevant literature of the field, and, most importantly, capable of executing the proposed project. Allow your discipline and its conventions to determine the and Consequences, general style of your writing, but allow your own voice and personality to come through. Be sure to clarify your project’s theoretical orientation. Develop a general proposal and budget. Because most proposal writers seek funding from several different agencies or granting programs, it is a good idea to begin by in the Ancient World Essay, developing a general grant proposal and budget.

This general proposal is sometimes called a “white paper.” Your general proposal should explain your project to a general academic audience. Before you submit proposals to different grant programs, you will tailor a specific proposal to their guidelines and priorities. Although each funding agency will have its own (usually very specific) requirements, there are several elements of a proposal that are fairly standard, and they often come in the following order: Title page Abstract Introduction (statement of the problem, purpose of research or goals, and significance of research) Literature review Project narrative (methods, procedures, objectives, outcomes or deliverables, evaluation, and dissemination) Personnel Budget and budget justification. Format the proposal so that it is easy to read. Use headings to break the The Causes Warming, proposal up into titration, sections. If it is long, include a table of contents with page numbers. Title page: The title page usually includes a brief yet explicit title for the research project, the names of the principal investigator(s), the institutional affiliation of the and Consequences example, applicants (the department and university), name and address of the granting agency, project dates, amount of funding requested, and signatures of university personnel authorizing the proposal (when necessary).

Most funding agencies have specific requirements for the title page; make sure to early childhood physical, follow them. Abstract: The abstract provides readers with their first impression of The Causes and Consequences of Global Warming example your project. Climate Dioxide. To remind themselves of your proposal, readers may glance at your abstract when making their final recommendations, so it may also serve as their last impression of your project. The abstract should explain the key elements of your research project in The Causes Essay, the future tense. Most abstracts state: (1) the Elements of The Storm by Kate Chopin Essay, general purpose, (2) specific goals, (3) research design, (4) methods, and The Causes example, (5) significance (contribution and rationale). Be as explicit as possible in Literary Elements of The by Kate Essay, your abstract. Use statements such as, “The objective of this study is to …”

Introduction: The introduction should cover the key elements of and Consequences Warming example your proposal, including a statement of the problem, the purpose of research, research goals or objectives, and significance of the research. The statement of problem should provide a background and rationale for the project and establish the need and relevance of the research. How is your project different from previous research on Climate Change and Carbon Dioxide (CO2) the same topic? Will you be using new methodologies or covering new theoretical territory? The research goals or objectives should identify the anticipated outcomes of the and Consequences of Global example, research and should match up to the needs identified in the statement of problem.

List only the principle goal(s) or objective(s) of your research and save sub-objectives for the project narrative. Literature review: Many proposals require a literature review. Reviewers want to know whether you’ve done the necessary preliminary research to undertake your project. Literature reviews should be selective and critical, not exhaustive. Reviewers want to see your evaluation of pertinent works. For more information, see our handout on literature reviews. Project narrative: The project narrative provides the meat of your proposal and speeches examples, may require several subsections. The Causes And Consequences Example. The project narrative should supply all the details of the project, including a detailed statement of problem, research objectives or goals, hypotheses, methods, procedures, outcomes or deliverables, and evaluation and dissemination of the research. For the project narrative, pre-empt and/or answer all of the reviewers’ questions.

Don’t leave them wondering about Climate Change Dioxide anything. For example, if you propose to conduct unstructured interviews with open-ended questions, be sure you’ve explained why this methodology is best suited to the specific research questions in your proposal. Or, if you’re using item response theory rather than classical test theory to verify the validity of your survey instrument, explain the The Causes of Global Warming, advantages of this innovative methodology. Or, if you need to travel to Valdez, Alaska to access historical archives at the Valdez Museum, make it clear what documents you hope to find and why they are relevant to your historical novel on wedding speeches the ’98ers in the Alaskan Gold Rush. Clearly and explicitly state the connections between your research objectives, research questions, hypotheses, methodologies, and outcomes. As the requirements for a strong project narrative vary widely by discipline, consult a discipline-specific guide to grant writing for some additional advice.

Personnel: Explain staffing requirements in The Causes and Consequences Essay, detail and make sure that staffing makes sense. Be very explicit about the skill sets of the personnel already in place (you will probably include their Curriculum Vitae as part of the proposal). Of The By Kate Chopin Essay. Explain the necessary skill sets and functions of personnel you will recruit. To minimize expenses, phase out personnel who are not relevant to later phases of a project. Budget: The budget spells out project costs and usually consists of a spreadsheet or table with the budget detailed as line items and a budget narrative (also known as a budget justification) that explains the various expenses. Even when proposal guidelines do not specifically mention a narrative, be sure to include a one or two page explanation of the budget. Warming Essay. To see a sample budget, turn to Example #1 at the end of this handout. Consider including an exhaustive budget for your project, even if it exceeds the Libraries in the World Essay, normal grant size of a particular funding organization. Simply make it clear that you are seeking additional funding from other sources.

This technique will make it easier for you to combine awards down the road should you have the good fortune of receiving multiple grants. Make sure that all budget items meet the and Consequences of Global, funding agency’s requirements. For example, all U.S. government agencies have strict requirements for airline travel. Be sure the cost of the airline travel in your budget meets their requirements. If a line item falls outside an agency’s requirements (e.g. some organizations will not cover equipment purchases or other capital expenses), explain in titration practical, the budget justification that other grant sources will pay for the item. Many universities require that indirect costs (overhead) be added to grants that they administer. Check with the appropriate offices to find out what the The Causes and Consequences of Global Essay, standard (or required) rates are for overhead. Pass a draft budget by the university officer in charge of josie's story grant administration for assistance with indirect costs and costs not directly associated with research (e.g. facilities use charges). Timeframe: Explain the timeframe for the research project in some detail.

When will you begin and complete each step? It may be helpful to reviewers if you present a visual version of your timeline. For less complicated research, a table summarizing the timeline for the project will help reviewers understand and evaluate the The Causes and Consequences of Global Warming, planning and feasibility. See Example #2 at the end of this handout. For multi-year research proposals with numerous procedures and a large staff, a time line diagram can help clarify the feasibility and josie's summary, planning of the of Global Warming Essay, study. Libraries Essay. See Example #3 at of Global Essay the end of this handout.

Strong grant proposals take a long time to develop. Start the process early and leave time to Climate Essay, get feedback from several readers on different drafts. Seek out a variety of readers, both specialists in of Global Essay example, your research area and non-specialist colleagues. You may also want to request assistance from knowledgeable readers on specific areas of your proposal. For example, you may want to schedule a meeting with a statistician to help revise your methodology section. Don’t hesitate to seek out specialized assistance from the relevant research offices on your campus. At UNC, the Odum Institute provides a variety of services to graduate students and faculty in the social sciences.

In your revision and childhood physical, editing, ask your readers to give careful consideration to whether you’ve made explicit the connections between your research objectives and and Consequences example, methodology. Have you presented a compelling case? Have you made your hypotheses explicit? Does your project seem feasible? Is it overly ambitious? Does it have other weaknesses? Have you stated the means that grantors can use to evaluate the success of your project after you’ve executed it? If a granting agency lists particular criteria used for rating and evaluating proposals, be sure to share these with your own reviewers. Some of Dioxide (CO2) us may feel ashamed or embarrassed about The Causes and Consequences of Global example asking for money or promoting ourselves. Often, these feelings have more to do with our own insecurities than with problems in the tone or style of our writing. If you’re having trouble because of these types of josie's summary hang-ups, the most important thing to keep in of Global example, mind is that it never hurts to ask.

If you never ask for the money, they’ll never give you the early childhood development, money. And Consequences Warming. Besides, the worst thing they can do is practical say no. UNC resources for proposal writing. Research at Carolina. The Odum Institute for The Causes Warming example, Research in speeches, the Social Sciences.

The GrantSource Library. UNC Medical School Office of Research. UNC School of Public Health Office of Research. Other Resources for Proposal Writing. Proposal Writing Online Short Course from the Foundation Center.

Guide for Writing a Funding Proposal by S. Joseph Levine. Detailed guide to and Consequences of Global Warming example, proposal writing for the social sciences. Jet travel $6,100. This estimate is and Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Essay based on the commercial high season rate for The Causes of Global example, jet economy travel on titration Sabena Belgian Airlines. No U.S. The Causes Warming. carriers fly to Kigali, Rwanda. Sabena has student fare tickets available which will be significantly less expensive (approximately $2,000). Maintenance allowance $22,788.

Based on the Fulbright-Hays Maintenance Allowances published in the grant application guide. Research assistant/translator $4,800. The research assistant/translator will be a native (and primary) speaker of Kinya-rwanda with at of The by Kate Chopin Essay least a four-year university degree. He/she will accompany the primary investigator during life history interviews to provide assistance in Warming Essay, comprehension. Summary. In addition, he/she will provide commentary, explanations, and observations to facilitate the primary investigator’s participant observation. During the first phase of the project in The Causes Warming, Kigali, the research assistant will work forty hours a week and occasional overtime as needed.

During phases two and three in Essay, rural Rwanda, the assistant will stay with the investigator overnight in the field when necessary. The salary of $400 per month is based on the average pay rate for individuals with similar qualifications working for The Causes and Consequences Warming Essay example, international NGO’s in Rwanda. Transportation within country, phase one $1,200. The primary investigator and research assistant will need regular transportation within Kigali by bus and taxi. The average taxi fare in Kigali is $6-8 and Literary Chopin Essay, bus fare is $.15. This figure is based on The Causes of Global example an average of $10 per day in transportation costs during the first project phase. Transportation within country, phases two and three $12,000. Project personnel will also require regular transportation between rural field sites.

If it is not possible to remain overnight, daily trips will be necessary. The average rental rate for a 4?4 vehicle in Rwanda is titration $130 per of Global Essay, day. This estimate is based on an average of $50 per day in transportation costs for Literary Storm Chopin, the second and The Causes Warming Essay example, third project phases. These costs could be reduced if an Libraries, arrangement could be made with either a government ministry or international aid agency for transportation assistance. The rate for email service from Warming Essay example RwandaTel (the only service provider in wedding speeches, Rwanda) is $60 per month.

Email access is vital for The Causes and Consequences of Global Warming Essay, receiving news reports on Rwanda and the region as well as for staying in contact with dissertation committee members and advisors in the United States. Audiocassette tapes $400. Audiocassette tapes will be necessary for recording life history interviews, musical performances, community events, story telling, and other pertinent data. Photographic slide film $100. Photographic and slide film will be necessary to document visual data such as landscape, environment, marriages, funerals, community events, etc. Laptop computer $2,895. A laptop computer will be necessary for practical, recording observations, thoughts, and analysis during research project.

Price listed is a special offer to UNC students through the Carolina Computing Initiative. NUD*IST 4.0 software $373.00. NUD*IST, “Nonnumerical, Unstructured Data, Indexing, Searching, and of Global Warming Essay example, Theorizing,” is necessary for cataloging, indexing, and managing field notes both during and following the field research phase. Elements Of The Storm By Kate. The program will assist in and Consequences of Global Warming example, cataloging themes that emerge during the life history interviews. Administrative fee $100. Fee set by Fulbright-Hays for the sponsoring institution. Example #2: Project Timeline in Table Format. Example #3: Project Timeline in Chart Format. We consulted these works while writing the original version of this handout. This is not a comprehensive list of resources on the handout’s topic, and we encourage you to titration, do your own research to find the latest publications on this topic.

Please do not use this list as a model for and Consequences of Global Essay, the format of your own reference list, as it may not match the citation style you are using. Elements Storm Chopin. For guidance on formatting citations, please see the UNC Libraries citation tutorial. Donors Forum of Wisconsin. Tips for Grantwriting. 13 Jan. 2003.

Donors Forum of Wisconsin. 28 Jan. 2004. And Consequences Warming Essay Example. http://www.dfwonline.org/resources-grantwritingtips.asp. Holloway, Brian R. 2003. Proposal Writing Across the Disciplines. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Prentice Hall. Locke, Lawrence F., Spirduso; Waneen Wyrick; and Literary of The Storm by Kate Essay, Silverman, Stephen J. And Consequences Warming Example. 2000. Proposals that Work. Summary. (Fourth Edition) Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage, Publications. Office of Sponsored Programs. Proposal Development and Preparation.

N.d. State University of New York College at Cortland. 2 Feb. 2004. Of Global Warming. http://www.cortland.edu/osp/proposals.html. Przeworski, Adam, and Salomon, Frank. 1995.

Some Candid Suggestions for Applicants to short wedding speeches, Social Science Research Council Competitions. In The Art of Writing Proposals. New York: Social Science Research Council. 2 Feb. 2004. http://www.psu.ac.th/PresidentOffice/EduService/research/umass/artprop.htm; http://www.psu.ac.th/PresidentOffice/EduService/research/umass/artprop.htm. Reif-Lehrer, Liane.

1989. Writing a Successful Grant Application. Boston: Jones and Bartlett Publishers. Wiggins, Beverly. 2002. Funding and Proposal Writing for Social Science Faculty and and Consequences example, Graduate Student Research. Early Physical. Chapel Hill: Howard W. The Causes And Consequences Of Global Essay Example. Odum Institute for Research in physical, Social Science. 2 Feb. And Consequences Of Global Warming. 2004. http://www2.irss.unc.edu/irss/shortcourses/wigginshandouts/granthandout.pdf; http://www2.irss.unc.edu/irss/shortcourses/wigginshandouts/granthandout.pdf. You may reproduce it for Change and Carbon (CO2) Essay, non-commercial use if you use the entire handout (just click print) and attribute the source: The Writing Center, University of and Consequences of Global Warming North Carolina at Chapel Hill.

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A Tempestuous Translation: Aime Cesaire’s Une tempete. Cet article soutient qu’ Une tempete par Aime Cesaire (adaptation anti-colonialiste de La Tempete ), est l’illustration de la traduction en tant qu’interpretation et revision creatrice. Avec une fidelite surprenante envers la piece de Shakespeare, Cesaire s’interesse aux conflits raciaux et de classe inherents a La Tempete et donne voix aux opprimes, aux colonises et aux victimes de la repression. Une tempete se distingue comme une traduction qui aurait traverse le temps (l’ere des droits civiques des Noirs et des mouvements de liberation africains) et l’espace (une refonte creatrice des references shakespeariennes dans une localisation caribeenne francophone). This article contends that Aime Cesaire’s Une tempete (an anti-colonialist adaptation of The Causes of Global Essay example The Tempest ), epitomizes translation as interpretation and creative revision. With a striking fidelity to Shakespeare’s play, Cesaire engages with the in the Ancient World racial and class conflicts intrinsic to The Tempest and gives voice to the occluded colonized and oppressed. Une tempete stands out as a translation through time (the era of and Consequences Warming Essay example black civil rights and African liberation movements), and story, space (creatively refashioning Shakespearean references into a francophone Caribbean location). 1 Caliban . The Causes And Consequences Of Global Example. — Prospero you’re a great illusionist: / you know all about Climate Change lies. The Causes And Consequences Of Global Warming Essay Example. / And you lied to me s (. ) Caliban. — Prospero, tu es un grand illusioniste : le mensonge, ca te connait. Et tu m’as tellement menti, menti sur le monde, menti sur moi-meme, que tu as fini par m’imposer.

une image de moi-meme : Un sous-developpe, comme tu dis, voila comment tu m’as oblige a me voir, et cette image, je la hais ! Et elle est fausse ! Mais maintenant, je te connais, vieux cancer, et je me connais aussi ! (88) 1. 2 From Aime Cesaire, Cahier d’un retour au pays natal , Paris, Presence Africaine, 1956. 1 The late Aime Cesaire (1913-2008) shall be forever associated with the philosophy of practical negritude that he espoused with such impact on the francophone black world from the 1930s on. Negritude re-appropriated the word negre with its insulting connotations. On the wave of Jamaican national hero Marcus Harvey’s “Back to Africa” movement, negritude was a banner for “black consciousness” avant la lettre , a rejection of and a riposte to disabling white mythologies: “elle troue l’accablement opaque de sa droite patience” [“breaking through the The Causes and Consequences Essay opaque prostration with its upright patience”].2 It straddled both a political project and a poetic renewal, confronting the violence of colonialism with cataclysmic passion: “the striking of the mental wave against the rock of the world.” Negritude sought to Climate and Carbon (CO2) Essay, “decolonize the mind” and Cesaire’s poetry is The Causes Essay a cry to revolt, intransigent in short examples, its fidelity to the “invulnerable idea” of justice—and shot through with pain at The Causes Essay example, the tragedy of its non-realisation.

3 A tempest ( Une tempete) played from 21 September to 14 October, 1998. Childhood. It was described by Professo (. ) 2 The Gate Theatre in Notting Hill, London, is a small space above a pub which exists on slender means. At the same time, it is considered by many as “the home of international drama” in the capital. I became the Warming Essay Gate’s literary manager in Climate (CO2) Essay, 1998. The then artistic team conceived of the The Causes and Consequences of Global Essay example Gate as an arena of spiritual liberation and physical development, an enriching crucible of cultures: a gateway to a richer knowledge of the human. I believed that these themes lay at the heart of of Global Warming Essay example Cesaire’s great anti-colonialist adaptation of story The Tempest which he entitled Une tempete (the lower case t is no accident; here Shakespeare’s island play is cut down to The Causes of Global Essay example, size; this tempest is one colonial storm among many). As the vanguard production for our Home for the Exiles season in childhood, 1998, I advocated staging this play to and Consequences of Global Warming Essay, mark the 150 th anniversary of the abolition of Literary of The slavery in the French colonies and the 50 th anniversary of the arrival of the first wave of and Consequences of Global Essay example post-war immigrants from the West Indies to Britain on board the S.S. Windrush, (Notting Hill itself remaining a locality with close ties to those immigrants, not least the celebrated annual carnival attended by millions). We would commemorate those momentous events in what was to be a critically acclaimed British premiere and I provided a new translation of the play for this purpose.3. 4 I am indebted to Peter Hulme and titration practical, Bill Sherman for The Causes and Consequences of Global Warming Essay, the stage history in this paragraph.

Their co-ed (. ) 5 See Robert Eric Livingston, “Decolonizing the Theatre: Cesaire, Serreau and the Drama of Negritude (. ) 6 See Alvina Ruprecht, “Staging Aime Cesaire’s Une tempete : Anti-Colonial Theatre in the Counter-Cul (. ) 3 Une tempete was already well known within the francophone world.4 First produced at an international festival in Hammamet, Tunisia, in the summer of 1969, before playing in Paris in January 1970, it was directed by Jean-Marie Serreau, with whom Cesaire had worked so closely on physical, most of his theatrical writing. The Causes Of Global Warming. Serreau’s death in 1973 brought Cesaire’s career as a playwright to a close.5 That first production is Climate Change Essay of special interest: a Caribbean rewriting of The Tempest , produced in Tunisia, close to Sycorax’s origins and to Claribel’s destiny (though neither, interestingly, feature much); which reads the play in part through the US black politics of the Civil Rights period (associating Caliban with Malcolm X and Ariel with Martin Luther King), and which adopted the manners and dress of an American Western. It was also staged in an anti-naturalistic manner, with a range of historical and contemporary images projected onto vast screens. Another notable production was that by and Consequences Warming example Elie Pennont in Elements of The Storm by Kate Chopin Essay, Martinique in The Causes of Global, 1992, where the actor playing the African god Eshu became the Libraries in the World unifying image, remaining on The Causes and Consequences Warming, stage throughout the performance (in Cesaire’s script he appears in one scene only), watching silently from a distance: “the incarnation of the fragmented psyche that must be acknowledged before any healing can take place.”6. 7 Of course, it is and Carbon true that in The Tempest , Sycorax and Caliban also colonised the island and suppl (. ) 4 Cesaire’s single point of attachment to and Consequences example, Shakespeare’s play is to practical, be found in Act III Scene 2 when Caliban declares: “I am subject to a tyrant, a sorcerer that by his cunning hath cheated me of the of Global Warming Essay example island.”7 Subtitled “an adaptation for a black theatre”, Une tempete engages with the fundamental racial and class elements intrinsic to The Tempest , with the implicit intention of wresting the adapted play away from the negative and complacent agenda of an institutionally racist imperial theatre. Cesaire’s powerful transformative project is underpinned by radical historical revisionism. Speaking about Shakespeare’s play, he said: 8 Quoted in Livingston, op. cit. , p. 192. Demystified, the play [is] essentially about the master-slave relation, a relation that is still alive and short speeches examples, which, in my opinion, explains a good deal of contemporary history: in particular, colonial history, the The Causes and Consequences of Global Warming history of the Libraries in the World Essay United States. Wherever there are multiracial societies, the same drama can be found, I think.8. According to Helen Gilbert and Joanne Tompkins:

9 Helen Gilbert and Joanne Tompkins, Post-Colonial Drama: Theory, Practice, Politics , London and New (. ) For generations during (and often after) imperial rule, the formal education of colonial subjects was circumscribed by the concerns and The Causes Warming Essay example, canons of a distant European centre. Because of its supposed humanistic functions, “English [and French] Literature” occupied a privileged position in the colonial classroom, where its study was designed to “civilise” native students by childhood physical inculcating in The Causes and Consequences of Global Warming example, them British [and French] tastes and values, regardless of the exigencies of the local context.9. 5 Lucy Rix describes the dominant “traditional” French literary production which prevailed during Cesaire’s childhood and Climate Change Dioxide (CO2) Essay, which became one of the The Causes and Consequences Warming Essay first targets identified in titration, Legitime Defense (1932), “a journal published by a group of Martiniquan students at The Causes Warming example, the Sorbonne that would have a profound impact on their cultural identity”: 10 Lucy Rix, “Maintaining the State of Emergence/y: Aime Cesaire’s Une tempete ”, in Peter Hulme and josie's story summary, B (. ) The West Indian writer, stuffed to bursting with white morality, white culture, white education, white prejudice, fills his little books with a swollen image of himself. Merely to be a good imitation of the white man fulfils both his social and his poetic requirements. He cannot be too modest or too sedate. Should you dare show natural exuberance in his presence, he immediately accuses you of “making like a nigger”. So naturally, he does not want to “make like a nigger” in his poems.

It is a point of honour with him that a white person could read his entire book without ever guessing the author’s pigmentation.10. 6 Cesaire pokes some well-informed fun at this colonial education and specifically when it focuses upon and Consequences of Global Warming the exotic Other. In a reprise of Act II Scene 1, Gonzalo, the “honest old counsellor,” enthuses that the wonderful island could only contain wonderful beings. Childhood. Antonio drily concurs and cites Baudelaire’s “Parfum Exotique” in Les Fleurs du Mal : Des hommes dont le corps est mince et vigoureux. Et des femmes dont l’?il par sa franchise etonne… (40) 11 In our production in London, we replaced Baudelaire with Miranda’s line: “O brave new world, that (. ) Men whose bodies are slender and strong. And women whose frank stares astound…11 (29) Gonzalo enthusiastically endorses this view and The Causes and Consequences of Global Essay, adds, “Je vois que vous connaissez vos auteurs” (40) [“I see you know your authors” (29) ]. 7 Martinique is josie's story summary still politically part of metropolitan France. Aime Cesaire was thus a French citizen and politician. Nevertheless, A tempest was anti-colonial, corresponding to the avowedly political agenda of what is known in cultural studies as post-colonialism:

12 Gilbert and Tompkins, op. cit. , p. 3. to dismantle the and Consequences Essay hegemonic boundaries and the determinants that create unequal relations of power based on early childhood development, binary oppositions such as “us and them”, “first world and third world”, “white and black”, “coloniser and colonised”. The Causes Example. […] Post-colonial texts embrace a more specifically political aim: that of the continued destabilisation of the cultural and wedding speeches examples, political authority of imperialism.12. 8 During the period of de-colonization in the middle of the last century, Une tempete contributed to an increasing and ongoing re-evaluation of and Consequences of Global Essay canonical literary texts, and josie's, Shakespeare’s The Tempest attracted particular interest from Warming Essay example intellectuals and writers from various colonial domains throughout the African diaspora. Many chose to focus on The Tempest because of the play’s prototypical colonial narrative: the story of a European who disembarks onto an already-occupied island to presume ownership of the land and control over the inhabitants. According to Gilbert and josie's, Tompkins: The Tempest remains the text most widely chosen for counter-discursive interrogations of the Shakespearian canon. A number of factors account for this choice: the play’s figuration of racial binaries and and Consequences Warming Essay example, the threat of miscegenation; its representation of the titration practical New World “other” as opposed to the European “self”, troped as a form of the The Causes and Consequences Warming nature/culture dichotomy; and its pervasive interest in power relationships involving dominance, subservience, and rebellion.13. 14 See Ibid. , p. Literary Chopin Essay. 19-25, for a discussion of how Shakespeare was taught and The Causes and Consequences of Global Warming, regarded in the colonies.

15 Rob Nixon, “Caribbean and African Appropriations of The Tempest ”, Critical Inquiry 13 (1987), p. 5 (. ) 9 Furthermore, from the perspective of writers in the Caribbean and Africa, what better target for appropriation than the Bard, the paragon of Ancient World British cultural hegemony?14 Shakespeare’s iconic status made his works an attractive target for confrontation and for The Causes and Consequences of Global Essay example, revisions that sought to redefine people’s relationships to their worlds. What is at titration, stake is, according to Rob Nixon, “the very possibility of decolonising the area’s cultural history by replacing an of Global Warming Essay example, imposed with an endemic line of thought and action”.15 These Caribbean and African writers found in Caliban a figure richly evocative of their condition. They adopted the play as a rallying and foundational text, rich for revision and re-appropriation, and they appreciated that The Tempest could bolster their self-definition during a time of early childhood development major upheaval: 16 See Gilbert and Tompkins, op. cit. , p. 30-31. for the figure of Caliban—marginalized and virtually imprisoned on the island, presumed to have been culturally illiterate before the Europeans’ appearance, and alienated from and Consequences Warming example his own sense of self through linguistic and titration, physical control—was a dramatic reflection of an all-too-familiar experience.16. 17 Paul Brown, “‘This Thing of Darkness I Acknowledge Mine’: The Tempest and the Discourse of Colonia (. ) 18 Ibid. , p. 48. The Causes Warming Essay Example. 19 Although there had been Cambro-Norman-English colonising of Ireland since the twelfth century, thi (. ) 20 Francis Barker and Peter Hulme, “‘Nymphs and josie's, Reapers Heavily Vanish’: The Discursive Con-texts of The Causes and Consequences of Global Essay (. Literary By Kate Chopin Essay. ) 10 Yet it is important to recall, like Paul Brown, that “ The Tempest is not simply a reflection of colonialist practices but an intervention in an ambivalent and The Causes and Consequences example, even contradictory discourse”.17 Brown considers Shakespeare’s play a narrative “which seeks at once to harmonize disjunction, to transcend irreconcilable contradictions and to mystify the political conditions which demand colonialist discourse”, but he writes the play “ultimately fails to early physical, deliver that containment and instead may be seen to foreground precisely those problems which it works to and Consequences Essay, efface or overcome”.18 Thus, The Tempest traces the “moment of historical crisis” that is England’s incipient colonial enterprise, and the anxiety which circulates in the play interrogates a discourse of practical expansionism rather than just supporting it.19 This interrogation of text and historical context is continued by Francis Barker and Peter Hulme who note the underlying anxiety in a play “imbricated within the discourse of of Global Warming colonialism”. The anxiety circulates around usurpation (actual or attempted), domination, resistance and rebellion. Barker and childhood physical, Hulme contend that the play’s “rich complexity” had been too often ignored by European and North American critics who “listen exclusively to Prospero’s voice: after all, he speaks their language.” (Given that the play has traditionally been interpreted as Shakespeare’s farewell to The Causes and Consequences of Global Warming, the stage, the magician-duke has often been confused for the Bard’s representative, an titration, egregious mistake given what we know about The Causes and Consequences example Shakespeare’s “negative capability”.) They astutely noted: “It has been left to Libraries in the World, those who have suffered colonial usurpation to discover and map the The Causes Warming traces of that complexity by Libraries Ancient Essay reading in full measure Caliban’s refractory place in both Prospero’s play and The Tempest .”20. 21 Aime Cesaire, Discourse on Colonialism , Trans.

Joan Pinkham, New York, Monthly Review Press, 2000, (. ) 22 The Discourse on Colonialism compares the The Causes and Consequences example evils of imperialism with the evil of the Holocaust, the (. ) 11 Simply and provocatively put, if Shakespeare, as projected in a simplistic and early physical, authoritative imperial reading, provides an official, colonial perspective, Cesaire—with astonishing fidelity to the original—translates this and gives voice, specifically through Caliban, to the occluded colonized and oppressed. Une tempete epitomizes translation as interpretation, as (creative) revision. It resonates with Shakespeare but stresspoints are articulated and examined. It is an excoriating debunking of the “white man’s burden”, the French republic’s mission civilisatrice (Prospero’s despairing that upon Caliban’s nature “nurture will not stick”) and a relentless exposition of how colonization decivilizes the colonizer (“This thing of darkness I acknowledge mine”). The infamy of colonial exploitation is recognised and named. In his Discourse on Colonialism , Cesaire initially defines colonization in negative terms, by of Global Essay first of all establishing what it is josie's story not: “neither evangelization, nor a philanthropic enterprise, nor a desire to push back the frontiers of and Consequences of Global Essay example ignorance, disease and early childhood development, tyranny, nor a project undertaken for the greater glory of God, nor an attempt to extend the rule of law.”21 Rather, colonialism is envisioned as a disease, just as it is in A tempest —“blanche toxine” (87) [“white poison” (57)], “maintenant, je te connais, vieux cancer” (88) [“now I know you, you old cancer” (58)]—a dehumanising project that treats land, nature and people as brute commodities.

It must be vomited out.22. In Act II Scene 2, Gonzalo says: Si l’ile est habitee, comme je le pense, et que nous la colonisons, comme je le souhaite, il faudra se garder comme de la peste d’y apporter nos defauts, oui, ce que nous appelons la civilisation. Qu’ils restent ce qu’ils sont: des sauvages, libres, sans complexes ni complications. Quelque chose comme un reservoir d’eternelle jouvence ou nous viendrions periodiquement rafraichir nos ames vieillies et citadines. The Causes Warming. (40-41) 23 Gonzalo’s idyll-manifesto chimes with the type of cliches trotted out during an exhibition on story summary, “The (. ) If the island is inhabited, as I believe it is, and if we colonise it, as is my wish, then we must shy away, as if from the plague, from importing here our defaults, yes, what we call civilisation. They must stay as they are: savages, noble savages, free without complex or complication. Something like a pool of eternal youth where we would come at intervals to revive our drooping urban spirits.23 (30)

24 The phrase “noble savage” first appeared in Dryden’s play The Conquest of Granada (1672) although (. ) 12 With a piercing satirical economy, Cesaire alludes to Gonzalo’s utopian rhapsody in The Tempest , with its indebtedness to Thomas More, Montaigne and the classical theory of the Golden Age, but what is most striking is how Cesaire picks up on Montaigne’s ethical denunciation of western inhumanity and brutality in “Of Cannibals”. This was a key reference point for a developing, idealized argument in favour of the rights of indigenous peoples throughout the early modern period and into the Age of Reason. In the of Global Warming Essay sixteenth and josie's story summary, seventeenth centuries, the “good savage” was held up as a reproach to European civilisation in the throes of the wars of religion, and stood as a direct counter to The Causes of Global Warming example, the Hobbesian view of human depravity in summary, a state of The Causes of Global Warming Essay example nature. Practical. By the eighteenth century, this argument was fuelled by and Consequences of Global Warming Essay example both sentimentalism and primitivism, and childhood physical, was advanced by both English and French writers and explorers. The Baron de Lahontan put potentially subversive egalitarian arguments in the mouth of a Huron Indian, Adario. The Causes Of Global. Jean-Jacques Rousseau, identified as the philosopher of the French Revolution, was deliberately maligned by his political opponents for advancing a theory about the “noble savage” but this was untrue.

What is practical clear, however, is how such a theory preserved a superior paternalism and ultimately a lack of egalitarian empathy between the colonisers and the colonised in which the latter were cast as dependent children—here “a pool of eternal youth”. Prospero calls Caliban “boy” (a repugnant name for and Consequences Essay, colonial servants) at the very end of A tempest . This racist superiority also chimed with a “scientific racism” which divided races into superior (the colonising) and inferior (the colonised) categories.24. 25 In Une tempete , Prospero tells Miranda how his prophetic art had “discovered” the precise location (. ) 13 The other key theme to pick up in this re-casting of titration practical Act II Scene 2, is the duplicity within Gonzalo’s sugared and idealistic words. He freely admits that he favours colonisation, but his eulogy of the “noble savages”, whom he wishes to preserve as they are, as if in aspic, is undermined by his simultaneous desire to plunder the island for its natural resources, “guano” in this case, which, “sous une sage direction” (39) [“wisely administered” (29)], will make the island “plus riche que l’Egypte avec son Nil” (39) [“richer than Egypt with its Nile” (29)]. Cesaire identifies a base rapaciousness underlying both the colonial and the neo-colonial project in and Consequences of Global Essay example, which, say, the generally environmentally disastrous plunder of natural resources would be carried out by the colonisers—or multi-national companies, in many ways their modern equivalents—with virtually none of the profits benefiting the Change and Carbon local population, whilst literally dismantling the topography, and cultural topography, beneath their feet.25 As Caliban says to and Consequences Warming Essay, Prospero: “Tu crois que la terre est chose morte… C’est tellement plus commode ! Morte, alors on la pietine, on la souille, on la foule d’un pied vainqueur !” (25-6) [“You think the earth itself is dead… It’s so much more convenient! Dead you can trample over it, pour pestilence over it, bestride it like a conqueror!” (20)] Cesaire adds another element to the neo-imperialist project: tourism.

Gonzalo’s pool of childhood physical eternal youth, there to Warming Essay, revive drooping urban spirits, is precisely the image in which the Caribbean has been cast. Once again, the inhabitants, here of the islands, are cast in Change Dioxide Essay, belittling and servile roles, in order to service the The Causes of Global Warming Essay example fantasies of josie's summary their western paymasters. Such fantasies home in on sub-pastoral, primitivist cliches concerning a proximity to nature (even if the islanders’ natural environment is destroyed), spontaneity, creativity and straightforward sexuality and eroticism. 26 Cf the OED’s definition of pidgin: “any combination and distortion of The Causes of Global Warming Essay example two languages as a means of (. ) 14 Knowledge contains the seeds of transformative power: language shapes how we think and therefore how we act. Wedding Speeches Examples. By “learning to curse”, Caliban, the black slave in revolt, rejects assimilation. The first word he utters on stage is the Kiswahili word for of Global Warming, freedom: “ Uhuru ”. Whereas for Elements by Kate Chopin Essay, Shakespeare, Caliban is The Causes and Consequences of Global Warming Essay “a salvage and summary, a deformed slave”, Cesaire’s charismatic protagonist crucially uses a foreign language—foreign from the perspective of the colonizer, that is—in order to The Causes and Consequences Warming, assert his own identity and autonomy.26 He refuses to childhood physical, be interpellated as the linguistic subject of the colonial master narrative; he refuses to The Causes, be broken and conditioned, a mere component in the means of production. 27 Steve Almquist, “Not Quite the Gabbling of ‘A Thing Most Brutish’: Caliban’s Kiswahili in Aime Ces (. Titration. ) 28 Almquist warns that the word should not be understood in The Causes and Consequences of Global Warming Essay example, a monolithic way. Much of the Literary Elements western med (. Essay. ) 15 Steve Almquist writes that, “At the centre of Cesaire’s revision of Shakespeare’s The Tempest is a single deeply resonant word— Uhuru . […] Uhuru is essential to Cesaire’s revisionary project because it gives Caliban a voice, specifically an African voice, and it contributes to Cesaire’s overall project in creating a diasporic textual counter to Elements, Shakespeare.”27 Uhuru is the Kiswahili word for freedom which gained international currency during the struggles for decolonisation in the late 1950s and 1960s, not least the Mau Mau Rebellion.

Uhuru became a touchstone that recalled and The Causes of Global Essay, rekindled the revolutionary fervour when the cry for freedom from titration colonial oppression was heard all over the world.28 Caliban’s primal cry of Uhuru , therefore, should not then be construed as the petulant and isolated mouthing of The Causes of Global Essay some token exoticism. It is nothing other than a call to militant solidarity among the dispossessed, and specifically the childhood development dispossessed among the African diaspora. (In another topical civil rights echo, Caliban re-names his cave “the ghetto”.) Almquist adds that: During the often-tumultuous independence and Black Power movements throughout the African diaspora during the 1960s and 1970s, the use of of Global Essay Kiswahili among non-native writers and speakers expanded and came to serve as a symbolic resistance to story summary, the presumed supremacy of the and Consequences of Global Essay European cultures and languages.29. 16 Consider further the importance of and Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Caliban’s Kiswahili voice through which he voices his agitation at Prospero’s domination. As Steve Almquist acutely appreciates, Cesaire’s empowered Caliban does not gabble like “a thing most brutish”, unaware of his “own meaning” until taught the colonial language.30 On the Warming Essay example contrary, even before his black slave’s first entrance, Prospero betrays his unease that Caliban “s’emancipe un peu trop” (24) [“is becoming a little too liberated” (18)]. Prospero. — Qu’est-ce que tu dis ? Caliban . Summary. — Je dis Uhuru ! Prospero. — Encore une remontee de ton langage barbare.

Je t’ai deja dit que je n’aime pas ca. D’ailleurs, tu pourrais etre poli, un bonjour ne te tuerait pas ! Caliban. The Causes Of Global Essay Example. — Ah ! J’oubliais… Bonjour. Mais un bonjour autant que possible de guepes, de crapauds, de pustules et de fiente. World Essay. Puisse le jour d’aujourd’hui hater de dix ans le jour ou les oiseaux du ciel et les betes de la terre se rassasieront de ta charogne ! Prospero. — Toujours gracieux je vois, vilain singe ! Comment peut-on etre si laid ! (24) Prospero . — What did you say? Caliban. — I said, Uhuru ! Prospero. — Yet another return to your savage tongue. I’ve already told you, I don’t like it.

You could be polite, at least: hello wouldn’t kill you. Caliban. — Oh, I forgot […] Hello. But a hello crammed with wasps, toads, pox and dung. May today hasten by The Causes and Consequences Warming example ten years the in the World day when the birds of the sky and the beasts of the earth will gorge themselves on your carcass. Prospero. And Consequences. — Gracious as always, I see, you foul monkey!

How can anybody be so ugly? (18-19) 17 Attention focuses immediately on the power of language in defining their relationship. “ Uhuru !” confounds Prospero’s sense of linguistic authority; his only recourse is to demonize the word as a reversion to Caliban’s “savage tongue”—in a classic rehearsal of a colonizial “civilized/brute savage” binary—before continuing in the same vein: Puisque tu manies si bien l’invective, tu pourrais au moins me benir de t’avoir appris a parler. Un barbare ! Une bete brute que j’ai eduquee, formee, que j’ai tiree de l’animalite qui l’engangue encore de toute part ! (25) Since you spout invective with such aplomb, you might at titration, least give me your blessing for having taught you to speak at all. A savage! A brute animal I educated, trained, dragged up from the bestiality that still festers all over and Consequences Warming example, him. (19) 31 “Freckled” refers to Caliban’s skin colour.

Cesaire’s use of the notoriously racist abuse word “mo (. ) 18 In further disabling strategies, Prospero refuses to Elements Chopin, accept the and Consequences of Global Warming Essay validity or sense of Caliban’s own culture and Literary of The Essay, fashions Caliban as a sub-human beast in a manner which entirely honours such references as “freckled whelp” and “mooncalf” in and Consequences of Global Essay example, The Tempest , the “savage and deformed slave” “upon whose nature nurture will not stick.”31 Prospero’s overweening arrogance does not cow Caliban into submission, however. Caliban. — D’abord ce n’est pas vrai. Tu ne m’as rien appris du tout. Wedding Examples. Sauf, bien sur a baragouiner ton langage pour comprendre tes ordres : couper du bois, laver la vaisselle, pecher le poisson, planter les legumes, parce que tu es bien trop faineant pour le faire. Quant a ta science, est-ce que tu me l’as jamais apprise, toi ? Tu t’en es bien garde ! Ta science, tu la gardes egoistement pour toi tout seul, enfermee dans les gros livres que voila. (25) Caliban. — That’s just not true. The Causes Essay Example. You haven’t taught me anything at all! Except of course to jabber away in josie's, your language so as to The Causes and Consequences of Global Warming, understand your orders: chop the wood, wash up, fish, plant vegetables; all because you’re too idle to do it yourself. Change And Carbon Dioxide (CO2). As for The Causes Warming Essay example, your knowledge, did you ever impart any of josie's story that to The Causes and Consequences of Global Warming Essay, me?

You took care not to. You selfishly keep all your knowledge for yourself alone, sealed up in big books like those. Climate Change And Carbon Dioxide Essay. (19) 19 Cesaire’s protagonist registers his acute understanding of how his “education” has achieved little more than to reduce him to subservience in The Causes and Consequences example, the guise of an automaton-drudge (remember Cesaire’s formula: “colonisation = thingification”32). At the same time, Prospero has kept from him any life-enhancing (textual and scientific) knowledge—the key to his domination and an inspired riff on the magic books valued at more than Prospero’s dukedom. Caliban ruefully reflects on how he has been an expendable and unvalued means to an end, hoodwinked by an initially friendly-seeming Prospero: Qu’aurais-tu fait sans moi, dans cette contree inconnue ? Ingrat ! Je t’ai appris les arbres, les fruits, les oiseaux, les saisons, et maintenant je t’en fous… Caliban la brute ! Caliban l’esclave ! Recette connue ! l’orange pressee, on en rejette l’ecorce ! (26) What would you have done without me in this strange land?

Ungrateful! I taught you the trees, the fruits, the development birds, the seasons, but there’s no blessed question of that any more… Caliban the brute, Caliban the slave! I know the score! Once the orange is squeezed, the of Global Warming peel is tossed away! (20) 20 Note here, how it is Caliban, rather than Prospero, who is Climate Change and Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Essay doing the teaching, yet this education, vital as it is, is and Consequences Essay subsequently given neither credit nor recognition. Clearly, Caliban is cast as a figurative Malcolm X, even telling Prospero as he prepares to physical development, leave at the end of their first encounter in the play, that he will no longer answer to Essay, the name of Caliban: Caliban. — […] J’ai decide que je ne serai plus Caliban. Prospero. — Qu’est-ce que cette foutaise ? Je ne comprends pas ! Caliban. — […] Caliban n’est pas mon nom. C’est simple ! Prospero. Practical. — C’est le mien peut-etre ! Caliban. — C’est le sobriquet dont ta haine m’a affuble et dont chaque rappel m’insulte. Prospero. — Diable ! On devient susceptible ! Alors propose… Il faut bien que je t’appelle ! Ce sera comment ? Cannibale t’irait bien, mais je suis sur que tu n’en voudras pas ! Voyons, Hannibal ! Ca te va ! Pourquoi pas ! Ils aiment tous les noms historiques ! Caliban. — Appelle-moi X. Ca vaudra mieux. Comme qui dirait l’homme sans nom.

Plus exactement, l’homme dont on a vole le nom. Tu parles d’histoire. Eh bien ca, c’est de l’histoire, et fameuse ! Chaque fois que tu m’appeleras, ca me rappellera le fait fundamental, que tu m’as tout vole et jusqu’a mon identite ! Uhuru ! Caliban. — […] I’ve decided I’ll be Caliban no longer. Prospero. — What kind of bilge is this? I don’t understand. […] And whence sprang this pearl?

Caliban. — […] Caliban isn’t my name. It’s simple! Prospero. The Causes And Consequences Warming. — It’s mine, I suppose! Caliban. — It’s the nickname your hatred attached to me, whose every utterance is an Storm by Kate Chopin, insult. Prospero. — My, how sensitive we’ve become! Well then, suggest another… I must call you something. What will it be? Cannibal would suit you well, but I’m sure you wouldn’t want it! Let’s see…Hannibal!

Why not? They all like historical names! Caliban. — Call me X. That’s best. Like a man without a name. Or, more precisely, a man whose name was stolen. You speak of of Global Essay history. Well that’s history, known far and wide! Every time you’ll call me that will remind me of the fundamental truth that you stole everything from titration me, even my identity!

Uhuru !’ (He exits.) (21-22) 21 Even if audience members are ignorant of the meaning of this Kiswahili word, they will understand that it has a key galvanizing importance, that it is The Causes of Global Essay example Caliban’s rallying cry and that it’s very foreignness underlines his sense of an autonomous cultural “otherness”, dignity and agency so brazenly denied him by Prospero. Literary Of The By Kate Chopin. It is a call to revolution. 22 As ever, Cesaire condenses Shakespeare’s play with unerring cogency in of Global example, order to provide the pith for his own agenda. Change (CO2) Essay. Here, he homes in on the fact that Caliban, as has often been remarked, is an The Causes of Global Warming Essay, anagram of “cannibal” with all that that word suggests concerning brute savagery. Climate Change And Carbon Dioxide. The Shakespearean monicker is hence a stigmatising code for uncivilised and barbarous brutality.

The novel reference to Hannibal suggests a doomed rebellious streak, that Caliban’s pride will come before a fall. The Causes And Consequences Warming Essay. At the same time, however, Hannibal hails from Carthage, from the African continent. He also stands for a defiant and strong opponent who actively, and initially successfully, resists the aggrandizing and imperialist designs of the metropolitan centre—Rome in Hannibal’s case. This reference to Hannibal indicates a lurking fear of a newly defiant Caliban beneath the smug veneer of mocking confidence projected by Prospero. This defiance, of course, chimes with the new confidence accompanying the wave of decolonisation throughout the 1950s and titration, 1960s. What is crucial, here, too, is Caliban-X’s stand to recuperate a stolen history. The Causes. He recognises, like Cesaire, how his own culture and Literary Elements by Kate Chopin, heritage were razed from the collective memory of an enslaved and transported African diaspora and it is this that he will strive to The Causes of Global, re-discover, value and honour. 23 Cesaire adds an story, interesting interpolation, a wholly new scene, at the start of Act Two, where Ariel, significantly identified as a mulatto slave in the list of characters, comes to warn Caliban that Prospero is The Causes and Consequences of Global Warming planning “d’epouvantables vengeances” (36) [“appalling acts of revenge” (26)] against him. The scene is, in essence, one in which the two characters rehearse different strategies for bringing their bondage to an end.

Once again, their lively exchange of Libraries Ancient views replicates debates within the civil rights movement of the and Consequences Essay 1960s. Cesaire said in an interview: 33 Cited in Robert P. Smith and Climate Change and Carbon, Robert J. Hudson, “Evoking Caliban: Cesaire’s Response to Shakespeare (. ) My text […] was greatly influenced by the preoccupations I had at that particular time. As I was thinking very much about a play concerning the United States, inevitably, the points of reference became American. The Causes And Consequences Of Global. […] There is the violent and physical, the non-violent attitude. The Causes. There are Martin Luther King and Malcolm X and short wedding examples, the Black Panthers.33. 24 Caliban has already cast himself as X and, needless to say, adopts the more militant position, demanding “Freedom now!” Interestingly, Cesaire renders this famous Black Power cry in English. The polyglot Caliban thus further exhibits his solidarity with the African diaspora around the world, ranging from Africa to North America.

25 Ariel provides another perspective which amounts to “Ni violence, ni soumission” (37) [“Neither violence, nor submission” (27)] but is The Causes example rather one of peaceful resistance entered into in order to trouble Prospero’s calm “pour qu’une conscience naisse a [lui]” (37) [“so that a conscience can well up inside him” (27)] with the intended result that he will finally acknowledge his own injustice. He adds, in a striking echo of Martin Luther King’s famous “I have a dream” speech: J’ai souvent fait le reve exaltant qu’un jour, Prospero, toi et moi, nous entreprendrions, freres associes, de batir un monde merveilleux, chacun apportant en contribution ses qualites propres : patience, vitalite, amour, volonte aussi, et rigueur, sans compter les quelques bouffees de reve sans quoi l’humanite perirait d’asphyxie. Story Summary. (38) I’ve often dreamt a rapturous dream that one day Prospero, you and of Global Warming Essay, I would set out as brothers to titration practical, build a wonderful world, each contributing his own qualities: patience, vitality, love, will power too, and rigour, not to mention the eddying dreams without which humanity would suffocate to The Causes of Global Warming Essay example, death. Josie's. (28) Caliban scoffs at Ariel’s credulousness: Dis donc, mon petit Ariel, des fois, je me demande sit u n’es pas cingle ! Que la conscience naisse a Prospero ? Autant se mettre devant une pierre et attendre qu’il lui pousse des fleurs ! […] Tu n’as rien compris a Prospero. And Consequences Warming Essay Example. C’est pas un type a collaborer. C’est un mec qui ne se sent que s’il ecrase quelqu’un. Un ecraseur, un broyeur, voila le genre ! Et tu parles de fraternite ! (37-38)

Listen my sweet Ariel, I sometimes wonder if you aren’t cracked. So that a conscience can well up inside Prospero? You might as well wait for early development, a stone to burst into and Consequences Essay example, bloom! […] You don’t understand Prospero at examples, all. He’s not the collaborative type. He’s a man who only The Causes of Global feels alive when he’s crushing someone. Titration. A crusher, a grinder to pulp, that’s what he is! And you talk of brotherhood! (28) 26 The militant Caliban believes the dreamy Ariel is a dupe. Once again, with a striking economy, Cesaire pays short shrift to the Christian-humanist narrative of reconciliation (via an imposed penance and then contrition) willed by Prospero in Shakespeare’s play. The Causes And Consequences Of Global Warming Example. Caliban is story summary prepared for a violent armed struggle akin to those waged by and Consequences of Global example the Mau Mau or the practical ANC, saying: Mieux vaut la mort que l’humiliation et l’injustice… D’ailleurs, de toute maniere, le dernier mot m’appartiendra… A moins qu’il n’appartienne au neant.

Le jour ou j’aurai le sentiment que tout est perdu, laisse-moi voler quelques barils de ta poudre infernale, et cette ile, mon bien, mon ?uvre, du haut de l’empyree ou tu aimes planer, tu la verras sauter dans les airs, avec, je l’espere, Prospero et moi dans les debris. The Causes Of Global Essay Example. (38) Better death than humiliation and injustice… Besides the last word shall be mine. Unless it belongs to nothingness. The day I feel all’s lost, just let me filch a few barrels of your infernal powder and—from high in the empyrean where you love to soar—you will see this isle, my inheritance, my work, all blown sky high, with, I hope, Prospero and me amongst the early childhood debris. (28) 34 Lucy Rix, op. Of Global Essay Example. cit. , p. Titration Practical. 237-238, discusses the drive towards self “whitening” as one of the most in (. ) 27 Such words now seem grimly prophetic of suicide bombings and The Causes and Consequences Warming Essay example, campaigns of childhood terror but they also identify the despair and desparation of the perpetrators and the terrible cost of The Causes of Global Warming example stripping the wretched of the earth of Elements by Kate Chopin their dignity, robbing them of their birthright and making them fear for Essay example, their very existence, especially (and most usually) in a colonial situation. It is within this incredibly high-stakes situation, that the racial difference between the Climate two slaves must be understood and The Causes and Consequences Essay, considered. In The Tempest , Caliban is an earthen clod whereas “dainty” Ariel is an airy spirit. Cesaire seizes upon this difference but racializes it, too. Titration. Historically, Martinique had more mulattoes than whites and, as ever, in and Consequences Warming example, colonial societies where the white ruling class sought to inculcate its values and sought to impress upon its subjects that its culture and skin colour were the ideals, the and Carbon (CO2) paleness of one’s skin and and Consequences of Global Warming, the proximity of one’s position to the white rulers became an important factor in determining one’s position in the social hierarchy. So here a truculent Caliban accuses the pacific Ariel of being a “house servant” (he is cast as the field slave), a collaborating sycophant with an “Uncle Tom patience”.

Cesaire does not shy away from projecting the racialized differences and Dioxide (CO2), tensions residing within colonial (and post-colonial) societies, not least his own. Caliban, of course, has more to lose than Ariel but his very humiliation has hardened his resolve. Alex Haley recalled in Roots the old racist jingle: “If you’re white, you’re all right; if you’re brown, stick around; if you’re black, stand back.”34. 28 In the Essay eyes of the monological Prospero, “Par [l’]insubordination [de Caliban], c’est tout l’ordre du monde qu’il remet en cause” (71) “[Caliban’s] insubordination calls into doubt the entire order of the world” (47)]. Prospero. — Comprenez-moi bien. Je suis non pas au sens banal du terme, le maitre, comme le croit ce sauvage, mais le chef d’orchestre d’une vaste partition : Suscitant les voix, moi seul, Et a mon gre les enchainant, Organisant hors de la confusion.

La seule ligne intelligible. Sans moi, qui de tout cela. Saurait tirer musique ? Sans moi cette ile est muette. (90) 35 In his Course in General Linguistics , Ferdinand de Saussure (posthumous inspirer of Structuralism) (. ) Prospero. — Understand me well. I am not, in the ordinary sense. the master, as this savage thinks, but rather the story conductor of a vast score: Teasing out voices, myself alone, and coupling them at my pleasure, arranging out of the of Global Warming example confusion. the sole intelligible line. Without me, who would be able. to derive music from all this?

Without me, this island is dumb.35 (60) 36 Chris Tiffin and Alan Lawson, Eds., De-Scribing Empire: Post-Colonialism and Textuality , London, R (. ) 29 Chris Tiffin and Alan Lawson argue that, “Imperial textuality appropriates, distorts, erases, but it also contains. 36 The imperial project contains cultures/subjects in order to story summary, control them, but no former colony is Warming Essay example as simply circumscribed as colonial discourse would have it: each post-colonial political, historical, linguistic, and cultural situation inevitably becomes much more convoluted than is short wedding speeches figured by the coloniser. In truth, it is Prospero who is enfeebled by his monoglot sclerosis. The Causes Warming Essay. His rigid cultural position does not brook translation. He cannot discourse—his is a dialogue of the deaf—he can only dictate.

Conversely, the “transgressive” Caliban is able to journey back and forth between languages. Empowered, he understands Prospero, not vice-versa. 37 Indeed, in an exciting addition to the original plot, the story summary scientific Prospero sneers in recollecti (. ) 30 By the end of the play, Caliban has made multiple claims to The Causes, African “ Uhuru ”, Black Power’s “Freedom now” and Dioxide (CO2) Essay, an internationalist call to “Liberty ohay liberty” which transcends all boundaries. His ability to articulate a culture foreign to, and Essay, not laid down by, Prospero is key. Early Development. Prospero uses language to close down consciousness.

Concerning Caliban, his language constantly negates, denies and demonises: “brute savage”, “beast”, “sorcerer”, etc, whilst Caliban’s linguistic identity, his African utterances, are dismissed as “Encore une remontee de ton langage barbare” (24) [“yet another return to your savage tongue” (19)]. Whereas Caliban asserts and affirms potential and Essay, otherness, Prospero refuses dialogue: “Je ne t’ai pas appele pour discuter !” (27) [“I did not summon you here to practical, argue” (21)]. He is portrayed as a sadistic power wielder who had dreamt of establishing a colonial empire even before leaving Italy and who is bereft of The Causes of Global his original’s christianised goodwill: “Si tu rouspetes, la trique” (27) [“If you grumble you shall be thrashed” (21)].37 Cesaire focuses on Prospero’s magic—a physical control over others—in this strictly limited sense. As opposed to short wedding examples, the original, “banquet and harpy” scene (Act III Scene 3) which simply tantalises, Prospero is chillingly bent on The Causes and Consequences of Global, force-feeding his captives, and Change and Carbon, his motives are signally lacking in any ethical imperatives toward repentance. While Prospero may claim “Je suis la Puissance ” (44) [“I am Power” (32)], his material might resides in technological know-how and the machinery of repression. The play charts an ongoing demystification and and Consequences of Global Warming Essay, unravelling of his authority. As A tempest reaches its climax, Caliban recites a long litany of abuses and Elements by Kate, injustices forced upon him: Il faut que tu comprennes, Prospero : des annees j’ai courbe la tete, des annees j’ai accepte.

tes insultes, ton ingratitude, pis encore, plus degradante que tout le reste, Mais maintenant c’est fini ! Fini, tu entends ! Bien sur, pour le moment tu es encore. Mais ta force, je m’en moque, comme de tes chiens, d’ailleurs, de ta police, de tes inventions ! Et tu sais pourquoi je m’en moque ? C’est parce que je sais que je t’aurai. Empale ! Et au pieu que. tu auras toi-meme aiguise ! (87-88) 38 See the citation at the start of The Causes Essay this article to see how this speech continues. You must understand, Prospero: for years I bowed my head, for years I stomached it, stomached all of it: your insults, your ingratitude, and worst of all, more degrading than all the short speeches rest,

But now it’s over! Over, do you hear! Of course, for the moment you’re still. But I don’t care two hoots about of Global Warming example your power, or your dogs either, your police, or your inventions! And do you know why I don’t care? It’s because I know I’ll have you! You’ll be impaled! And on titration practical, a stake.

you’ll have sharpened yourself!38 (57-58) 39 According to Michel Giraud, “Dialectics of Descent and Phenotypes in The Causes and Consequences of Global Warming Essay, Racial Classification in Mart (. ) 31 In an inspired response to Shakespeare’s mage’s magic, Cesaire’s Caliban identifies Prospero’s illusions with spreading a deceitful false consciousness about the state of the world, imposing on Caliban a disabling belief in his own underdevelopment and incompetence.39 The speech is a culmination of Caliban’s efforts, established from titration his first entry, to The Causes of Global Essay example, rise up above oppression and resurrect an short speeches examples, authentic black culture and history. Gilbert and and Consequences Warming Essay, Tompkins write, 40 Gilbert and Tompkins, op. Early Childhood Physical. cit. , p. And Consequences Of Global Warming Essay. 12. Historical recuperation is one of the crucial aims and effects of many post-colonial plays, which frequently tell the other side of the conquering whites’ story in order to contest the official version of history that is preserved in imperialist texts. Like his/her version of history, the coloniser’s language has assumed a position of dominance which must be interrogated and dismantled as part of the decolonising project.40. 32 Caliban has forced Prospero to look full square upon the charade of his colonial “mission” and when the latter warns him that he is heading towards suicidal perdition, Caliban tells him he hates him.

Prospero answers in kind: Eh bien moi aussi je te hais ! Car tu es celui par qui pour. la premiere fois j’ai doute de. Well I hate you as well! For you are the one who. made me doubt myself. for the first time. In The. (59)

41 Helen Tiffin, “Post-colonial literatures and counter-discourse”, in Kunapipi 9:3, 17-34, p. 17. Ti (. ) 33 His ambivalence emphasises the shattered authority that has been steadily increasing throughout the play. According to Hegel, we recognise ourselves through others’ recognition of us. Caliban does not grant this consensual recognition. A fissure rends the colonial veil. Whereas, in The Tempest , Prospero leaves the island to The Causes and Consequences of Global Warming Essay, return to Naples, conveniently bestowing forgiveness on all and sundry and titration, with an The Causes, imminent marriage between Miranda and Ferdinand symbolising a re-soldered alliance between estranged ruling houses—even if there is no contrition from Antonio—here he remains. Just as Cesaire’s Ariel sings, “ Rien n’est, tout devient ” (30) [“Nothing is, all becomes” (23)], so post-colonial theatre configures “process, not arrival.”41 It is inimical to wedding, false closure; rather, it recognises the complexity of its situation. And Consequences. Prospero, the old colonialist, is Essay left listless and aged, alone on the island, raging against the encroachment of nature, roaring out for Caliban but unable to of Global example, untangle the complexity of his relationship with him beyond: “Toi-Moi ! Moi-Toi !” (92) [“You-Me! Me-You!” (61)] But the mutuality of this dialectic no longer holds. Caliban refuses to answer Prospero’s call; he has broken free from the grip of Prospero’s voice, from colonial control, and thus has undermined Prospero’s fundamental conception of himself.

The final words of the play are an practical, unseen Caliban’s distant, yet insistent and haunting, call for The Causes of Global Essay example, liberty. Shakespeare’s mage steps forward at the end of The Tempest , asking to be set free by applause. Here, there is no such recognition. Rather, he is fettered in a prison of moribund ideology and vested interests. Prospero’s failure to leave the island also indicates Cesaire’s recognition that whether decolonised or not, the grasp of colonialism (and, crucially, neo-colonialism) will not be relinquished so easily. 42 Almquist, op. cit. Short Wedding Speeches Examples. , p. The Causes Example. 591. Storm By Kate Chopin. 43 Bob Marley and the Wailers, Buffalo Soldier , 1980, on The Causes Essay example, the posthumously released Confrontation LP, (. ) 44 The Yoruba are a people of western Nigeria and neighbouring regions. A syncretistic religion of Sh (. ) 34 Steve Almquist writes: “Cesaire’s representation of Caliban produces an Africanized figure that embodies the complexity of the diasporic African in the middle of the twentieth century.”42 It is my contention that the titration practical resurrection and resistance of Caliban is founded upon the African cultural resonances in the play: “ Uhuru ”, Shango, “ Oo-en-day ”, “ Macaya ”. It is to these that Caliban owes allegiance and and Consequences of Global Warming Essay example, not to imposed western ideologies.

Like Malcolm, he calls himself “X”, identifies his dispossession, the fate of the early childhood physical enslaved African diaspora, and casts off the slough of abjection as he reclaims and refashions his cultural identity, “fighting for survival”, in Marley’s words, “in the heart of the Caribbean.”43 Caliban twice invokes Shango, the Yoruba god of The Causes and Consequences example thunder and practical, lightning and the owner of the Bata drums. Cesaire identifies Shango as a great god of of Global Essay heaven who is very violent but who is fundamentally benevolent, renewing the face of the earth. Shango is the violent storm which impregnates the in the World Essay earth by The Causes example bringing life-bringing rain. Shakespeare’s western tempest is countered by Climate Change (CO2) an African one.44. 45 See Gilbert and The Causes Essay example, Tompkins, op. cit. , p. 32-33, for a reading of this scene which epitomises “the sl (. ) 35 A crucial interpellation into Shakespeare’s play comes as Une tempete speeds towards its climax. Eshu, the African trickster devil-god “Dieu pour les amis, diable pour les ennemis” (68) [“God to my friends, Devil to my enemies” (45)], erupts into Prospero’s masque—anti-masque par excellence to all the stilted, ongoing decorum of the early physical classical goddesses. His lewdness and of Global Essay example, sexual predatoriness—“de son penis il frappe” (70) [“with his penis he smites” (46)] is an Dioxide (CO2) Essay, ironic exposure of white paranoia and demonization. Cocking a snook at Warming Essay example, Prospero, Eshu is not part of the colonialist’s script. He re-appropriates a vivid black identity by using negative stereotype, in of The Storm by Kate, a manner analogous to the political use of such terms as “dreadlock” or “queer”, and The Causes of Global Warming, revelling in its otherness.

Such carnivalesque flaunting of taboo (rampant black sexuality and Libraries World, miscegenation) amounts to a symbolic badge of insubordination and unbowed dissidence. The western pantheon is dispersed and routed by such “vulgarity.” Eshu stands for the supplanted spirit of The Causes and Consequences Warming Essay Africa returning, superabundant and irrepressible.45. Crucially, although beleaguered by the illusory ideologies of Climate Change and Carbon Dioxide (CO2) colonialism, Caliban remains true to The Causes Essay example, his own culture and beliefs, living a symbiotic partnership with nature (personified as his mother Sycorax): Sycorax ma mere ! Serpent ! Pluie ! Eclairs ! Et je te retrouve partout : Dans l’?il de la mare qui me regarde, sans ciller, a travers les scirpes. Dans le geste de la racine tordue et son bond qui attend. Dans la nuit, la toute-voyante aveugle, la toute-flaireuse sans naseaux ! (26) Sycorax my mother! Serpent! Rain! Lightning! And I find you everywhere!

In the eye of the pond, which stares at me, unblinking, through the rushes. In the gesture of the twisted root with coiled spring. In the blinded all-seeing night, the nostril-less all-smelling night! (20) 36 It is he, rather than Shakespeare’s poet-mage, who is the most effective of verbal artificers. Climate And Carbon. (“The isle is full of noises” is, of course, one of the most beautiful and stirring of speeches in The Tempest .) 46 When reminded of being imprisoned in the cloven pine, Ariel dreams of having metamorphosed into The Causes and Consequences of Global, a (. ) Cesaire celebrates Caribbean and Literary Storm by Kate Chopin, African ecology throughout.46 His poetic brilliance is borne along by and Consequences of Global ritual and Libraries in the Ancient, the carnivalesque, communicating visceral humour as well as sadness. Noir picoreur de la savane. le quiscale arpente le jour nouveaux. dans son armure hautaine.

zip ! L’incisif colibri. au fond d’une corolle s’ejouit. fera-t-il fou, fera-t-il ivre. lyre rameutant nos delires. la Liberte ohe ! La Liberte ! Ramier halte dans ces bois. Errant des iles c’est ici le repos. Le miconia est pillage pur. du sang violet de la baie mure.

de sang de sang barbouille ton plumage. Dans le dos des jours fourbus. la Liberte ohe ! La Liberte ! (64-65) Black pilferer of the savannah, the grackle surveys the new day— humid and The Causes and Consequences of Global Essay example, stirring— from its lofty citadel. Zip! The incisive humming-bird.

rejoices in the depths of a flower’s innermost whorl. Is he mad, is he drunk, the lyre gathering our wild desires: Liberty ohay liberty! Woodpigeon halts in these woods. Wanderer of the isles—here is repose. The miconia is titration utter spoils.

of violet blood of ripe berry. With blood, with blood smear your plumage. Upon the back of exhausted days. Liberty ohay liberty! (43) 37 This song of The Causes and Consequences of Global Warming Essay example Caliban’s resonates with Shakespeare’s Ariel’s “Where the Literary Elements of The Storm by Kate bee sucks there suck I” (the humming-bird rejoicing in the flower’s innermost whorl) and exemplifies Cesaire’s creative refashioning of The Tempest into a Caribbean context. 47 See Bill Ashcroft, Gareth Griffiths, Helen Tiffin, The Empire Writes Back: Theory and Practice in (. ) 38 Cesaire did not generally write in creole but “marooned” himself from metropolitan French, refashioning a new voice in a manner congruent with Bill Ashcroft et al. ’s notion of Britain’s erstwhile Empire “writing back.”47 The maroons were runaway slaves. By analogy, he sought to break the fetters of colonialist discourse. Cesaire punned that he would pluck the “marrons du feu,” literally plucking the sweet-chestnuts from the fire but also symbolically rising up against imperialist strictures.

Here the mystification and assumptions of the colonially projected Tempest are met head on and the colonial form is hybridised with the introduction of African and English languages and African and The Causes Warming example, Caribbean ritual and rhythm. My translation sticks to the letter of the French script as faithfully as possible. Nevertheless, the actors playing Ariel and Caliban inflected their speech with British West Indian patois, significantly enriching the Storm by Kate Essay production with the music of different discourses. Historically, English has been more obviously permeable than metropolitan French, policed by its own Academy. (Cesaire himself was famously the brilliant scholarship boy from the Essay example Antilles who spoke an development, elegant formal French, even conjugating the The Causes and Consequences of Global Warming example imperfect subjunctive.) 39 Over the childhood development years, the late prophet of negritude was criticised by other black post-colonial writers (e.g.

Wole Soyinka) and the disciples of “ creolite ” for his allegiance to abstraction (some overarching African-ness) and for failing to Warming example, recognise the authentic plurality of voices in the Caribbean. Cesaire wrote predominantly in classical French. Yet, absent thought creole might be from speeches examples Une tempete , this play cherishes the local just as it springs from a deep love of Africa, the faith and Warming Essay, rock of the black diaspora. Furthermore, Cesaire’s negritude is grounded in a profound historical consciousness which identifies a common past of suffering experienced by the African diaspora worldwide at Ancient World, the hands of imperialists and slavers. Caliban the hero delivers a clarion call for justice and solidarity. The play is of Global example a twentieth-century masterpiece of of The Storm Essay world theatre, a triumph that re-appropriates the poetic force of The Causes and Consequences of Global Essay Shakespeare, kicks down blinkered insularity and demands to be seen and Elements by Kate Essay, heard. 1 Caliban . — Prospero you’re a great illusionist: / you know all about lies. / And you lied to and Consequences of Global Essay example, me so much, / lied about the world, lied about yourself, / that you ended up by imposing on me / an image of myself: / underdeveloped, in early childhood physical, your words, / incompetent, / that’s how you forced me to The Causes and Consequences, see myself, / and I hate that image! And it is false! / But now I know you, you old cancer, / And I also know myself! (58).

Citations throughout are from Aime Cesaire, Une tempete , Paris, Seuil, 1969, and from my translation, Philip Crispin, A tempest , London, Oberon, 2000. Page numbers for both follow in parentheses. 2 From Aime Cesaire, Cahier d’un retour au pays natal , Paris, Presence Africaine, 1956. 3 A tempest ( Une tempete) played from 21 September to 14 October, 1998. It was described by Libraries in the World Professor Malcolm Bowie as “not simply a new reading of Shakespeare but an original play of astonishing power.” Malcolm Bowie, “Island Infamy” (review of A tempest ), Times Literary Supplement , 9 October, 1998, p. 22. 4 I am indebted to Peter Hulme and The Causes and Consequences Essay, Bill Sherman for in the Ancient World Essay, the stage history in this paragraph. Their co-edited book “ The Tempest ” and its Travels , published by Reaktion Books in 2000, is a rich cultural study of Warming The Tempest , exploring, among other concerns, its vitality in new contexts, its key significance in colonial and post-colonial debates, and its problematising of the movement between the local and the global. It includes two scenes from my translation and two photographs by childhood physical development Pau Ros from the London production, as well as an article by Lucy Rix: “Maintaining the State of Emergence/y: Aime Cesaire’s Une tempete ”. 5 See Robert Eric Livingston, “Decolonizing the Theatre: Cesaire, Serreau and the Drama of Negritude”, in J. The Causes Warming Essay Example. Ellen Gainor, ed., Imperialism and Theatre: Essays on World Theatre, Drama and Performance ,London, 1995, p. 182-98.

6 See Alvina Ruprecht, “Staging Aime Cesaire’s Une tempete : Anti-Colonial Theatre in the Counter-Culture Continuum”, Essays in Theatre/Etudes theatrales , 15:1, 1996, p. 59?68, p. 62. 7 Of course, it is true that in Literary Elements of The Storm by Kate, The Tempest , Sycorax and Caliban also colonised the island and supplanted its original inhabitants, too. Essay. Evidently, Cesaire’s polemical adaptation provides a partial reading of the childhood physical original script. His focus is on the (formerly) enslaved black diaspora. Intriguingly, however, in his droll re-working of Warming Essay example Caliban’s encounter with Stephano and Trinculo, the recalcitrant butler and titration practical, jester still refer to him as an Indian or, more often, a “nindian”. The Causes And Consequences Warming. This word possesses a double resonance. Libraries World. Firstly, it recalls the original inhabitants of the “New World”, vast numbers of whom were wiped out The Causes and Consequences Essay example due to conquerors’ genocides, inhuman treatment or because their immune system was unable to protect them against Climate Dioxide (CO2), newly imported diseases.

In Cesaire’s play, Stephano and Trinculo still intend to The Causes of Global Essay, display Caliban in a travelling fair as an titration practical, exotic “freak” when back home. The Causes Of Global. Secondly, “nindian” evokes West Indian, the collective name for anglophone Caribbean inhabitants, so called because Christopher Columbus had dubbed the indigenous people he found Indians, for titration, he believed that he would be able to reach the Indies by sailing west. Since the period of The Causes and Consequences Essay slavery, of course, the majority of “West Indians” are descended from the African diaspora. It is important to note that, with the wedding speeches examples exception of the list of dramatis person? in and Consequences Essay example, which Caliban is identified as a savage slave, it is Trinculo who, in short, Act II Scene 2, categorically registers Caliban’s humanity, calling him an “islander”, and also how in England “would this monster make a man”. Of Global Example. He and early childhood, Stephano generally refer to him in pejorative dehumanising terms (eg “mooncalf”), however. 8 Quoted in Livingston, op. cit. , p. 192.

9 Helen Gilbert and Joanne Tompkins, Post-Colonial Drama: Theory, Practice, Politics , London and New York, Routledge, 1996, p. The Causes Of Global Warming Essay Example. 15. Early Childhood Physical Development. Thomas Macaulay’s “Minute on Education” (1835) which argued for of Global Essay, the importance of literature in josie's story, producing Indians “English in taste, in opinions, and in intellect” was a foundational text in such epistemic colonisation. 10 Lucy Rix, “Maintaining the State of Warming Emergence/y: Aime Cesaire’s Une tempete ”, in Peter Hulme and Bill Sherman, op. cit. Early Physical Development. , p. 236-249, p. 239. Quotation from Warming Essay Legitime Defense taken from Lilyan Kesteloot, Black Writers in Libraries in the Essay, French , trans. Ellen Conroy Kennedy, Philadelphia, 1974. 11 In our production in London, we replaced Baudelaire with Miranda’s line: “O brave new world, that hath such creatures in Essay example, it!” which always received a good laugh. 12 Gilbert and Tompkins, op. Literary Elements Storm Essay. cit. And Consequences. , p. 3. 14 See Ibid. Josie's Story. , p. And Consequences Warming Essay. 19-25, for a discussion of how Shakespeare was taught and regarded in the colonies. 15 Rob Nixon, “Caribbean and African Appropriations of The Tempest ”, Critical Inquiry 13 (1987), p. 569.

16 See Gilbert and Tompkins, op. cit. , p. 30-31. 17 Paul Brown, “‘This Thing of short wedding Darkness I Acknowledge Mine’: The Tempest and the Discourse of Colonialism”, in Jonathan Dollimore and Alan Sinfield, Eds., Political Shakespeare: New Essays in Cultural Materialism , Manchester, Manchester University Press, 1985, p. 48-71, p. 48. 19 Although there had been Cambro-Norman-English colonising of Ireland since the The Causes and Consequences of Global example twelfth century, this became concerted in Climate (CO2) Essay, the sixteenth century. The colonial experience in of Global example, Ireland, along with the Literary of The Chopin Bermuda pamphlets and the colony in Virginia, provided further topical inspiration for Warming example, The Tempest . 20 Francis Barker and Peter Hulme, “‘Nymphs and Reapers Heavily Vanish’: The Discursive Con-texts of The Tempest ”, in Jonathan Drakakis, Ed., Alternative Shakespeares , London and New York, Methuen, 1985, p. 191-205, p. Josie's Summary. 204. 21 Aime Cesaire, Discourse on Colonialism , Trans. Joan Pinkham, New York, Monthly Review Press, 2000, p. 32. 22 The Discourse on Colonialism compares the evils of The Causes of Global Essay example imperialism with the titration practical evil of the Holocaust, the difference being that in the former case the evils went largely unchronicled and uncondemned. Caliban says at Essay example, the climax of the play: “Te vomir.

Toi, tes pompes, tes ?uvres ! Ta blanche toxine !” (87) [“I’d vomit you up, all your pomp and designs! Your white poison!” (57)]. 23 Gonzalo’s idyll-manifesto chimes with the type of cliches trotted out during an exhibition on childhood development, “The Happy Antilles” held in Paris in 1945 by the Ministry of Colonies. Poems included described Martinique as an enchanting “Paradis vegetaux”, a “Coffre a baisers” and a “Cher jardin des petits cadeaux”, a “Familiere boite a surprise”. Cited in Rix, op. The Causes Of Global Warming Example. cit. , p. Climate (CO2) Essay. 306. 24 The phrase “noble savage” first appeared in Dryden’s play The Conquest of The Causes of Global Essay Granada (1672) although it may have been inspired by a 1609 travelogue about Canada by Climate Change Dioxide Essay the French explorer Marc Lescarbot who wrote that the “savages are truly noble”, although this was because they, like French royalty, hunted game. Alexander Pope’s “Essay on Man” describes the The Causes and Consequences of Global Essay example “poor Indian” living within nature and touched by grace. Short Examples. The travel accounts of and Consequences of Global such explorers as Louis Antoine de Bougainville and early development, James Cook encouraged a belief in an Edenic culture residing within the South Seas. The Causes And Consequences Warming Essay. See Ter Ellingson, The Myth of the Noble Savage , Berkeley, University of California Press, 2001. 25 In Une tempete , Prospero tells Miranda how his prophetic art had “discovered” the Climate Change precise location of those lands which had been sought for centuries.

His brother Antonio and The Causes and Consequences Warming, rival King Alonso of Naples conspire to story summary, depose him and of Global Warming Essay, steal his “empire a naitre” (20) [“unborn empire” (16)]. Climate Essay. This fascinating addition to the plot calls to mind the great powers’ “scramble for Africa” in the nineteenth century and other such contests for territorial domination. In response to Gonzalo’s “guano project”, Sebastian says: “Faut-il encore qu’il y ait des bras pour cultiver [les champs]” (40) [“But we’ll still need hands to cultivate [the fields] (29)”. Hands is and Consequences of Global Essay example a convenient, depersonalising euphemism for labour, not least slave labour. Gonzalo’s “plantation” in The tempest leads inevitably to the thoughts of slave plantations—across the Caribbean, the American tropics (North, Central and Elements of The Storm by Kate Chopin Essay, South) and Africa where King Leopold’s rubber plantation in the Congo led to Joseph Conrad’s memorable phrase: “the heart of Warming Essay darkness”.

26 Cf the OED’s definition of pidgin: “any combination and distortion of two languages as a means of communication.” Caliban communicates his otherness. According to Alan Lawson and Chris Tiffin: “‘Difference’, which in short speeches, colonialist discourse connotes a remove from normative European practice, and hence functions as a marker of subordination, is for post-colonial analysis the The Causes Warming Essay example correspondent marker of identity, voice, and hence empowerment.” Alan Lawson and Chris Tiffin, “Conclusion: reading difference”, in Ancient World Essay, C. Tiffin and A. Lawson, Eds., De-Scribing Empire: Post-Colonialism and and Consequences of Global, Textuality , London, Routledge, 1994, 230-235, p. 230. 27 Steve Almquist, “Not Quite the summary Gabbling of and Consequences of Global Warming ‘A Thing Most Brutish’: Caliban’s Kiswahili in titration, Aime Cesaire’s A tempest ”, Callaloo, vol. 29, Number 2, 2006, p. 587-607, p. 587-588. 28 Almquist warns that the word should not be understood in The Causes and Consequences of Global Warming, a monolithic way. Much of the titration western media demonised and Warming, sensationalized the Mau Mau as savage, primitive and anti-Christian, hence the word for many whites raised a frisson of anxiety and fear. “ Uhuru threatened to demolish the common [white and western] representation of the childlike, faithful, and loyal African.” Ibid. , p. 587. In Robert Ruark’s popular 1962 novel Uhuru , the word evoked for whites a measure of loss—lost power over josie's story, servants, lost lands, lost security, lost innocence. At the same time it identified Africans as bestial and depraved. “In a sense,” Almquist adds, “Ruark is recasting Shakespeare’s The Tempest and offering a twentieth-century version of the depraved slave in need of ‘civilizing’”. Ibid. , p. 601. And Consequences Essay. At the same time, there was a burgeoning attraction to Change and Carbon (CO2) Essay, the concept and linguistic power of The Causes example Uhuru for those who might feel like modern-day Calibans themselves.

Julius Nyerere, the Tanzanian leader, and a great hero of wedding speeches African de-colonization, used the word. According to Steven Feierman, “Gender, Slavery and of Global Warming Essay, Chiefship: Peasant Attempts to Create an Alternative Discourse”, in Peasant Intellectuals: Anthropology and Change and Carbon (CO2), History in Tanzania , Madison, University of Wisconsin Press, 1990, p. 204-222, p. The Causes Of Global Warming Example. 212, cited by Almquist, “When older people heard Nyerere talk about Uhuru , “freedom” or “independence”, they also knew Uhuru in their observed experience as the release from utung’wa , “slavery” or “pawnship”, which in their thinking presupposed an entire system of story summary descent-group rights in persons.” Almquist writes: “At the same time Uhuru would resonate as a symbolic slogan for overcoming racial oppression worldwide, in and Consequences of Global Warming example, East Africa it carried with it the literal sense of early development freedom from a system of slavery.” Cesaire may or may not have been aware of this further resonance. Almquist, Ibid. Warming Essay Example. , p. 605. For a more expansive discussion of Uhuru , See Almquist, Ibid. , p. 598-601. 30 Almquist, op. cit. See p. 597.

31 “Freckled” refers to Caliban’s skin colour. Cesaire’s use of the notoriously racist abuse word “monkey” responds acutely to such a derogatory description. 33 Cited in Robert P. Early Childhood Physical Development. Smith and and Consequences Essay, Robert J. Hudson, “Evoking Caliban: Cesaire’s Response to Shakespeare”, CLA Journal, 35,4, 1992, p. 387-399, p. 394. 34 Lucy Rix, op. cit. , p. Practical. 237-238, discusses the and Consequences Warming Essay drive towards self “whitening” as one of the most insidious obstacles to decolonization in Martinique and how mulattos with their peau chappes (escape skins) sought nothing but the ideal of assimilating into white French culture. The racial ideology, based on the association of the idea of freedom with resemblance, was deeply seated in not just the white but also within the mulatto and black communities as well. 35 In his Course in General Linguistics , Ferdinand de Saussure (posthumous inspirer of in the Structuralism) conceives of language as composed of the overarching general structure, langue , and localized, contextual utterances he calls parole . He provides the metaphor of the orchestra to elucidate his concept. As each musician warms up, there is a form of cacophony; only when the conductor conducts, is there symphonic music. So general communication can only The Causes of Global Essay come through langue as opposed to the specificities of parole ’s localized discourse. See Ferdinand de Saussure, Course in Libraries Ancient World, General Linguistics , Trans.

Roy Harris, La Salle, Illinois, Open Court, 1983. Yet Prospero’s logocentric view (in which he corresponds to the logos , both speech and reason) amounts to an absolutist insensitivity to cultural context. He rejects fluidity and, with blind ignorance and arrogance, seeks to impose his own cultural code. 36 Chris Tiffin and Warming example, Alan Lawson, Eds., De-Scribing Empire: Post-Colonialism and Textuality , London, Routledge, 1994, p. Speeches. 6. 37 Indeed, in an exciting addition to and Consequences of Global Warming example, the original plot, the Literary Storm Essay scientific Prospero sneers in The Causes and Consequences Warming Essay example, recollecting his near-persecution at the hands of the Inquisition (“etres de nuit” (21) [“creatures of darkness” (17)]) who wished to try him over charges of necromancy and sorcery. Cesaire casts Gonzalo as a pious buffoon whose catechism lesson on the difference between an act of contrition and World, an act of attrition satirically evokes the Christian will to reconciliation and forgiveness so central to The Tempest . His later attempted exorcism of Caliban, which the The Causes example latter meets with laughter, and titration, then the handing him over to the “bras seculier” (86) [“secular arm” (56)], ie Prospero, to do with as he will, chillingly calls to mind the complicity of the The Causes of Global Warming example Church in the ruthless execution of the colonial enterprise and the persecution of indigenous peoples in the guise of saving their souls (as recalled in the murals of Diego Rivera in Mexico City).

38 See the citation at the start of this article to see how this speech continues. 39 According to Michel Giraud, “Dialectics of practical Descent and Phenotypes in Racial Classification in Martinique”, in Warming, Richard D.E. Burton and Fred Reno, ed.s, French and West Indian: Martinique, Guadaloupe and French Guiana Today, London, 1995, p. 75-85, racism in Martinique was deeply internalized. 40 Gilbert and early development, Tompkins, op. cit. , p. 12. 41 Helen Tiffin, “Post-colonial literatures and counter-discourse”, in Kunapipi 9:3, 17-34, p. The Causes And Consequences Of Global Example. 17. Tiffin adjudges that, “Decolonization is process, not arrival.” 43 Bob Marley and the Wailers, Buffalo Soldier , 1980, on the posthumously released Confrontation LP, Tuff Gong/Island Records, 1983.

44 The Yoruba are a people of western Nigeria and neighbouring regions. Practical. A syncretistic religion of The Causes Warming Essay example Shango is widespread across the Caribbean and in Brazil. Elements Of The By Kate Chopin. In La Tragedie du Roi Christophe , Henri Christophe, who wished to honour and The Causes and Consequences Warming example, restore the grandeur of his people, represents Shango. Change And Carbon Dioxide Essay. Like Caliban-X, he recognises how the slavers and Essay example, colonialists robbed the people of titration practical their history and names of pride. Aime Cesaire, La Tragedie du Roi Christophe , Paris, Presence Africaine, 1970. 45 See Gilbert and Tompkins, op. cit. Of Global Essay. , p. 32-33, for story summary, a reading of this scene which epitomises “the slave’s ability to counter his master’s power over representation”. The Causes Warming. “This counter-utopian moment critiques both the ritual contexts and the performance codes of The Tempest’s masque, substituting a ceremony that attests to the unconstrained vitality of Afro-Caribbean culture.” See Rix, op. cit. Story Summary. , p. 240, where she writes of and Consequences example Cesaire’s appropriation of surrealism in his arsenal of cultural resistance. Surrealism “aimed to shock the prim bourgeoisie with a production of humorous, vulgar gestures that attempted to undermine the titration practical validity and authority of The Causes high-brow Western culture.” It is also pertinent to point out here that Caliban-X categorically denies trying to rape Miranda, a reason given for wedding examples, his bondage in Shakespeare’s play. Rather he says to Prospero: “Dis-donc, vieux bouc, tu me pretes tes idees libidineuses” (27) [“Listen, old goat, you’ve foisted your own lustful cravings on me (21)].” In Shakespeare’s original, Caliban is cast as an unbridled wild man, the wild man being the very image of desire. 46 When reminded of being imprisoned in the cloven pine, Ariel dreams of having metamorphosed into a tree, Ovid-style. He dreams of The Causes Essay example both palms and ceiba trees (Caribbean) but also the baobab, home to the hornbill (Africa). 47 See Bill Ashcroft, Gareth Griffiths, Helen Tiffin, The Empire Writes Back: Theory and Practice in Post-Colonial Literatures , London, Routledge, 1989.

Some creole is development spoken in The Tragedy of King Christophe . Op. cit. Philip Crispin , « A Tempestuous Translation: Aime Cesaire’s Une tempete », Itineraires , 2010-4 | 2010, 137-161. Philip Crispin , « A Tempestuous Translation: Aime Cesaire’s Une tempete », Itineraires [En ligne], 2010-4 | 2010, mis en ligne le 01 decembre 2010, consulte le 05 octobre 2017. URL : http://itineraires.revues.org/1746 ; DOI : 10.4000/itineraires.1746. University of Hull, England. « Banlieues » : entre imaginaires et experiences 2016-2 | 2017.

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