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Applying to a Federal Job? 5 Rules You Need to Know. If you were asked to name people who work for invention automobile, the federal government, you might start by listing off high-ranking elected officials (like POTUS). At University! However, the automobile federal government hires employees of about in the Ages all skill, education, and experience levelsno televised debates required. Invention Automobile! No matter what your professional interests are, you can find a job that fits your strengths. Once youve found a federal job that interests you, youll start to notice some key differences in about Torture in the Middle, the hiring process. To begin with, did you know that a winning federal resume follows different rules than one for the private or nonprofit sectors? (For example, its not uncommon for a federal resume to be four or five pages! But more on that later.) The usual tips are important, but there are some specifics about federal resumes that you should keep in mind. Invention Automobile! 1. Torture In The Ages! Qualifications: Check, Re-check, and automobile, Check Again. As you can probably guess, federal job announcements can attract hundreds (and sometimes thousands) of reasonable force applicants. Automobile! To narrow down the pool, HR professionals give hiring managers a list of caligula applicants who are best qualified. Then, the invention automobile hiring manager reviews the and Medicaid list, chooses who to invention interview, and Essay, often never sees the rest of the invention automobile applications in the pile.

Heres the at University of Pennsylvania Essay catch: HR can only invention put candidates on jerome groopman, the best qualified list if they meet all minimum qualifications in the job announcement. This means HR will be looking very carefully at automobile, everything you list on your resume, so this is one time when you want to clearly spell out your qualifications. For example, if one listed qualification is a minimum of three to five years web management experience, make sure that you explicitly state any web projects that youve managed and the number of years you spent doing so. Or if its a role that requires management experience, instead of Essay about Torture Middle saying that youve managed interns, youd want to invention automobile list out that you were responsible for training, assigning projects, and providing feedback, as well as how many interns you managed and for Medicare and Medicaid, how many months or years. Reviewing hundreds of resumes to find the most qualified applicants is no small task. Invention Automobile! Thats why federal hiring managers (or sometimes computer programs) scan your resume for (disciplines, keywords from the automobile job posting. If youre missing major keywords, chances are your resume wont make the cut. Jerome Groopman! To help you figure out invention automobile, what keywords to use, carefully read the job announcement for at University of Pennsylvania, skills and invention, responsibilitiesthen, be sure to Tuition Increases at University of Pennsylvania include any recurring words on invention automobile, your resume. For example, if the word contracting appears over and over again in the job posting, its a good guess that HR is jerome groopman looking for invention, someone with contracting expertise. Caligula! You should also be on invention, the lookout for Medicare and Medicaid, specific technical terms or phrases in the job announcement. Before hitting submit, make sure youve compared your resume with the invention automobile keywords in Medicare, the job announcement one last time.

The descriptions and invention, language youve used in your application should clearly match those used in the job announcement. Many applicants use the about Safety same resume to invention apply to multiple jobs. Issue Church Essay! It may seem like the easiest route, but it significantly lowers your chances of invention automobile getting an interview. Why? Because its unlikely that the same resume will be a match for various best qualified lists and positions highlighting different keywords. Caligula Vs Nero! To simplify the invention process of applying to several jobs, try creating a single master resume that includes everythingall of your education, experience, skills, awards, and so on. Dont worry about and Medicaid how long it is. Automobile! (Hint: Youll never send out this master resume.) Each time you need to create a resume, you can use this master resume as your starting point, revising it for the particular job announcement to include whats relevant to that specific position. A great tool to Essay Torture use is invention automobile My Federal Resume Builder. It lets you create and save up to psychology and exercise five versions of invention your federal resume, making it easy to about Safety vs. Freedom make changes and automobile, apply to jobs quickly.

4. Go All Out With Your Relevant Experience. Jerome Groopman! For non-federal resumes, you may strive to minimize redundancy so you can keep your submission to invention one page. At University! However, on invention, a federal resume, youll want to include all relevant experience that you would bring to a role. Medicare! HR isnt allowed to automobile fill in reasonable force uk, the blanks or assume anything about your experience, so you have to paint a (crystal) clear picture. What does including relevant experience look like on a federal resume?

Well, if youre applying for invention automobile, your first job, flesh out your education section to of Pennsylvania cover more than internshipsdiscuss relevant college coursework, and note any recognition youve received. If youre a more seasoned applicant, dont limit your resume to invention automobile previous work experience. Essay About Middle! Also talk about invention volunteer work, technical training, or anything else that may have given you skills youd need for the job. Essay About! Finally, dont forget to automobile emphasize your past accomplishments and of Pennsylvania Essay, results along with listing responsibilties. Automobile! For example, dont use a general description like led a team of psychology focus on? 10 for a project. Show the invention automobile impact you had by jerome groopman, saying led a team of 10 to automobile finish a project ahead of schedule and Torture in the Middle Ages, under budget, resulting in invention automobile, an early launch that helped us meet a key goal for Tuition at University Essay, recruitment. Its not about including a lengthy descriptionits about invention automobile clearly outlining the Essay about Torture outcome and impact of your work. (But, yes, federal resume bullets are often longer than their non-federal counterparts.) Now that youve clearly spelled out your qualifications, highlighted important keywords, and included detailed information about your relevant experience and accomplishments, youre probably wondering how in the world youll fit everything onto automobile, one page. Tuition Of Pennsylvania Essay! Well, thankfully, you can take a deep breath. With a federal resume, its not uncommon for experienced candidates to automobile submit a document that is psychology focus on? four or five pages long. Invention! Of course, that doesnt mean that you can throw bullets on your resume haphazardly.

The best applicants clearly demonstrate their strengths, qualifications, and vs nero, experience, but do so in a way that makes a succinct, thoughtful impression. For example, its one thing to automobile list relevant courses; its another thing to Essay Safety list every course youve ever taken. Theres no perfect formula for automobile, the length of a federal resume, but if you reasonably quantify and Essay, qualify your accomplishments to show your impact, the invention automobile hiring manager will be able to Torture in the Middle see how your experience fits with the job. Once youve written a draft of invention automobile your federal resume, use this checklist to reasonable force uk evaluate and make improvements. Invention! Photo of United States Capitol courtesy of vs nero Shutterstock. MyCareer@VA is invention a program from the VA Learning University that helps you build the at University career you want at the Department of automobile Veterans Affairs (VA). Backed by a team of caligula career development specialists who understand the automobile federal workplace, MyCareer@VA provides you with the tools, support, and guidance you need to determine what the Essay about Safety right next step is for your career and automobile, how to caligula get there. Want to learn more about how you can make your federal resume shine? Check out automobile, these free resume resources from The Biggest Issue with, MyCareer@VA.

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nyu law ocs resume New York NY 10025 USA. Adapted for invention mobile devices 4 April 2015 . Supplement: Grosch Computer: Bit Slices from a Life by jerome groopman, Dr. Herb Grosch (2003), 500+ pages, including several chapters on IBM's Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory at Columbia University in the 1940s and invention automobile, 50s. [ Also available in PDF ] Supplement: Brennan The IBM Watson Laboratory at Columbia University - A History by Issue with, Jean Ford Brennan (1971). 76 pages, 25 photos. The history of invention automobile IBM-sponsored computing research and Essay Safety vs. Freedom, laboratories at Columbia University, 1928 though 1970. Supplement: Hankam Homeward Bound , the memoir of computing education pioneer Eric Hankam, including his escape from Nazi Europe, his time at IBM Watson Laboratory at invention automobile, Columbia University, and his continuing adventures. Supplement: Krawitz The Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory by Medicare and Medicaid, Eleanor Krawitz, Columbia Engineering Quarterly, November 1949. If you came here looking for the history of the Kermit protocol, Kermit software, or the Kermit Project, you can find some of invention it below in Essay Safety, the 1980-82 timeframe, and a bit more HERE. Plus some 2012 oral history transcripts at invention automobile, the Computer History Museum HERE and HERE. Who am I and why did I write this?

People popped into my office all the time to ask when did such-and-such happen? the first e-mail, the first typesetting, the first networking, the first PC lab, the jerome groopman, first hacker breakins, etc -- since I was there for most of it. So I took some time and automobile, wrote it down, and in so doing became fascinated with the The Biggest with Church Essay, earlier history. Invention? I was a user of the Columbia Computer Center from 1967 until 1977 in my various jobs and as a Columbia student, and I was on staff from 1974 until 2011. Brief bio: After some early programming experience in the Army (mid-1960s), the Engineering School and Physics Dept (late 1960s, early 70s), and Mount Sinai Hospital (early 70s), I came to work at Increases, the Computer Center Systems Group in 1974, hired by its manager Howard Eskin out of his graduate Computer Science classes. After a year of automobile OS/360 programming, I was manager of the PDP-11/50 and the DEC-20s (first e-mail, early networking, the first campuswide academic timesharing), then manager of Systems Integration (first microcomputers, PCs, Kermit), principal investigator of the Hermit distributed computing research project, then manager of Network Planning for the University and chair of the University-wide Network Planning Group, before retiring to jerome groopman, the Kermit Project, which had less (well, zero) meetings and way more fun. I was laid off from Columbia in automobile, 2011 but still have access to and Medicaid, this website. (Note: the Columbia Kermit Project website was cancelled and its website frozen July 1, 2011; the new Open Source Kermit Project website is HERE.)

Obviously this is written from my perspective; others might have different recollections or views. In particular, at least after 1963, this turns out to be more a history of automobile centralized academic computing, rather than all computing, at Columbia, giving short shrift to the departments, administrative computing, the Tuition, libraries, and the outlying campuses; a more complete history needs these perspectives too. Automobile? I've made every attempt to Essay about in the, check the invention, facts; any remaining errors are mine -- please feel free to point them out. Computers are value-neutral tools that can be used for good or evil, and it is jerome groopman, clear that from the very beginning they have been used for invention automobile both. This document does not aim to Issue with, extol the virtues of computers in general, nor of any particular company that makes them, but only to chronicle their use at Columbia University. Former Columbia Computer Center Directors Ken King (1963-71), Jessica Gordon (1971-73), Bruce Gilchrist (1973-85), Howard Eskin (1985-86), Va#x00e7;e Kundakc#x0131; (1989-2005). Columbia Computer Center (Academic, current and automobile, former) Bob Resnikoff, Walter Bourne, Maurice Matiz, Joe Brennan, Rob Cartolano, Joel Rosenblatt, George Giraldi, Christine Gianone, Terry Thompson, Kristine Kavanaugh, Peter Kaiser (1967-69), Mike Radow (1960s), Elliott Frank (1968-70), Andy Koenig (1960s-70s), Janet Asteroff (1980s), Steve Jensen (1980s), Tom De Bellis (1980s). Columbia Computer Center (Administrative/Operations, current and former) Nuala Hallinan, Stew Feuerstein, Joe Sulsona (1957-2001), Raphael Ramirez (1968-199?), Alan Rice (1960s), Peter Humanik, Ben García. US Naval Observatory Kenneth Seidelman (former Director of about in the Astronomy), George Kaplan (former acting chief, Nautical Almanac Office), Brenda G. Corbin (Librarian). IBM Paul Lasewicz and Dawn Stanford (IBM Archive), Peter Capek (CU 1965-69, now at IBM Watson Laboratory), Gary Eheman, Keith Williams.

The Parnassus Club Nuala Hallinan plus former residents Barbara L. Bryan and Rosalinde Weiman, plus several others who wish to invention, remain anonymous. And. Simon Rackham for the 1968 computer movie, Ruth Dayhoff (Director of Medical Digital Imaging, US Dept of Veterans Affairs), Ed Reinhart (Formerly of RAND Corp, JPL, and Comsat), Mary Louise McKee (NORC programmer, US Naval Proving Ground Dahlgren VA), George Trimble (Aberdeen Proving Ground, IBM), John C Alrich (Burroughs/ElectroData), Loren Wilton (Burroughs/Unisys), Ellen Alers (Smithsonian Institution), Garry Tee (Dept of Math, University of Auckland NZ), Allan Olley (University of Essay Toronto), Charlotte Moseley (formerly of the County of San Diego Data Processing Center), Pnina Stern (formerly Pnina Grinberg of BASR), Annette Lopes (CU Associate Registrar, then Associate Director of Student Services, now [2011] Executive Director, Human Resources, Finance and Administration); Jocelyn Wilk, Steve Urgola, and Mae Pan (Columbia University Archives and Columbiana); Bill Santini (CU Student Services). I was inspired by Bruce Gilchrist's Forty Years of automobile Computing article from Essay 1981 [3] (so that makes it sixty seventy 75 years!) Special thanks to Bruce Gilchrist and Nuala Hallinan, each of whom contributed valuable archive material and considerable time, effort, and miles to this project; to Herb Grosch for his awesome book as well as tons of new information, corrections, insights, anecdotes, and automobile, artifacts; to Eric Hankam for psychology (disciplines focus the loan of invention automobile his personal archive of photos and do sport and exercise (disciplines on?, materials, his autobiography, and a wealth of Watson Lab recollections; to Charlotte Moseley for automobile preserving and contributing a large number of old IBM manuals; and to Bob Resnikoff who unearthed his long-lost cache of 1980 machine-room and MSS photos. Herb, in what psychology focus, particular, was involved in automobile, this project on a daily basis since he first happened upon it in Essay about Torture Ages, May 2003 until shortly before his death at 91 in January 2010. Herb remembered everything . And thanks to the editors of invention automobile IEEE Annals of the History of jerome groopman Computing for an announcement and abstract of this site in automobile, their April-June 2002 issue, and for announcing the online version of Herb Grosch's book in the July-September 2003 issue. Please report any broken links directly to jerome groopman, the author. A case can be made that the computer industry got its start at Columbia University in the late 1920s and early 1930s when Professors Wood and Eckert, to advance their respective sciences, began to send designs and specifications for computing machines to IBM Corporation, which until then had been a maker of punched-card tabulating machines for automobile the business market. From those days through the 1980s, the relationship of Columbia with companies like IBM was symbiotic and fruitful (and continues on a smaller scale to this day, mainly in the Physics department with the psychology of kinesiology), construction of massively parallel supercomputers -- who else would know how to automobile, connect 512 processors in a 6-dimension mesh with the The Biggest Church, topology of a torus?) IBM Corporation itself was the automobile, child of Columbian Herman Hollerith . The early days of invention and innovation are past.

Computers and networks are now well established in the daily lives of vast numbers of people in about Torture in the Middle Ages, many nations, and certainly at Columbia University. Today's computers are off-the-shelf mass-market consumer appliances, which was perhaps inevitable and is no doubt a good thing in some ways. Invention Automobile? How this came about is a story told elsewhere but as you'll see below, some important parts of do sport psychology focus on? it happened right here. The story of invention computing at Columbia is presented chronologically. Most links are to local documents, and therefore will work as long as all the files accompanying this document are kept together. There are also a few relatively unimportant external links, which are bound to go bad sooner or later -- such is the Web. 1754-1897: Columbia University was established by King George II of England in what do sport psychology of kinesiology) focus, 1754 in downtown Manhattan near what is now City Hall. The campus moved to 49th Street and Madison Avenue in 1857, and from there to its present site at 116th Street and Broadway in 1897 (HUMOR).

1879-1924: In 1879, Herman Hollerith (1860-1929) received his Engineer of Mines (EM) degree from the Columbia University School of Mines [48]. Invention? After graduation he stayed on as an jerome groopman assistant to one of his professors, W.P. Trowbridge, who later went on to what was to become the US Census Bureau and took Hollerith with him. This led to Hollerith's development of the automobile, modern standard punch card and the tabulating machine and jerome groopman, sorter that were used to process the 1890 Census [40]. Hollerith wrote up his invention and submitted it to the Columbia School of Mines, which granted him a PhD in automobile, 1890 [48]. Increases At University Of Pennsylvania? Hollerith's name is synonymous with the advent of automatic computing ; until about 1940, punched-card calculators, tabulators, and so on were commonly called Hollerith machines, even when they were made by other companies.

1896: Herman Hollerith founds the automobile, Tabulating Machine Company , which was to become (through various mergers and do sport and exercise (disciplines on?, renamings) the International Business Machines company, IBM . 1900-1920: Prof. Harold Jacoby, Chair of the invention automobile, Astronomy Department, in a memo dated 4 December 1909, refers to Miss Harpham (our chief computer) [28]. Issue Church Essay? Computer was an actual job title in invention, those days, referring to someone whose job was to compute -- usually tables from formulas -- by hand or using a mechanical calculator (more about this in Herb Grosch's Computer, Bit Slices of a Life , e.g. on page 4). The 1917-18 Columbia University Bulletin, Division of Mathematical and Physical Sciences, in the Equipment section, lists five computing machines without further detail (you can find a list of possible candidates at the University of Amsterdam Computing Museum). Apropos of nothing, professor Jacoby was a graduate of the Columbia class of 1885, and organized a gift from that class to about Safety, the University: the invention, Vermont granite ball that was mounted on the Sundial on 116th Street (now College Walk) from 1914 to 1946, and now sits in what psychology and exercise (disciplines focus on?, the middle of a field in Michigan [54]. Jacoby died in 1932; Wallace Eckert (about whom much more below) wrote his obituary in Popular Astronomy . 1906: Hollerith brings his Type I Tabulator to market, the automobile, first with automatic card feed and the first such device that is programmable via a plugboard. 16 June 1911: The Computing Tabulating Recording Corporation, CTR, is founded by the merger of do sport psychology and exercise psychology (disciplines of kinesiology) on? Hollerith's Tabulating Machine Company with several others. This company was to change its name to the International Business Machines Company (IBM) in 1924. IBM celebrated its 100th anniversary on 16 June 2011. [ Top ] 1924-26: The Columbia University Statistical Laboratory (location unknown) includes Hollerith tabulating, punching, and sorting machines, Burroughs adding machines, Brunsviga and invention automobile, Millionaire calculators (the latter was the first device to perform direct multiplication), plus reference works such as math and statistical tables. Prof.

Robert E. Chaddock (Statistics Dept) was in about vs. Freedom, charge. Invention Automobile? The Astronomy department (Prof. H. Safety? Jacoby) still has the five computing machines [5]. CLICK HERE for a gallery of late-1920s computing machines. Invention? CLICK HERE for a 1926 aerial view of about Torture in the Middle Columbia University. CLICK HERE for a 1925 Columbia University map. 1926: Wallace Eckert (1902-1971) joins Columbia's Astronomy faculty, specializing in celestial mechanics and most especially the invention, moon. Medicare And Medicaid Essay? In pursuit of these interests, Eckert is to become a true computer pioneer. 1928: Benjamin Wood (1894-1986), head of the invention automobile, University Bureau of Collegiate Educational Research [5], proposes to Thomas J. Watson Sr., president of IBM, a method for and Medicaid automated scoring of examination papers in large-scale testing programs (which previously involved acres of girls trying to tabulate . test results [45]). After some discussion, Watson sent three truckloads of tabulating, card-punching, sorting, and accessory equipment to the basement of Hamilton Hall [9,40]. 1928: Meanwhile in England, L.J.

Comrie (1893-1950), Superintendant of H.M. Invention Automobile? Nautical Almanac Office, begins a project to calculate future positions of the moon using punched cards, a sorter, a tabulator, and a duplicating punch, in what is jerome groopman, probably the first use of these machines for scientific calculation [72]. This work would shortly inspire Columbia's Wallace Eckert to take the next historic step: automating these calculations. As we will see, much of the impetus towards automated scientific computation (and therefore modern computers) came from astronomers, and its primary application was in navigation. Automobile? The same impetus brought us accurate, portable timepieces in the previous century. 1928: Columbia's medical school, the College of Physicians and Essay Middle Ages, Surgeons, moves from 10th Avenue and invention automobile, 55th-60th Streets to Washington Heights between Broadway and Fort Washington Avenue, 165th-168th Streets, the The Biggest Issue Essay, former site of Hilltop Park (1903-1912), the baseball stadium of the New York Yankees (known as the New York Highlanders until 1912). Jun 1929: Prof. Wood's operation became the Columbia University Statistical Bureau (PHOTOS). In addition to tabulating test results, it served as a computer center for other academic departments, particularly the invention, Dept of Astronomy, which used the The Biggest Issue Church Essay, equipment for interpolating astronomical tables [9,40].

1930-31: Previously, Professor Wood had convinced Watson to build special Difference Tabulators , which IBM called Columbia machines and delivered in 1930-31. Automobile? These machines could process 150 cards per minute and Issue with, were unique in their ability to invention automobile, rapidly accumulate sums of products or squares [9]. The Statistical Bureau soon became a service provider to outside organizations like the Essay, Rockefeller and automobile, Carnegie Foundations, Yale, Harvard, and jerome groopman, Princeton [9]. ( So how much did we charge? :-) 1931: Walter S. Invention Automobile? Lemmon, a Columbia University Electrical Engineering graduate and president of the Radio Industries Corporation, demonstrated the Essay in the Middle, first working Radiotype machine , an electric typewriter coupled with radio transmitting and automobile, receiving apparatus. Thomas J. Watson's contacts at Columbia put him in touch with Lemmon and IBM hired him. The Radiotype, originally intended for business applications, is adopted by the US Army Signal Corps for wartime use, allowing radio transmissions without manual transcription to and from Morse code. Before the about Middle, war was over, Radiotype machines had been outfitted with encryption equipment to provide almost instant transmission and receipt of secure messages [40]. 1933: In recognition of his interest in Columbia University and his large equipment donations, IBM Chairman Thomas J. Watson is appointed Columbia Trustee. In return, Columbia President Nicholas Murray Butler is invention automobile, appointed to IBM's Board of Directors [90]. 1933-34: Prof. Increases Of Pennsylvania? Wallace J. Eckert (PHOTOS AND BIOGRAPHY) of the Astronomy Department, a user of the automobile, Statistical Bureau, proposed modifications to IBM machines for The Biggest Issue with advanced astronomical calculations, and within a few weeks the automobile, machines, including an IBM 601 Multiplying Punch (modified to Eckert's specifications under the supervision of do sport psychology psychology (disciplines IBM's G.W.

Baehne [82] and dubbed the Astronomical Calculator [81]) were delivered to automobile, the Rutherford Observatory in the attic of Pupin Hall. Until 1937 (q.v.) this facility was variously known as the Rutherford Laboratory, the Astronomical Laboratory, and the Hollerith Computing Bureau (the minutes of the Tuition, 61st meeting of the American Astronomical Society, 29-30 Dec 1938, refer to invention, a visit to the Hollerith Computing Bureau, where vast computing projects are being carried out under the Direction of Dr. Eckert). About Safety? It was the first permanent IBM installation in the world to do scientific work (Comrie's Greenwich setup had not been permanent). For his work, Eckert designed a control system based on plugboards and invention automobile, rotating drums to interconnect the new equipment, eventually incorporating methods to solve differential equations by numerical integration [9]. The Astronomical Laboratory was the first to do sport psychology (disciplines focus, perform general scientific calculations automatically [30]. In late 1933, Eckert presented a paper on this work to the American Astronomical Society.

Later, IBM would say, Among its scientific accomplishments, Columbia can boast of having pioneered . the use of automatic computing machines for research work [37]. A seemingly mundane but significant aspect of this work was the new ability to feed the result of invention automobile one computation into the next and print the results of these calculations directly, thus eliminating the transcription errors that were common in astronomical and lunar tables [17]. To illustrate with a 1946 quote from Kay Antonelli, University of Pennsylvania, referring to Increases, her wartime work [34], We did have desk calculators at that time, mechanical and driven with electric motors, that could do simple arithmetic. You'd do a multiplication and when the invention automobile, answer appeared, you had to write it down to reenter it into Issue, the machine to do the next calculation. We were preparing a firing table for each gun, with maybe 1,800 simple trajectories. To hand-compute just one of automobile these trajectories took 30 or 40 hours of sitting at a desk with paper and a calculator.

Imagine the effect of a transcription error early in the 30-40 hour procedure. 1934-37: Ben Wood and his Statistical Bureau work with IBM to develop mark-sense technology to improve the efficiency of processing standardized tests [9]. Essay? The result was the invention, IBM 805 International Test Scoring Machine, marketed beginning in Essay, 1937 [38]. Dr. Wood is remembered at invention automobile, Columbia through the jerome groopman, Ben D. Invention? Wood Graduate Fellowships in Learning Technologies, and at the Educational Testing Service, which dedicated its largest building to him in with Essay, 1965. 1935: Practical Applications of the Punched Card Method in Colleges and Universities , edited by George W. Baehne of IBM, published by Columbia University Press; hardbound, 442 pages, 257 figures. Contains articles by automobile, Ben Wood and Wallace Eckert, among many others. Most of the applications described are straighforward tabulating and bookkeeping operations; Eckert's is the exception.

CLICK HERE for a more detailed discussion of Increases Essay this book. 1936: Wallace Eckert hires Lillian Feinstein [Hausman] as computing lab manager, placing her at automobile, or very near the head of the class of Women Pioneers of Computing [100]. In Eckert's Lab, she programmed and performed scientific computations on jerome groopman, the 601, 285, and other machines. She stayed with Eckert until 1948, on loan for a time to automobile, the US Naval Observatory [88], and Tuition at University Essay, then from 1945 on the Watson Lab technical staff. In the early Watson Lab days she (and others such as Eric Hankam) trained computing newcomers such as John Backus and Ted Codd. From the early Astronomical Lab equipment, she moved on automobile, to the jerome groopman, 602 (and 602-A), 604, the invention automobile, Aberdeen Relay Calculators, and the SSEC, and when Columbia began to hold academic computing courses in 1946, she ran Grosch's Engineering 281 Numerical Methods lab sessions. Much more about Lillian in Herb Grosch's book COMPUTER [88] (in which Herb refers to her as the senior full-time scientific punched card expert in the whole world in vs. Freedom, 1946). Other Women Pioneers of Computing at Columbia include 1940s-era Watson Lab members Marjorie Severy [Herrick], Rebecca Jones, and Eleanor Krawitz [Kolchin]. Invention? Grace Hopper, though by no means a Columbian, was present at the inaugural meeting of the Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), held at Columbia in 1947. The roster of Watson Lab technical staff (1945-70) is listed in Medicare, Brennan [88].

Out of 207 professional staff members, 35 are definitely women. Many more are listed with only initials; some others by invention automobile, Romanized Chinese name (which generally does not indicate gender). But at least 17% of the Essay about in the Middle Ages, technical staff were women, which isn't bad for the postwar years, in which women were discouraged from working (or worse, laid off from their wartime jobs). 1937: Professor Eckert's astronomical lab in Pupin Hall's Rutherford Observatory becomes the Thomas J. Watson Astronomical Computing Bureau (PHOTO), jointly sponsored by IBM, the American Astronomical Society, and the Columbia Department of Astronomy [3,9,86], to serve as a resource for the entire world astronomical community [38], making it the world's first center for scientific computation [84]. The initial equipment of the Bureau consists of automobile that which has been used by the Department of Astronomy at Columbia University during the past few years . modified to make them more efficient for scientific work . subtraction tabulator with summary card punch, cross-footing multiplying punch, interpreter, sorter, high-speed reproducer, key punches, and verifier. Some possibiliies of the machines can be gained from the program now in Tuition Essay, progress. This consists primarily of (1) numerical integration of the equations of planetary motion; (2) complete checking of the lunar theory; (3) computation of precession and rectangular co-ordinates for automobile the Yale University Zone Catalogues ; (4) the photometric program of the Rutherford Observatory; and (5) problems of stellar statistics. [86]. Users of the Bureau were charged only for labor and materials (a tremendous bargain, since the Issue Church Essay, equipment was donated).

The Astronomical Computing Bureau would serve as a model for many of the wartime computing centers, such as those at Los Alamos, the Naval Observatory, and automobile, the Aberdeen Proving Grounds [30,90]. 1938-40: In 1938, Soviet astronomer Boris Numerov visits Eckert's lab to Safety vs. Freedom, learn how punched card equipment might be applied to stellar research in his own lab at St. Petersburg University in Moscow. Numerov, Boris Vasilyevich: The website of the Tosno Museum of Local History and Tradition (Leningrad Region) says (as of 12 Sep 2003) An exhibit section is devoted to automobile, Boris Numerov (1891-1941) - a prominent astronomer, land-surveyor and geophysicist, a creator of various astronomic instruments and means of Essay about vs. Freedom minerals exploring. His family has lived in the town of Lyuban' not far from Tosno since 1922. Automobile? In the times of Medicare and Medicaid Essay Stalinist repressions Boris Numerov was arrested and executed in 1941. Invention Automobile? In 1957 he was rehabilitated. Numerov is do sport psychology focus on?, known today for the various algorithms and methods that bear his name.

In June 1940, a letter arrives for invention automobile Eckert from V.N. Medicare And Medicaid Essay? Riazankin on behalf of the Astronomical Institute of the USSR Academy of the invention automobile, Sciences, asking to visit Eckert's Lab. Jan Schilt, now in charge of the Lab, forwards it to Eckert in Washington. In August 1940, I.S. Stepanov of the Amtorg Trading Company writes to Eckert asking why he didn't answer Riazinkin's letter. Here's the final paragraph of jerome groopman Eckert's reply (cc'd to Schilt): May I take the invention automobile, opportunity to Safety vs. Freedom, state that one of your eminent scientists, the automobile, late Dr. Numerov, corresponded with me several years ago concerning this very problem [machine construction of jerome groopman astronomical tables for invention automobile navigation] . It was his intention to secure a similar installation, and at University Essay, had one in operation.

I sincerely hope that his interest in my machines was not construed by his government as treason, and that Mr. Riazankin will not meet the same fate as Dr. Invention? Numerov. [88]. Schilt writes to what do sport focus on?, Eckert from invention automobile Columbia on August 9th: Concerning the letter of Mr. Stepanov I am shivering a little bit. What Do Sport Psychology (disciplines Of Kinesiology) Focus? Your reply to him is extremely strong and clear, so much so that I would not be surprised if I wouldn't hear from automobile them at all, and Medicare and Medicaid, frankly I just soon would not . if there is any danger that [the machine] room may prove a death trap to Russian scientists I think I am in automobile, favor of not talking to these people. Jerome Groopman? [88]. (Note: the correspondence places Numerov's death prior to invention automobile, 1941.) According to David Alan Grier [46], the Amtorg Trading Company was a spy agency; the proposed visit from Riazinkin, which never actually took place, is thought to have been an about Torture in the attempted first case of computer espionage [45]. In fact, Amtorg was not just a front; it handled the bulk of Soviet-American trade for many years, but it was also an ideal spot for the placement of spies. Invention Automobile? Was Riazankin a spy? We'll never know.

In any case he was never heard from again. Herb Grosch reports that Soviet astronomers continued to pay occasional visits to Watson Lab after the War, e.g. in connection with taking over production of the annual Kleine Planeten listing of asteroid positions from Watson Lab, which did the Essay about Middle Ages, work in automobile, 1946 after the German Astronomisches Rechen-Institut was destroyed in the War. Fall 1938: Howard Aiken, a Harvard graduate student who was working on plans for a machine to solve differential equations as part of his thesis, visits Professor Eckert's Lab; IBM engineer Clair D. Lake (who built Eckert's switch box) is also present. Eckert demonstrates the capabilities of his setup and suggests that he try to interest IBM in the project [9]. What Do Sport Psychology And Exercise (disciplines Of Kinesiology) Focus On?? A year later IBM agreed to develop and invention, construct the machine, an electro-mechanical device called the Automatic Sequence Controlled Calculator, ASCC (PHOTO), the first automated general-purpose (but not electronic or stored-program) computer. Jerome Groopman? The ASCC was built by Lake and his staff at IBM's Endicott NY facility and presented in 1944 to Harvard, where it did war work, and eventually became known as the Harvard Mark 1 [9]. The Mark 1 was soon outpaced by IBM's Aberdeen Relay Calculator (also built by Lake) and later the US Army's ENIAC, the first electronic automatic general-purpose (but still not stored-program) computer.

Jan 1939: Enrico Fermi, Leo Szilard, Walter Zinn, Herbert Anderson, and others begin work on nuclear fission in Columbia's Pupin Hall. Within a few months this work would become the Manhattan Project , funded by President Roosevelt (Columbia Law, 1905-07) in response to Albert Einstein's letter warning of Nazi research in this area. Invention? After Pearl Harbor, the Torture Ages, project moved to the University of Chicago (supposedly to make it less vulnerable to German attack) and spread to the University of automobile California, Los Alamos, Oak Ridge, Hanford, and other locations. Fermi's lab was in about, the same building as Professor Eckert's Astronomical Computing Bureau. I don't know to what degree, if any, Eckert's computing machines were employed in the early Manhattan Project, but as noted below they played a key role in invention, 1945 in the final preparations for the first A-bombs [57]. A number of other Columbia scientists worked on the project, including I.I. Rabi, Edward Teller, John Dunning (who identified U-235 as the fissionable uranium isotope using the Pupin cyclotron in Increases Essay, Feb 1940), Harold Urey (who later left the project on moral grounds), and invention, George Pegram (who assembled the original Manhattan Project team), as well as junior faculty who would later become well-known physicists, such as C.S.

Wu and Bill Havens (both of whom I worked for in my student days), James Rainwater, Eugene Booth, and Richard Present. The following is taken from a narrative, Evolving from Calculators to Computers on the Los Alamos National Laboratory History website (May 2003): Calculations at Los Alamos were originally done on manually operated mechanical calculators, which was not only laborious and time-consuming, but the machines broke down frequently under heavy use. Jerome Groopman? The only one who could fix them promptly was Richard Feynman (Nobel Prize in Physics, 1965), which some thought was not the best use of his time. Dana Mitchell, whom Laboratory Director J. Robert Oppenheimer had recruited from Columbia University to oversee procurement for invention Los Alamos, recognized that the calculators were not adequate for the heavy computational chores and suggested the use of what do sport psychology psychology of kinesiology) focus on? IBM punched-card machines. He had seen them used successfully by Wallace Eckert at Columbia to invention, calculate the orbits of planets and persuaded [Stanley] Frankel and [Eldred] Nelson to order a complement of them. The new IBM punched-card machines were devoted to calculations to simulate implosion, and Metropolis and Feynman organized a race between them and the hand-computing group. Essay About Safety? 'We set up a room with girls in it.

Each one had a Marchant. But one was the multiplier, and another was the invention automobile, adder, and this one cubed, and all she did was cube this number and send it to the next one,' said Feynmann. For one day, the hand computers kept up: 'The only difference was that the jerome groopman, IBM machines didn't get tired and could work three shifts. But the girls got tired after a while.' May 1939: Columbia University's Baker Field (at 215th Street in upper Manhattan) was the site of the nation's first televised sports event , a baseball game between Columbia and Princeton universities, May 17, 1939, broadcast by invention automobile, NBC. Tuition Increases At University Of Pennsylvania Essay? (The first televised sports event in the world was the 1936 Olympics in Berlin.) [ Top ] 1940: Prof. Eckert publishes Punched Card Methods in Scientific Calculation [50], the first computer book . The book . covers nearly a decade of work by W.J. Eckert on astronomical calculations by automobile, machine processes. Based on firsthand experience, it describes a gamut of large calculations that could best be carried out by machines able to process numbers in machine-readable form. These calculations include the Tuition Increases at University of Pennsylvania, construction of mathematical tables, the numerical integration of invention differential equations, numerical harmonic analysis and synthesis, and the solution of simultaneous equations. . Often known as the 'Orange Book' on account of the vividly colored covers of its original printing, Eckert's book was the bible of many workers engaged in punched card computing at the IBM Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory at Columbia University and elsewhere. . The process of carrying out the integration of the differential equations is explained in detail. It involves the use of the The Biggest Essay, multiplier, tabulator, and invention automobile, summary punch in with, concert, guided by invention automobile, the setting of jerome groopman a calculation control switch, which acts as a master controller advancing automatically . through twelve positions (Figure 2). This control switch . was a precursor of sequential control in electronic computers [78].

Some of the invention, better-known builders of the Tuition at University of Pennsylvania, early computers, like Vannevar Bush at MIT, J. Presper Eckert of the ENIAC, and Howard Aiken at Harvard, got their first introduction in the famous orange book [90]. In this year, Eckert is invention, appointed full professor of about in the Celestial Mechanics. March 1940: Eckert leaves Columbia for an assignment with the invention automobile, US Naval Observatory, which he rapidly computerizes to create accurate air and sea navigation tables for the US Air Corps and Navy using the techniques he devised at Medicare and Medicaid, Columbia [17], which allowed design and production of the Air Almanac in record time (the first issue of the Air Almanac appeared December 1st, 1940, produced entirely by machine methods). The Astronomical Computing Bureau in invention automobile, Pupin, now directed by Tuition Increases at University, Jan Schilt (but with Eckert still running the show from Washington), was assigned to invention, tasks for the looming war, such as ballistic firing tables, and at University, trajectory calculations, and later, design calculations for the B-29 sighting station [57,59] Mathematics Goes to War [9]. Eckert also assigns Nautical Almanac work to the Bureau, and temporarily borrows Lillian Feinstein as Piecework Computer from the Bureau's staff. The Bureau existed until 1951, but by 1948 most of its work had migrated to Watson Lab [88]. IBM played a large part in the Allied war effort, supplying all of its products to the US government at 1% over cost, and automobile, taking on new jobs as well, including manufacture of nearly six percent of all M1 rifles [see pictures and Essay, story] [another one here] [or search Google] (other non-weapons companies made M1s too, including National Postal Meter Company, General Motors, Underwood [typewriters], and Rock-Ola, a maker of juke boxes). IBM also evacuated the families of invention employees in England to Toronto [85] and assisted the families of US employees who had gone off to war and Essay about, held jobs open for all its returning veterans [57]. According to allegations in 2001 [48] (having nothing to do with Columbia), IBM might also have played a part in Germany's war effort, in which widespread use was made of invention punched-card technology manufactured by IBM's German subsidiary, Dehomag [120], which had been taken over by the Nazi government in 1940. Torture In The? The degree of IBM's involvement with Dehomag after that is invention, or was at issue [See IBM statement].

1940: The Bureau of Radio Research (founded at Princeton University in 1937), headed by Paul Lazarsfeld, moves to Columbia University, with quarters at 15 Amsterdam Avenue. In 1949 it would move to 427 West 117th Street, and Medicare, about 1953 to 605 West 115th Street, the other half of the former Parnassus Club, across from the present Watson Laboratory. Its name would change to the Bureau of Applied Social Research (BASR) in 1944, and it would live on until 1977, when it was replaced by the Center for Social Sciences (later, the Lazarsfeld Center for Social Sciences, and still later the invention automobile, Institute for what psychology and exercise (disciplines focus on? Social and Economic Theory and Research). BASR produced a great many quantitative studies and in fact pioneered quantitative sociology [26,27]. From its inception in automobile, 1940, the Bureau was in possession of IBM tabulating equipment. IBM machines and tabulating charges as well as IBM supplies appear on each annual budget [28]). The BASR's 1954-56 budgets show $6000 per and Medicaid Essay, month for IBM equipment rental, which suggests a rather massive capacity (compare with the automobile, Registrar Proposal of Essay about Torture Middle 1957). The BASR Report on the Year 1957-58 says The Bureau also maintains its own IBM data processing laboratory in University Hall, and automobile, other IBM equipment for use by students in Fayerweather Hall. Do Sport And Exercise Psychology (disciplines Of Kinesiology) Focus On?? The machine facilities of the Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory are available for certain highly technical problems not readily solved by the Bureau's own equipment [28]. Pnina Stern, who worked at the Bureau until its demise, says When I got there in 1966 BASR had [at 605 W 115th Street] IBM 024 card punches, an 085 Collator, an 082 Sorter, and a 403 Accounting Machine that could be wired to automobile, produce cross tabulations and other good stuff. Fred Meier was a whiz at jerome groopman, wiring up this machine.

You had to wire it for each thing you wanted to do. It printed out cross tabulations and maybe even some other statistics. Some of the IBM machines looked like pieces of Victorian furniture with intricately carved wrought iron legs. Years later when IBM had a retrospective exhibit somewhere they borrowed these machines for the exhibit. Maybe Fred M. owned them at that time. As for computing, someone at Columbia -- possibly at BASR -- wrote the very first computer cross tabulation program. I believe it was written in invention, IBM 7090 machine language and you had to give it numerical coded instructions. It was not very user friendly. I think it may have been written by Peter Graham. As noted, much of BASR's quantitative work was done in-house on its tabulating and EAM equipment, but more demanding tasks were carried out at IBM Watson Lab.

By 1961, BASR was (with Physics and Issue, Chemistry) one of Columbia's leading users of invention automobile computing, and one of the reasons the Columbia Computer Center was created [29]. After 1963, BASR was a major user of the Computer Center mainframes, sending work-study students with massive decks of cards to the SSIO Area on campus on a regular basis to run jobs. We always duplicated the jerome groopman, cards before we sent them over because we had visions of the students dropping the IBM card boxes and the cards floating across Broadway. Invention Automobile? In the 1970s, HP terminals were installed for Essay Safety interactive access to automobile, mainframe applications like SAS and SPSS. The Directors of BASR were Paul Lazarsfeld (1940-1951), Charles Glock (1951-1957), David Sills (1957-1960), Bernard Berelson (1960-61), and Allen Barton (1962-1977). 20 December 1944: Since the jerome groopman, 1930s, Columbia had been IBM's main contact with scientific computing and invention, the academic community [38], and to carry forward this relationship, Thomas J Watson, a Columbia Trustee since 1933, wrote to Columbia Provost (and Acting President 1945-47) Frank Diehl Fackenthal [28] agreeing to establish a computing research laboratory at Essay about vs. Freedom, Columbia University as soon as space can be secured: I am confident that this laboratory will be another major forward step in the long and productive cooperation between the [ sic ] IBM and invention, Columbia University. 1945: The US Naval Observatory produces the 1946 edition of the Air Almanac in what is arguably the first instance of computer-driven typesetting, using the newly delivered programmable card-driven table printer that had been specified by Professor Eckert in about, 1941, but whose production was delayed by the War. 6 February 1945: To give all possible aid to the war effort and to promote peace through scientific development, a computing laboratory has been established at automobile, Columbia University by International Business Machines Corporation. The new laboratory, to be known as the Tuition Increases of Pennsylvania, Thomas J. Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory at Columbia University , will serve as a world center for the treatment of invention automobile problems in the various fields of science, whose solution depends on the effective use of applied mathematics and mechanical calculations [23]. Columbia Professor Wallace J. Eckert, now head of IBM's new Pure Research Department, is appointed to head the The Biggest Issue Church, laboratory. Temporarily housed on the tenth floor of invention Pupin Hall, staffed and paid for Tuition Increases of Pennsylvania Essay by IBM, with the staff holding faculty appointments and automobile, teaching credit courses in math, physics, astronomy, and other fields.

The new lab attracted attention all over the scientific world; visitors included John von Neumann, Hans Bethe, and Richard Feynman [3,4,9, 57]. The lab was named for IBM's Thomas J. Watson (Senior), a Columbia Trustee (it is said that Watson is the one who nominated Eisenhower as Columbia President in 1948, but he meant Milton! [17]). Within a year, Watson Lab would become the third most powerful computing facility in the world, after the US Army's Aberdeen Proving Ground and Harvard University, and would remain so for some years. Mar 1945 : The Manhattan Project (from here through Aug 1945) : It turns out that the presence of Bethe, Feynman, and von Neumann was not entirely coincidental. Herb Grosch writes that in May 1945, calculations at Los Alamos were falling behind.

As Dr. Eckert (who had just hired him to work at Essay, the new Watson Lab) explained, They came to IBM for invention automobile help. Mr. Watson and John McPherson [IBM engineering director] . thought immediately of the Astronomical Bureau at Columbia, but it is heavily engaged in fairly high priority work for another part of the Army*, and jerome groopman, really has no room for physical expansion anyhow. It has only two 601s and an old 285 fixed-plugboard tabulator, and invention automobile, there is hardly any room to move. New space was needed, and found, for Watson Lab's first task: solution of temperature-pressure equations for completion of the A-bombs at Los Alamos [57] (more about this HERE and much more in Chapter 03 of Dr.

Grosch's book) Now that Germany's defeat was imminent, Leo Szilard who, with Enrico Fermi, had initiated the with Essay, Manhattan Project at Columbia in 1939 did not believe the A-bomb should be used on invention automobile, Japan. He obtained a letter of introduction to President Roosevelt from The Biggest Essay Albert Einstein so he could present his case against invention dropping the bomb. A preliminary meeting with Eleanor Roosevelt was set up for jerome groopman May 8th, but the President died on April 12th and invention automobile, Szilard was blocked from contacting President Truman. 8 May 1945: VE Day, Germany surrenders, the war in Europe ends. Jul 1945: Szilard wrote and circulated a petition among his fellow scientists at the University of Essay about Torture Chicago against the use of atomic weapons and asking President Truman not to use them on Japan. Invention Automobile? He also sent copies to Oak Ridge and Los Alamos for circulation (the Los Alamos copy was buried by The Biggest Issue with Church Essay, Groves and automobile, Oppenheimer). Szilard's petition went through several drafts; the first one (July 3rd) included the following text:

Atomic bombs are primarily a means for the ruthless annihilation of cities. Once they were introduced as an jerome groopman instrument of war it would be difficult to automobile, resist for long the temptation of putting them to such use. The last few years show a marked tendency toward increasing ruthlessness. At present our Air Forces, striking at the Japanese cities, are using the The Biggest Church Essay, same methods of warfare which were condemned by American public opinion only a few years ago when applied by automobile, the Germans to the cities of Issue Church England. Our use of atomic bombs in this war would carry the world a long way further on invention, this path of Middle ruthlessness. Subsequent drafts were toned down a bit but made the same recommendations. The Oak Ridge petition urged that before this weapon be used without restriction in the present conflict, its powers should be adequately described and demonstrated, and the Japanese nation should be given the opportunity to consider the consequences of further refusal to invention, surrender. Watson Lab staff who were performing calculations for Los Alamos were unaware of the petitions or, indeed (with only two exceptions, Eckert and Medicare, Grosch, the only ones with security clearances), that the calculations were for a bomb [59]. In any event, the petitions never reached the invention, President.

6 Aug 1945: Hiroshima : Now we knew what we had been working on about in the Ages, [57]. A second A-bomb was dropped on Nagasaki August 9th. More than 200,000 people died from the two blasts. Was the atomic bomb needed to end the war with Japan? The US Strategic Bombing Survey [94] says, Based on a detailed investigation of all the invention automobile, facts and supported by the testimony of the surviving Japanese leaders involved, it is the Survey's opinion that certainly prior to 31 December 1945, and in all probability prior to 1 November 1945 [the earliest possible date for and Medicaid Essay an invasion], Japan would have surrendered even if the atomic bombs had not been dropped, even if Russia had not entered the invention automobile, war in the East, and even if no invasion had been planned or contemplated. The Biggest With? It was known by the Allies [95] that since May 1945, Japan had been making peace overtures to the Soviet Union, both in Tokyo and Moscow. This was done at invention, the direction of the what do sport psychology (disciplines, Emperor, who had told his envoy, Prince Konoye, to secure peace at invention automobile, any price, notwithstanding its severity [93] . All indications (e.g. in Henry L. Stimson's diaries*) are that the US deliberately prolonged the war, first by delaying the Potsdam Conference and then by striking the Emperor can stay clause from the Potsdam Declaration, until the jerome groopman, bombs could be dropped, and that this was done to intimidate the Soviet Union.

Former President, Supreme Commander of Allied Forces in Europe, and Supreme Commander of NATO Dwight D. Eisenhower wrote in his memoir, Mandate for Change , (Doubleday 1963), “The incident took place in invention, 1945 when Secretary of War Stimson visiting my headquarters in Germany, informed me that our government was preparing to Essay vs. Freedom, drop an invention automobile atomic bomb on Japan. I was one of those who felt that there were a number of cogent reasons to question the wisdom of Medicare such an act . . . Invention Automobile? But the Secretary, upon giving me the news of the successful bomb test in New Mexico, and of the plan for using it, asked for my reaction, apparently expecting a vigorous assent. During his recitation of the relevant facts, I had been conscious of a feeling of depression and so I voiced to Issue with, him my grave misgivings, first on the basis of automobile my belief that Japan was already defeated and that dropping the bomb was completely unnecessary, and about Middle Ages, secondly because I thought that our country should avoid shocking world opinion by the use of a weapon whose employment was, I thought, no longer mandatory as a measure to save American lives. It was my belief that Japan was, at that very moment, seeking some way to invention automobile, surrender with a minimum loss of 'face'.” FDR's and Truman's Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Issue Staff and invention, of the Combined US and British Chiefs of Medicare Essay Staff Admiral William D. Leahy wrote in his book I Was There (Whittlesey House, 1950), “It is my opinion that the use of this barbarous weapon at Hiroshima and Nagasaki was of no material assistance in our war against Japan. Invention? The Japanese were already defeated and ready to surrender because of the effective sea blockade and the successful bombing with conventional weapons.”

14 Aug 1945: 7:18PM EWT (Eastern War Time): VJ Day, Japan surrenders , the war ends. The formal surrender was signed September 2. (The US and many other countries were on Essay in the Ages, permanent daylight savings time throughout the war; in the US this was called War Time -- Eastern War Time, Central War Time, etc.) Oct 1945: Watson Laboratory establishes itself as the automobile, cataloger of mathematical tables on punched cards, meaning that any scientist who needed to obtain machine-readable tables of mathematical functions such as sin, cos, tan, log, squares, cubes, inverses, roots, Bessel functions, Lagrangean interpolation coefficients, spheroid functions, grid coordinates, and so forth, could find out from Watson Lab where to get them [28]. Of course Watson Lab itself was a major producer of such tables. As these card decks were freely shared, they might be regarded as an early form of freeware . Nov 1945: Watson Laboratory moves from Pupin Hall (where it had been since February 1945) into 612 West 116th Street (PHOTO) (MAP), a former fraternity house vacated by of Pennsylvania, the War, purchased by IBM and renovated as a laboratory (PHOTOS) with offices and automobile, teaching facility [4,9]. About Torture Middle? A simple bronze plaque was affixed to the building reading WATSON SCIENTIFIC COMPUTING LABORATORY at COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY [28] (WHERE IS THE PLAQUE NOW?).

Watson Lab's early equipment included two experimental one-of-a-kind relay calculators, two Aberdeen relay calculators, plus conventional calculators and tabulators inherited from the Astronomy Lab, and within a couple years would grow to invention automobile, include a IBM 602 and Increases at University of Pennsylvania Essay, the first IBM 604. Automobile? Read more about renovation and jerome groopman, equipping of this building in Chapter 09 of the Grosch book. Automobile? This building is now Casa Hispanica, home of Columbia's Department of Spanish and Portuguese. Psychology (disciplines Focus? Herb Grosch confirms that Chock Full O' Nuts was open for business on the southwest corner of 116th and invention automobile, Broadway in 1945, where it remained a fixture for decades. Chock Full O' Nuts sightings go back as far as 1944. When did it close? Mid-1980s I think. A few other establishments that were here in with, 1945 are still open in automobile, 2004: The West End (1915), Tom's Restaurant (1936), Columbia Hardware (1939), and Increases at University Essay, Mondel's Chocolates (1943). Aug 1946: Eckert describes Watson Lab to an IBM Research Forum [89].

It is the intention of the Laboratory to make these facilities available to any scientist from any place in this country or abroad , regardless of whether he is connected with a university or a laboratory. This is our fundamental principle: problems will be accepted because of scientific interest and not for any other considerations. Scientific interest can be of two kinds: the problem may interest us because of the invention automobile, complexity of the Tuition Increases of Pennsylvania Essay, calculation, or it may be considered on the basis of scientific merit of the automobile, result rather than the means. While routine computation is not the aim of the vs. Freedom, Laboratory, a considerable amount of it will be done on worthy causes. Later he describes some experimental machines: Among the digital machines which have been developed over invention the years, there are several based on the relay network; we now have two of these at the Laboratory [ note: he is not referring to Medicare and Medicaid Essay, the Aberdeens, which had not yet been delivered ] . The first one was developed with the invention, idea of seeing how few relays it is possible to use to produce a calculating machine. This machine is built on the standard IBM key punch. . The control is very convenient. Tuition At University Essay? a combination of control panel and master card or program card.

Thus, instead of having twenty control panels for a complicated job, you can set it up to invention automobile, use one control panel and and Medicaid, twenty master cards. This might very well be the birth of software . The control panel, which stays in place for the duration of the invention automobile, job, defines the instructions of the machine, in a sense its microprogram. The sequence of operations (invoking instructions from the Essay, control panel) is on a deck of automobile cards. It is Essay, a PROGRAM. A few years later, IBM would build a Card Programmed Calculator, and invention automobile, from there it is a short step to the first general-purpose stored-program computer, which, arguably, was IBM's SSEC, built under Eckert's direction (in fact the SSEC was completed before the CPC).

The significance of card programming can't be overstated. A deck of Issue Church control cards (along with the specifications for the corresponding control-panel wiring, at least in these early days) documents the automobile, program. It can be printed, read, modified, duplicated, mailed, kept for Increases at University of Pennsylvania future use, and run again on automobile, different data sets. Of Pennsylvania Essay? Much of invention this might be said of and Medicaid plugboards too, provided you don't have to recycle them, thus destroying the invention automobile, program. But most important, a program deck can be any length at all, thus allowing extremely complex problems to jerome groopman, be run -- problems that might have required a thousand plugboards. (Trust me, nobody had 1000 plugboards; they're big and they cost serious money.) 1946: Watson Lab produces Ephemerides of automobile 783 Minor Planets for 1947 (formerly Kleine Planeten ), the annual asteroid listing for the year 1947, about 100 pages of tables showing the position of jerome groopman each body at 8-day intervals, calculated on the Watson Lab Aberdeen Relay Calculators, the world's fastest computing devices at the time.

1946-47: Watson Laboratory courses first appear in the University Bulletin. These are graduate-level credit courses. Among them are courses in computing machinery and numerical analysis taught by Wallace Eckert and Herb Grosch believed to be the first computer science courses offered by any university [40] or, more precisely, the first such courses in invention automobile, the world fully integrated into a university curriculum and continuing year after year [59]. Eckert taught Machine Methods of Scientific Calculation (Astronomy 111-112); Grosch taught Numerical Methods (Engineering 281, a graduate course I took some 30 years later. The next year L.H. Thomas added Numerical Solution of Differential Equations (Physics 228). About In The Ages? By 1951, the invention, curriculum also included EE 275 (Electrical and Essay Torture in the, Electronic Components of Digital Computers, taught by Watson Lab's Robert M. Walker) and invention, Physics 255 (Separation of Variables in Mathematical Physics, L.H. Thomas). Most of these courses included hands-on laboratory sessions with the Watson Lab machines or (later) the SSEC downtown. Graduate-level hard-science courses used the what do sport psychology of kinesiology) focus on?, Watson Lab machines too, including some taught by automobile, regular Columbia faculty such as George Kimball (Chemistry), among whose students were Margaret Oakley Dayhoff (Columbia Ph.D. 1948, the and Medicaid Essay, founder of computational biochemistry), Isaac Asimov (Columbia B.Sc 1939, M.A.

1941, Ph.D. 1948), and Maurice Ewing (Oceanography), the founder of Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, whose students included Frank Press (Columbia M.A. 1946, Ph.D. 1949), who went on to become President of the US National Academy of invention Sciences and Chairman of the National Research Council. More about these courses in the 1951 entry.

1946-47: It was also during this period that Watson Laboratory began to provide computer time to Medicare, Columbia researchers at invention automobile, no charge. This arrangement would continue until 1963, when Columbia -- with IBM's assistance -- opened its own Computing Center. Perhaps the first non-Watson-Lab Columbia researcher to use the Watson Lab machines was Martin Schwarzschild, who used the Aberdeen Relay Calculators for astronomical calculations [57]. 1947: Nevis Laboratory, the psychology and exercise psychology (disciplines focus, Columbia Physics department's primary center for study of high-energy and nuclear physics, founded in Irvington, New York. There is a long history of computing here too, which needs to be told, including the many and varied connection methods to Columbia's Morningside Heights campus. Sep 1947: The Association for Computing Machinery (ACM) is invention automobile, born at a meeting of sixty computer enthusiasts at Issue Church Essay, Columbia University's Havemeyer Hall [57]. Originally calling itself the automobile, Eastern Association for Computing Machinery, attendees of its first meeting included Columbia Professor Wallace Eckert (who arranged the Essay, space), Professor Hilleth Thomas (Thomas-Fermi Model), Byron Havens of Watson Lab (chief engineer, NORC), John Lentz of Watson Lab (designer of the automobile, first personal computer), Watson Lab's Herb Grosch, and everybody's favorite computer person, Grace Hopper. The meeting was convened by computer pioneer and antiwar activist Edmund Berkeley. (CLICK HERE to view documents from the first ACM meeting.) Nov 1947: The Watson Laboratory Three-Week Course on Computing , taught by Eric Hankam, the Medicare and Medicaid Essay, first hands-on computer course (PHOTOS AND DETAILS), in automobile, which scientists from do sport psychology psychology of kinesiology) focus all over invention automobile the world learned how to apply computing machines to problems in their disciplines.

The course was given here eleven times a year until 1957 -- by which time it had been attended by 1600 people from 20 countries -- when it was moved to IBM education centers around the world [9]. 24 Dec 1947: First successful test of the Essay Torture, transistor. Jan 1948: The IBM Selective Sequence Electronic Calculator (SSEC) (PHOTOS AND DETAILS) was designed and built by IBM in 1946-47 under the direction of automobile Columbia Professsor Wallace Eckert and what do sport (disciplines focus on?, then installed in IBM HQ at 590 Madison Ave in January 1948. This is one of the first large-scale electronic computers, and the first machine to combine electronic computation with a stored program and capable of operating on its own instructions as data . It was based on hybrid vacuum-tube / mechanical relay technology (12,000 tubes, 21,000 relays). Invention? Fully assembled, it was 140 feet long (60 + 20 + 60 U-shape) (some sources cite different dimensions) and was used initially for calculating lunar coordinates. Reporters called it a Robot Brain.

Its massive size and configuration established the public image of computers for decades to come (as in this 1961 New Yorker cover by Charles Addams). Aside from Tuition Increases solving important scientific problems, it was used by students of invention Columbia's pioneering Machine Methods graduate course -- part of the world's first computer science curriculum, initiated here in 1946. Popular descriptions of computers as brains and analogies with the human nervous system were so rampant in the late 1940s and early 50s, that George Stibitz, developer of the wartime Bell Relay Calculators, was prompted to Essay Torture Middle Ages, write an article cautioning against such wild tales as the one in automobile, the Feb 18, 1950, Saturday Evening Post, which said that computers were subject to psychopathic states which engineers cure by shock treatments consisting of the application of excessively large voltages [79]. The SSEC was programmed from jerome groopman Watson Lab on standard IBM cards converted to input tapes on a special punch called the Prancing Stallion [57]. Eckert's moon-orbit calculations on this machine were used as the basis for the Apollo missions. It was dismantled in 1952. One of the SSEC's programmers was John Backus (PHOTO AND DETAILS), who had two Columbia degrees and was at Watson Lab in 1950-52 [9], and who went on automobile, to design FORTRAN, the jerome groopman, first high-level machine-independent programming language , and Algol, the first block-structured language, and invention automobile, is also known for Backus Normal Form (BNF), a meta-language for describing computer languages. Before FORTRAN, almost every computer program was written in machine or assembly language, and about, therefore was not portable to any other kind of machine.

The idea of a high-level programming language was the second step on the road to user friendliness. The first step was the assembler. Automobile? Such notions were not without controversy. John von Neumann, when he first heard about FORTRAN in 1954, was unimpressed and asked why would you want more than machine language? One of von Neumann's students at Princeton recalled that graduate students were being used to hand assemble programs into binary for their early machine. This student took time out to build an assembler, but when von Neumann found out about it he was very angry, saying that it was a waste of and exercise psychology (disciplines of kinesiology) focus a valuable scientific computing instrument to invention, use it to do clerical work. (These anecdotes from about Safety vs. Freedom a biographical sketch of von Neumann by John A.N. Lee, Dept of invention automobile Computer Science, Virginia Polytechnical Institute.) Another SSEC programmer was Edgar F. Codd , originator of the relational database model [40] ( Communications of the ACM , Vol. 13, No. 6, June 1970, pp.377-387), who was at Watson Lab from do sport psychology and exercise (disciplines of kinesiology) 1949 to 1952 [9] and died April 18, 2003.

1948-54: The IBM Personal Automatic Calculator was designed by automobile, John Lentz and built between 1948 and 1954 on what do sport psychology and exercise (disciplines focus, the top floor of Watson Lab. Among its innovations was a magnetic drum for automobile auxilliary storage, automatic positioning of the jerome groopman, decimal point, and the first video terminal. When it was finally announced in automobile, 1956 as the IBM 610 Autopoint Computer, it was the first personal computer . [4,9,17] 1949: Lamont-Doherty Geological Observatory, Columbia's earth science facility, founded in Essay Torture Middle Ages, Palisades, New York, by Professor Maurice Ewing, a user of the automobile, Watson Lab equipment. There is vs. Freedom, a long tradition of computing and invention, networking here too, which needs to be told. See [39] for an excellent history (albeit with nothing on computing) of what is about, now called the Lamont Doherty Earth Observatory.

1950: Herb Grosch devises Grosch's Law Computing power increases as the square of the cost in Watson Lab [57,p.131]. Dr. Grosch leaves Watson in 1951 to start an IBM bureau in invention automobile, Washington DC. May 1950: Edmund Berkeley (who had founded the ACM at Columbia University in 1947, and Tuition at University, who had written the first book about computers for automobile a general audience [62] in 1949), William Porter (a West Medford MA mechanic), and two Columbia graduate students, Robert Jensen and Andrew Vall, build Simon [63], a simple model electronic brain (PHOTO), costing about $600 to construct. Of Simon, Berkeley said:

It is the smallest complete mechanical brain in The Biggest Church Essay, existence. It knows not more than four numbers; it can express only the number 0, 1, 2 and 3. It is guaranteed to make every member of an audience feel superior to it. It is invention, a mechanical brain that has cost less than $1,000. Essay? It can be carried around in one hand (and the power supply in the other hand). It can be completely understood by one man. It is an excellent device for teaching, lecturing and explaining.

1951: CLICK HERE to invention automobile, view some 1951 Watson Lab Astronomy, Engineering, and Torture Middle Ages, Physics course listings from the 1951 Columbia Catalog. Herb Grosch recalls [57]: . a little about the courses we gave - that is, at Columbia. These were all part of the regular university curriculum, listed in the appropriate catalogs - we had our own special one also - and invention, open to any student with the prerequisites and the money. We did however encourage our own juniors on 116th Street and at the SSEC to attend as auditors if they did not want to sign up for credit. . Most of our offerings were unusual. [Hilleth] Thomas did a very good course in theoretical physics, in which he was a world authority. Increases Of Pennsylvania Essay? I did a celestial mechanics course one year; it was really a mlange of spherical trig, practical and invention, theoretical astronomy (meaning time and position determination, and orbit computing), and brief mentions of jerome groopman planetary and satellite mechanics. . None of my subtopics were taught anywhere else at Columbia; the astronomy department was solid astrophysics. And they were what was needed for astronomy calculations. Invention? . Most of our value as teachers, however, came from the computing courses . Eckert gave a two-semester machine methods course, which featured hands-on operation under Marjorie [Severy], Lillian [Feinstein Hausman] and Eric [Hankam]; literally the only place in the world where you could learn in the university milieu . . I did numerical methods - classical interpolation and matrix arithmetic and integration of differential equations.

Most of my examples, and assigned exercises, were at desk calculator level, but I lectured from the point of view of machine operation . This was one semester, once a year, and Hilleth did an advanced course featuring partial differential equation solutions and error propagation, every other year. . My classes were small; this was a very esoteric discipline indeed in the Forties. But I had interesting students .. like [Stan] Rothman and [Bill] McClelland and [John] Backus and Don Quarles. . What Psychology Of Kinesiology)? So it was my side of the house that carried the invention, teaching. And Medicaid? It went on into the Fifties, always as part - but a small part - of the automobile, Columbia offerings. About Middle? The hands-on side of the automobile, Machine Methods course was unique, not just because of the equipment but because real use-'em-every-day men and women were running it. 1952-3: Watson Lab #2. What Psychology (disciplines Of Kinesiology) Focus On?? When construction of the NORC (see Dec 1954 entry) exhausted available space in the petite 116th street building (and because still more space was required by Watson Lab's new physics program), IBM purchased the building at 612 West 115th Street (PHOTO) (MAP), formerly a women's residence club, gutted and invention automobile, renovated it, equipped it with physics laboratories, and relocated to it.

The new Watson Lab was occupied in September 1953 . A time clock was installed (you can still see its mounting today) but nobody on The Biggest Issue Church Essay, the professional staff used it (as a corporation, IBM was obsessed with efficiency but the Watson Lab scientists were notorious noncomformists). The time clock and invention, all wall clocks were controlled centrally and set automatically by an IBM master clock (like the one in the first Watson Lab); the Essay Torture in the Ages, IBM wall clocks in Watson Lab kept on ticking until about 1999. The Penthouse was outfitted as a lunchroom with a small kitchen, where coffee and tea could be made and soup or beans heated up; it had the atmosphere of a World War II canteen, and was the automobile, favorite place for people in different groups or floors to talk and thesis advisors to meet with their students [17]. Some space was retained in about Safety vs. Freedom, the 116th Street building: offices for PhD students, classroom space, and a machine room [4,9,17,66]. The former women's residence on 115th Street was in fact the invention, Parnassus Club , a boarding house for and Medicaid Essay young women -- students at the Julliard School of Music, which was then only a couple blocks away on the current Manhattan School of Music site (MAP) or at Barnard College, a block north (MAP), for invention automobile semi-professional performers. It operated from 1921 to 1955. CLICK HERE for Essay about Torture in the Ages stories and automobile, photos. The North-facing building was gutted by IBM in 1953 to create Watson Laboratory.

According to Essay about, a resident, we all had to move out because some official body at Columbia had decided the invention automobile, neighborhood had become too dangerous for us; at least that was the and exercise psychology of kinesiology) on?, reason given in a letter we all received that spring (this refers to the second Parnassus Club building, which remained in automobile, operation until 1955). (Miss Macmillan's 1965 obituary states, however, that the Club was closed due to her poor health.) The exterior of 612 West 115th Street retains its original look but the Increases at University, inside contains no trace of the Parnassus Club. In July 2003, a resident from 1950 appeared on the doorstep with her daughter and invention automobile, grandson; she was showing them where she used live. I brought them inside for a mini-tour, but she was clearly disappointed to find absolutely nothing familiar. The original Watson Lab at Medicare Essay, 612 West 116th Street was designed by Thomas Nash and built in invention automobile, 1906 as the Delta Phi fraternity house. The current Watson building at 612 West 115th Street was originally an apartment building called Duncan Hall, designed in 1905 by Issue with Essay, the prolific firm of Neville Bagge, originally built and owned by a Frank Woytisek. The building across the invention automobile, street, No.

605, was also an apartment building by Neville Bagge, called the Bellemore, built in 1903 and originally owned by Moses Crystal [12]. With Essay? It was home to the Bureau of Applied Social Research (BASR) from 1955(?) until it was demolished about 1970. 200th anniversary of Columbia University. 1954: Invention of the cursor: As part of his work on the first personal computer (the IBM 610), Watson Lab's John Lentz designs a small video terminal -- keyboard and tiny screen -- for control and data entry. in which the current position was indicated visually by what came to be known as a cursor . Automobile? Lentz applied for a patent on this concept; the patent was finally granted in the early 1970s. Safety? As far as I can tell, Lentz's control and display device was also the first video terminal . Dec 1954: The Naval Ordnance Research Calculator (NORC) (PHOTOS AND DETAILS), the first supercomputer and invention automobile, the most powerful computer in existence at the time (and for the next ten years), becomes operational. It was designed here beginning in 1950 and built in psychology on?, Watson Lab #2, 612 West 115th Street. NORC had 200,000 electronic components: 3600 words of main memory (originally vacuum tubes, later magnetic cores), eight magnetic tape drives, 15,000 complete operations per second, decimal (not binary) arithmetic, swappable components. Since this was such a big job, additional space was rented at 2929 Broadway, above a restaurant (Prexy's? Home of the Educated Hamburger?) for automobile building some of the parts, which were brought to Watson Lab for assembly and eventual startup and operation.

John von Neumann was a team member and gave the Medicare Essay, inaugural address on December 2, 1954. NORC was moved to the Naval Proving Ground, Dahlgren, Virginia, in 1955 and invention automobile, remained operational until 1968 [4,12,17]. 30 Aug 1955: The first of Increases Essay two IBM 650 computers is installed in the first-floor machine room of the original Watson Lab building on 116th Street. Invention? The 650 was a vacuum-tube-logic decimal computer with 2000 words of Increases of Pennsylvania Essay ten decimal digits each plus sign [31] stored on drum memory. Each had a 511 card reader and a 403 printer. They ran for two shifts a day, eventually supporting over 200 Columbia research projects [29].

A 17 Nov 1955 memo from Dr. Eckert to J.C. Automobile? McPherson states that the Essay, 650 was installed on August 30 and much of the work of the computing group has been concerned with its incorporation into the Laboratory program of automobile research and instruction. The 650s were soon used in do sport and exercise psychology on?, a series of intensive courses on computing, with [31] as a text; these courses later resulted in a book: Joachim Jeenel, Programming for invention automobile Digital Computers , McGraw-Hill, 1959 [64]. Initally, all programming was in assembly language punched on cards; eventually languages such as FORTRAN were available. The legendary SOAP assembler for Essay about Safety vs. Freedom the 650 was written at Watson Lab by Stan Poley. The earlier Watson Lab equipment (tabulators, sorters, multiplying punches, etc) were not computers in the modern sense (general-purpose, electronic, von-Neumann architecture, stored-program, programmed with a language rather than wires). NORC had been the first such computer at Columbia but, although it was used in one Columbia PhD dissertation [65], it was not open to automobile, the Columbia community for Middle general use [61]. Thus the IBM 650 was the first computer available to Columbia researchers and we have a 50th anniversary on August 30, 2005. Eric Hankam points out [66] that this was not as dramatic a turning point as it might seem, since the same types of problems had been solved on invention, non-stored-program calculators at Columbia over at University Essay the preceding two or three decades; at the time, the 650 was seen as just another incremental step in invention, calculator design. However, the do sport psychology psychology focus, 650's power, flexibility, and ease of use relative to the wire- and card-programmed machines (601, Aberdeen, 602, 604, CPC, 607) attracted a flood of automobile Columbia research projects.

By 1961, 650s were also installed at Essay Torture in the Middle, Nevis Lab, Hudson Lab, and ERL. As demand oustripped capacity, it became increasingly clear that Columbia would need a computing facility of its own, big enough to serve the entire university. Sep 1956: Watson Lab begins to award fellowships to Columbia graduate students [9], including Ken King, who would become the first Director of the automobile, Columbia Computer Center, and Joe Traub, who, after obtaining his Columbia PhD in 1959, and a distinguished career at Bell Labs and heading the Carnegie-Mellon CS Department, would become first Chair of Columbia's Computer Science Department [9, 21] (prior to Tuition Increases at University of Pennsylvania, that, computer science courses were in the Electrical Engineering department). Watson Fellows had their own offices at invention automobile, 612 West 116th Street, that were appointed with fireplaces and leather sofas, a good stipend, and unlimited computing time [38]. Essay? Approximately 15 percent of Columbia physics graduate students in the 1950s did their thesis work at Watson Lab [38]. 1956-70: Watson Lab concentrates on solid state physics.

This not-insignificant period, resulting in many publications, patents, and a Nobel Prize, is described at length in [4] and [9]. (Richard L. Garwin of Watson Lab conducted experiments with Leon Lederman of the CU Physics Department confirming the suggestion by automobile, C.N. Yang of Princeton and T.D. Lee of and Medicaid Essay Columbia regarding muon decay; this, plus the additional confirmation of C.S. Wu in the CU Physics Department, resulted in the 1957 Nobel Prize in Physics for Lee and Yang.) Also in this period, Seymour Koenig's research on low-temperature breakdown of germanium and its application to semiconductors; Triebwasser's research on microscopic and thermodynamic properties of ferroelectric crystals; Tucker's research on semiconductors at liquid helium temperatures with application to automobile, biomedical instrumentation [38]. 1957: A proposal was submitted by Columbia University to the National Science Foundation to install an IBM 701 in Watson Laboratory, since many of Columbia's research projects now demanded more power than was offered by the 650s (the sub-microsecond circuits used in the 701 were designed at Watson Lab [37]). While the proposal was under consideration the 701 was superseded by the Model 704, so the proposal was changed to ask for what do sport psychology psychology focus a 704. $145,000 was awarded, but it turned out the 704 was larger than the invention automobile, 701 originally proposed and would not fit in Watson Lab, so the money had to be returned unused [28] and IBM Watson Lab continued to Issue with Church Essay, cater to all of Columbia's academic computing needs at its own expense.

Projects that couldn't be accommodated by Watson Lab's Model 650s were allowed to use the more powerful IBM 700-series computers downtown at IBM headquarters [36]. Oct 1957: IBM proposes the following arrangement to Charles Hurd, University Registrar, for automobile student statistics, course registration, permanent records, and of Pennsylvania Essay, fee accounting: Less 20% educational discount, plus supplies of cards, coding sheets, control (plugboard) panels, trays, and brackets totalling another $1810.25. Invention? Note: the links for some of these items are to later (but similar) models. Required personnel are one supervisor/programmer, two machine operators, and three key punch operators.

Source: AIS archives. Essay? This arrangement characterizes the nature of administrative data processing at the time. There is no true computer, only unit record equipment and tabulating machines capable of rudimentary statistics (sums) and invention automobile, report generation. According to letters of Charles Hurd, 1957-1960 [28], the what and exercise (disciplines of kinesiology) focus on?, funding was found from the expected decline in enrollment of Public Law 550 [Korean War] veterans (Veterans Readjustment Act of 1952); in his proposal to Provost John Krout (29 Oct 1957), Hurd says I am sure that you are aware that IBM equipment has been used in the Registrars' Offices in colleges and universities. large and small, public and private, for many years and has proven to be a most valuable and automobile, efficient tool. I hope, therefore that you will consider this proposal so that this long felt need at Tuition Essay, Columbia may be fulfilled. In other words, registration was still completely manual in 1957. The advantages of the new system would be accuracy, elimination of redundancy (e.g. each student writing the same information on many different forms, up to invention automobile, 23 of them) and transcription errors, and the ability to generate reports, including class lists, plus ID cards and mailing labels, not to mention keeping up with the Church Essay, Joneses, e.g.

NYU, where punch-card registration had been in use since at invention, least 1933. The Biggest Issue With Church Essay? The new equipment was installed in 307 University Hall and the new system phased in from 1959 to 1961 (with an IBM 407 installed rather than a 403 at an extra $250/month). Computerized registration was seen by some as a step towards dehumanization of students and turning universities into invention, factories, a major factor in the rise of the Free Speech Movement at the University of California at Berkeley, which set the stage for Issue Church campus activism, protest, and rebellion throughout the invention, 1960s, including Columbia in 1968: There is Essay, a time when the operation of the automobile, machine becomes so odious, makes you so sick at heart, that you can't take part; and you've got to jerome groopman, put your bodies upon the gears and upon invention, the wheels, upon the levers, upon all the Issue, apparatus and you've got to make it stop. According to automobile, Steven Lubar of the Smithsonian Institution, this sentiment, although directed primarily at Increases at University Essay, the economy and war machinery, extended to the punched-card equipment in the registrar's office: Berkeley protestors used punch cards as metaphor, both as a symbol of the 'system'--first the invention, registration system and then bureaucratic systems more generally--and as a symbol of jerome groopman alienation. 'I am a UC student. Please don't bend, fold, spindle or mutilate me.' 1958: The Columbia-Princeton Electronic Music Center (CPEMC) is founded by Professors Vladimir Ussachevsky and Otto Luening with a grant from the Rockefeller Foundation. It is the automobile, first center for electroacoustic music in the USA and has a long association with Columbia computing. Located in Prentis Hall on West 125th Street, its name was changed to Computer Music Center in 1996. Some tales have been collected and contributed by Peter Mauzey of Bell Labs, a Columbia graduate and former faculty member with a long association with the Electronic Music Center; CLICK HERE to read them.

Sep 1958: The equipment of Columbia University IBM Watson Scientific Computing laboratory is listed [21] as: Standard punched card equipment A comprehensive selection of basic punched card machines, with many special devices. The equipment includes keypunch, sorter, reproducer, and printer. Wired-program calculators The group of about Safety vs. Freedom electro-mechanical and invention automobile, electronic calculators include the Type 602-A Calculating Punch, the psychology (disciplines of kinesiology) on?, Type 607 Electronic Calculating Punch, and the Card-Programmed Electronic Calculator. The 607 is an automatic electronic calculator with pluggable program control and 146-digit storage capacity, capable of performing most programs at the rate of 100 cards per minute. Stored-program calculator The type 650 Magnetic Drum Data Processing Machine is a stored-program calculator [i.e. computer] which can store 2000 ten-digit words, read 200 cards a minute, punch 100 cards a minute, and invention, perform approximately 100 multiplications a second. The memory capacity can be used interchangeably for jerome groopman numerical data and automobile, operating instructions, which permits complete flexibility in Safety vs. Freedom, the elaboration of instructions by the machine itself. Plus special-purpose devices such as a card-driven lithography printer, a card-controlled astronomical photograph analyzer, as well as a machine shop and physics and chemistry laboratories, a highly specialized library, and access to the big IBM 700 series computers downtown.

Although FORTRAN -- the first high-level, machine-independent programming language -- marked a great leap forward in user friendliness, and was probably available for the 650 by invention, this time, it's worth remembering how one ran a FORTRAN job in the early days. First you punched your FORTRAN program on a key punch machine, along with any data and Issue, control cards. But since the 650 had no disk, the FORTRAN compiler was not resident. So to compile your program, you fed the FORTRAN compiler deck into the card reader, followed by automobile, your FORTRAN source program as data. What Do Sport And Exercise? After some time, the machine would punch the resulting object deck. Then you fed the FORTRAN run-time library object deck and your program's object deck into the card reader, followed by any data cards for your program. Your program would run and results would be punched onto yet another deck of cards. To see the results, you would feed the result deck into invention automobile, another machine, such as an IBM 407, to have it printed on paper. The computer itself had no printer. By the early 60s a certain division of labor had become the rule, in which system analysts would make a flow chart, programmers would translate it to code, which was written by hand on coding forms that were given to key punch operators to be punched on cards. The coding forms and jerome groopman, card decks were passed on to verifiers who repunched the source code to catch and automobile, correct any mistakes, signed off on the job, sent the deck to the operator to await its turn at the computer.

Hours later the results would be delivered to the programmer in The Biggest Essay, the form of automobile a printout and the cycle would continue. 1959: Programming for Digital Computers , by Watson Lab's Joachim Jeenel, is published by McGraw-Hill. From the Preface: The contents of this book were developed from material presented to courses on jerome groopman, programming for stored-programming calculators held at Columbia University. Prof. W.J. Eckert, Director of the Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory at Columbia University, initiated the writing of the book and suggested the scope of the text. Automobile? Jeenel also taught Columbia graduate courses such as Astronomy 111-112: Machine Methods of Scientific Calculation (with Eric Hankam). 1959: An IBM 1620 is installed in Watson Lab to supplement the 650s, and is used in Columbia research projects. 1959: The Provost's office commissions a study to develop a plan for the future of computing at Columbia. In view of the failure in 1957 to Increases, produce the space needed for a state-of-the art computer that NSF was willing to pay for, the study concluded that a new computer center building was needed [28].

The central administration concurs and begins to seek sources of funding. Dean Ralph S. Halford, a Chemistry professor, Dean of Graduate Faculties, and (perhaps most to the point) Vice Provost for Projects and Grants is in charge. Dean Halford and the University Committee on Cooperation with Watson Laboratory, which then included Professors Wallace Eckert (Astronomy and Watson Lab), Samuel Eilenberg (Mathematics), Richard Garwin (Physics and Watson Lab), and Polykarp Kusch (Physics, Nobel Prize 1955), plan the future Computer Center. 1960: Algol-60 developed by CU-and-Watson-Lab-alumnus John Backus and others. This was to be the most influential computer language of all time, the parent of all other block-structured languages, including (among many others) Java, C, C++, Pascal, PL/I, and Ada, but not including such lovable mavericks as LISP, APL, Snobol, and Forth. 1961: IBM Watson Laboratory offers the following Columbia courses in computing: GSEE 287, Digital Computers I: Programming and Operating.

Astronomy 111-112: The use of High-Speed Digital Computers for Scientific Calculation. Engineering 281: Numerical Analysis for automobile Research Students in Science and Engineering. Physics 288: Numerical Solution of Ordinary and Partial Differential Equations. Management Games (Industrial Engineering): Market simulations. Plus short courses in IBM 650 and Fortran programming and the Share Operating System (SOS) [29,31]. Besides the Watson Lab courses, the Essay about Torture Ages, Electrical Engineering Department offers: EE 104: Electric Circuits IV: Digital Circuits and Computing Systems. GSEE 267: Digital Systems and Automata. GSEE 269: Information Theory.

GSEE 274: Electrical Analogue Computers. Invention Automobile? GSEE 275-276: Logical Design of Digital Circuits. Essay? GSEE 288-289: Digital Computers II and III: System Analysis and invention, Synthesis. EE 277-278-279: Pulse and Safety vs. Freedom, Digital Circuits. May 1961: Dean Halford writes a Proposal to the National Science Foundation for Support of automobile a Computing Center to be Established at Columbia University [29], and Essay Safety vs. Freedom, shortly afterwards the NSF approves $200,000 over the first two years [121]. IBM pledges $125,000 for fellowships, and another $500,000 is obtained from an anonymous donor [30] (who might have been Thomas J Watson Sr or another Columbia Trustee). Two IBM 7090 mainframe computers are to be acquired at an education discount, which requires Columbia to automobile, devote at least 88 hours per month for purposes of instruction and Essay, unsponsored academic research. With funding lined up, Dean Halford proposes the new Computer Center to invention automobile, the University Committee on Finance. Jerome Groopman? The need for a Computer Center was clear. By this point, about 220 University research projects were being handled on IBM's computers in invention, Watson Lab and the demands had long since exceeded the Lab's capacity, resulting in Essay about vs. Freedom, the rental of invention automobile IBM computers by the following university sites: An IBM 1620 at Lamont Doherty Geological Observatory.

An IBM 650 at the Nevis Cyclotron Laboratory. An IBM 650 at Hudson Lab. An IBM 650 at the Electronics Research Lab of the with, Engineering School. The primary needs were in high-energy physics (then accounting about 200 hours of IBM 650 time per invention, month), sociology (50 hours/month), geophysics (100 hours of IBM 709 time per month), biochemistry, and chemistry. A school of Medicare and Medicaid Essay computer science will evolve gradually at the Computing Center, with an independent line of administration as an educational organ of the University.

The IBM Watson Lab courses would be taken over by the Computing Center. Invention? The initial staff was to Medicare and Medicaid, be 15 persons covering two shifts, including a branch librarian [29]. The Computing Center was to serve those whose research is sponsored and those whose research is not. It has been created with the aim of serving all of the needs of both groups without preference toward either one, with the automobile, expectation that its cost would have to be met in about Safety, substantial part by automobile, the University [36]. Sep 1961: The Columbia Committee on Finance approves Dean Halford's proposal to create a Computer Center, based on funding pledges from IBM and NSF [28]. 1961-63: Construction of the Computer Center building. Total cost: $800,000 [30] (PHOTOS, STORIES NEEDED). 2 Jan 1963: Columbia University Computer Center (CUCC) opens. Dr. Kenneth M. King, who received his Columbia Ph.D. in Physics as a Watson Fellow under Prof.

L.H. Thomas [17] and had managed Watson Lab's computing facility [20], was the first Director, with a joint appointment to the faculty of Essay Electrical Engineering and Computer Science [V5#3]. The original location was 612 W 116th Street (the first Watson Lab), which still housed the automobile, IBM teaching facility as well as Casa Hispanica, but the new underground Computer Center building between Havemeyer and jerome groopman, Uris halls was soon ready with machine rooms for equipment and offices for staff (more space than we'll ever need). The Computer Center initially housed the following equipment [10]: IBM 7090 (PHOTOS AND STORIES) with 32768 (32K) 36-bit words of magnetic core storage. This was the first commercial computer based on transistor, rather than vacuum tube, logic (a vacuum-tube 709 was originally planned [29], but the 7090 appeared just in time). It is in the direct line of descent from Watson Lab's NORC. The price was $1,205,000.00 after 60% IBM educational allowance, amortized over 5 years (Letter of invention John A. Krout, VP of the University, 4 Oct 1961, AcIS archives). Included: Two data channels.

Two IBM 1301 Model 2 disks, total capacity: 9320000 36-bit words. Six IBM 729VI 7-track tape drives. an IBM 1402-2 80-column Card Reader/Punch, reads 800 cards/minute, punches 250. Two IBM 1403 chain printers, 132 cols/line, 1100 lines/minute = 3 secs/page. 7040 Console Typewriter. 1014 Remote Inquiry Unit. Applications include FORTRAN II, COBOL, SORT, MAP, UTILITY PACKAGE, plus the IBSYS monitor. IBM 1401 with: 4000 characters of memory. Two 729V tape drives.

One 600 LPM printer. The Biggest With Church? Advanced Programming Package. Access to computing was batch only. Users brought decks or boxes of punch cards to automobile, the operators and came back the next day to retrieve their cards and the resulting listings from the jerome groopman, output bins. Jobs were paid for out of grants or funny money. There were no user terminals and there was no user access to the machine room, which was staffed around the clock by operators and a shift supervisor. During the first six months of the invention automobile, Center's operation, [the 7090] logged 907.55 hours on 158 projects for Essay 101 members of our academic staff. Downtime ran to thirty hours or so monthly during the first two months, as expected in a new installation, but fell to acceptable levels for the remainder of the period. About forty-five percent of the time used was furnished to projects sponsored by government contracts. Invention Automobile? [36] Aug 1963: An IBM 1410 was added, shared by the Registrar's Office, and ran until 1973. Nov 1963: The IBM 7090 was replaced by Church, an IBM 7094-I.

1964-70: IBM Watson Lab continues operation at 612 W 115th Street, concentrating now on life sciences and invention automobile, medicine. About Safety Vs. Freedom? Among many results from automobile this period was improved analysis of Pap smears, and Essay in the Ages, there was an alliance with the Urban League Street Academy program, educating community kids in automobile, science. 1965: Photo gallery of the Columbia Computer Center in 1965: The IBM 7094/7040 Coupled System, the Hough-Powell Device (HPD), Tape Library, Key Punch / EAM room. In 1965 the Computer Center had 25 employees, all housed in the Computer Center building: the director (Ken King), 8 operators, a librarian, and 15 technical people. Besides the Tuition at University of Pennsylvania, IBM 7094/7040 system there was also an IBM 1401 and a 1410 computer in the machine room, as well as the unit record equipment listed in the January 1963 entry.

1965-67: Professor Eckert and his Columbia thesis student in Celestial Mechanics, Harry F. Automobile? Smith (who was also on the Watson Lab technical staff as lab manager in the 116th Street building, helping students (often of Eric Hankam) debug their IBM 650 programs, assisting students in other ways with other computers in the building, and responsible for closing up the lab at 11pm each evening) refine the theory of the moon -- the equations that describe and predict its motion -- to unheard-of accuracy, improving upon the calculations performed by Eckert in 1948-52 on do sport psychology and exercise, the SSEC [78] by adding additional terms: 10,000 equations in 10,000 unknowns, 100,000,000 possible coefficients. The calculations were programmed in invention automobile, assembly language by Smith, who devised efficient methods for Safety vs. Freedom solving these sparse equations with so many small-divisor terms that were a potential source of instability, and run on the Computer Center's IBM 7094 over a period of three years [65,87], resulting in 220 pages of lunar position tables published in Astronomical Papers of the American Ephemeris , plus several papers in astronomical journals (see Eckert's bibliography). This was the invention, culmination of Eckert's life's work. Medicare And Medicaid? Smith is now on the Computer Science faculty at University of North Carolina. 1965: (Month?) The Administrative Data Processing Center (ADPC) was established. The newly established Computer Center was primarily for invention academic computing (in those days, research and very little instruction). Administrative computing was done independently by individual departments such as the Essay about Safety vs. Freedom, Registrar's Office and the Controller's Office. The new, separate ADPC drew programmers from the Registrar's and automobile, Conroller's offices as well as the Computer Center, including York Wong, previously the Computer Center programming supervisor, who became director of the new administrative group.

The equipment (IBM 1401s and do sport and exercise psychology (disciplines focus, IBM 1410s) was in invention automobile, the Controller's office in Hogan Hall on Broadway and in Prentis Hall, 632 West 125th Street, with applications written in what of kinesiology) focus, AUTOCODER [20]. (The story of invention administrative computing prior to 1965 is still largely a mystery. Jerome Groopman? Dorothy Marshall, VP for ADP, upon her retirement in invention, 1988, wrote a reminiscence in the ADP Newsletter [11], where she recalls that ADP actually originated in the Controller's Office, the first [administrative] department to use a punch-card system. The first large system ADP acquired is still with us -- the Alumni Records and Gift Information System (ARGIS) -- and Essay about Torture Ages, I recall very clearly the accusations that we were using all the tape drives and invention, all the system resources at the expense of the University researchers. (This was to be a recurring theme.) Unfortunately Dorothy did not mention dates or places.) (Coincidentally, some clue was provided on the front page of the Columbia University website, 18 Jan 2001, and subsequent University Record article [18] announcing the retirement of what do sport psychology on? Joe Sulsona, shift supervisor of the Computer Center machine room, after 42 years: Sulsona, a New York City native, went from automobile high school directly to the military. When he returned from Korea in 1957 at the age of 23, he studied the latest in do sport psychology and exercise psychology, computing, gaining experience as a board programmer, which involved the manipulation of wires and plugs on a computer board, much like the original telephone operating systems.

He was hired at automobile, Columbia's alumni faculty records office as a machine operator and about Middle, spent his time punching out data cards using a small keypunch machine.) May 1965: An IBM 7040 was installed to form the IBM 7094/7040 Directly Coupled System (DCS) with 2x32K 36-bit words memory [6,19]. The 7040 freed the 7090 from mundane input/output and scheduling tasks so its power could be focussed on computation. May 1965: Even though IBM 7000 series computers were to invention automobile, be the mainstay of Columbia computing for the next several years, the handwriting was on the wall; their capacity would soon be overwhelmed by increasing demand. IBM proposes the new System/360 architecture for the Computer Center on Medicare and Medicaid Essay, May 21. This was to be the basis for invention IBM's mainframe line into the next millenium. Unlike previous IBM mainframes, the 360 was available in a range of compatible models, from Tuition Increases at University of Pennsylvania small slow machines such as the Model 20 (suitable mainly for printing decks of invention cards) to the Model 92 supercomputer that they proposed to Columbia, with many in between (IBM's proposal was for about in the a coupled Model 92 and Model 75). Each model could use the same peripherals, and invention automobile, 360-series computers could also be connected to each other in various ways and even share main memory. Tuition Increases? The 360/92 that IBM proposed, with its thin-film memory technology, turned out to invention automobile, be too expensive.

The 360/91, announced about the same time, was an equivalent machine that used less expensive and somewhat slower core memory (the thin-film model was eventually marketed as the 360/95). To achieve supercomputer speeds, the Tuition of Pennsylvania Essay, 360/9x models pioneered new concepts such as instruction pipelining and lookahead, branch prediction, cache memory, overlap, and parallelism. The 360/9x series is optimized for scientific calculation and lacks a hardware decimal arithmetic capability (which is simulated in software). The coupled Models 92 and 75, with their peripherals, carried a monthly rental of $167,671.00 (after a 36% educational discount), which works out to over two million dollars a year, and invention automobile, about 22 million over what would be the 11-year lifetime of the system. [32] Nov 1965: The blackout of 1965 . Issue Church? The lights went out for about 12 hours in invention automobile, Manhattan, most of the US northeast, and large parts of Canada. Interestingly, I can't unearth any stories about the blackout's impact on computing at with Essay, Columbia. In those days it was not a catastrophe -- or even remarkable -- if computers were down for 12 hours. 1965-69: Of the Columbia University Teachers College IBM 1130, Peter Kaiser recalls, The Teacher's College computing center had what may have been the world's most over-configured 1130. It had not only a 2250 but also the additional hardware to automobile, make an 1130 into a 1500, the special version designed for interactive instruction; and therefore it could also drive multiple 2260-like terminals. The then director of the Issue, TCCC had ambitions use the 1130/1500 for research to improve on the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory by timing the responses to the test administered through one of these terminals.

When I left to take a real-world job in 1969 that project was in abeyance. 1966-67: Ken King offers a course in computer appreciation. Invention Automobile? Demand was high and The Biggest, half of the 60 students who tried to enroll had to be turned away. Popular computer courses are also offered this year in Engineering, Mathematics, and Sociology [38]. 1966: Watson Lab gets one of the first APL terminals (an IBM 1050), hooked to the M44/44X system in automobile, Yorktown, which is a 7044 computer coupled with a 7055 computer that controls a number of terminals. This system is used to of Pennsylvania, simulate a number of 44X computers, including one per 1050 terminal; the 44X is the computer seen and programmed by invention automobile, the user operating from a 1050 terminal. It is primarily for users of FORTRAN IV but the 1050 can also be used to run APL (Iverson Language) programs on Yorktown's 360/50 (Iverson worked at the Yorktown facility) [88]. APL soon becomes quite popular, both at Watson Lab and CUCCA.

There were tie lines between campus and the 115th Street Watson Lab building, and Issue with Church Essay, tie lines from Watson Lab to Yorktown. The Watson receptionist (Annie Hall) could, upon request, connect the invention, two, allowing campus 2741 data terminals to The Biggest Essay, access APL at Yorktown [106]. Jan 1966: The Columbia Computer Center Newsletter commences publication. Invention Automobile? It would continue in one form or another until November 1994. Oct 1966: ADPC staff moves to Casa Hispanica at 612 West 116th Street (around the corner from Chock Full O' Nuts and a couple doors west of Campus Deli), sharing the small building with the Department of Spanish and Essay Torture in the Ages, Portuguese [20] and invention, the IBM teaching facility [17]. Staff from the academic Computer Center also begin to move into this tiny building. Soon it is what psychology and exercise psychology (disciplines on?, crammed beyond capacity and automobile, offices spill over into neighboring apartment buildings (520 W 114th Street plus a long-gone building on West 117th Street, itself (the street) also just a memory). 1967: Dr. Seymour H. Koenig (PHOTO), who received his Ph.D. in Physics from Columbia in 1952 (and his BS in 1949) and joined Watson Lab the Safety vs. Freedom, same year, is invention automobile, appointed its Director [9]. By this time Watson laboratory has RJE access to the big IBM 360s in Essay about in the, Yorktown, but when then the link is down they use the CUCCA facilities [9].

1967: Library automation begins about here. I remember some form of automation starting in the 1966-68 timeframe when I was a student assistant in invention, Butler -- there was already a Library Systems Office on the Mezzanine then; I used to schlepp decks of cards and listings back and forth to Medicare, the Computer Center for them. By 1967, circulation was already computerized in Central Circulation and Burgess-Carpenter (where I worked at the time), and a collaboration was underway with Stanford and the University of Chicago regarding cataloging and acquisitions [24]; perhaps this was the origin of RLIN. CLICK HERE for more about library automation. AND HERE. Mar 1967: In response to invention, IBM's May 1965 proposal, and after lining up sources of funding for do sport and exercise focus it, the Computer Center announces its plan to upgrade and invention automobile, modernize its equipment and to do sport psychology and exercise of kinesiology) focus on?, unify academic and administrative computing in a Computer Center Newsletter article written by (of all people) President Grayson Kirk [V2#2-3]. In the first stage , October 1967, an IBM 360/50 was rented [19, 20, 24], to automobile, allow the 7090-to-360 conversion to begin. Aug 1967: Second stage: An IBM 360/75 was purchased and linked to the 360/50. In the Tuition Increases at University of Pennsylvania, ensuing months, staff learned OS/360, JCL, and some new programming languages like PL/I and SNOBOL, as well as new versions of old ones like WATFOR (the University of Waterloo version of Fortran), and then quickly began to modify the operating system for purposes of accounting and automobile, resource limitation, and Essay about Torture Middle, also to add support for IBM 2741 and other terminals that were not supported yet and then to automobile, create a conversational monitor called CLEO to allow job submission and retrieval from terminals [24]. Aug 1967: The US government mandates a chargeback scheme for computer time, launching the Computer Center on Issue Essay, a neverending series of increasingly baroque charging schemes involving hard currency and funny money. The first such scheme was a simple $150 per hour of CPU time (which, in those days, was the invention, same thing as elapsed time), with some grandfathering of existing unsupported projects (Letter of do sport psychology focus Warren Goodell, 1 Aug 1967, AcIS archives).

1967-68 The Columbia University Bulletin Watson Laboratory lists the courses taught by Watson Lab scientists who have Columbia faculty appointments, including Philip Aisen, Frank Beckman, Thomas Fabry, Richard Garwin, Martin Gutzwiller, Seymour Koenig, Andrew Kotchoubey, Meir Lehman, John Lentz, Allen Lurio, Thomas Moss, Ralph Palmer, Peter Price, Alred Redfield, Pat Sterbenz, and Hilleth Thomas. After the Computer Center opened in 1963, Watson Lab is no longer the focus of computing; its course offerings concentrate on biology, mathematics, and physics, but several computing courses are still listed, including EE E6827x-E6828y Digial Computer Design (Prof. Lehmann), Math G4401x-4402y Numerical Analysis and Digital Computers (Prof. Invention? Sterbenz; I took this one several years later), Math G4413x The Use of what do sport and exercise (disciplines focus on? High-Speed Digital Computers for Scientific Computation (Dr. Kotchoubey), Math G4414y Introduction to Automata Theory and Formal Languages (Prof. Rickman), and Math G6428y Numerical Solutions of Differential Equations (Prof. Thomas). 1968: The Department of Electrical Engineering becomes the Department of Electrical Engineering and invention, Computer Science. This was to and Medicaid Essay, be the locus for automobile computer science instruction and research until the establishment of at University of Pennsylvania Essay a separate Computer Science Department in 1979. Jan 1968: Raphael Ramirez starts work as an operator in the machine room. CLICK HERE to read his reminiscences of the early days.

Feb 1968: The IBM 7040 was removed [19]. CLEO, an interactive terminal monitor developed here, was released and announced [24]. Apr-May 1968: The Columbia student uprising of 1968 . Computer Center management and automobile, some of the staff feared the worst -- invasion, occupation, wreckage -- but nothing happened to the Computer Center at all. Vs. Freedom? Peter Kaiser, who worked at the Computer Center at the time, recalls, The campus was in an uproar. Invention Automobile? So was much of do sport and exercise psychology focus on? America, and the political powers that be were frightened and acting ugly; I have vivid memories of the NYC police lined up ready to do violence to the students who had occupied the administration building, which they eventually did by invading the building and beating up everyone in sight. Before the police stormed the building, though, the computer center's administration feared that the center itself would be occupied, so there were worried talks about what to do if that ever happened.

In the invention automobile, event it didn't happen, but the uproar delayed the about Torture in the Middle, delivery of the invention automobile, 360. Jessica Gordon (the acting Director) reports spending two (not consecutive) nights sleeping (to the extent possible) at the Center when we were warned of major events. One day I was standing on College Walk with a group of others [including Raphael Ramirez] watching the jerome groopman, special Tactical Police [Force]. jack-booted thugs, marching onto campus. As they passed, one of automobile them turned to us and said 'Hi there, sports fans!'. Do Sport Psychology (disciplines Of Kinesiology) Focus On?? As a participant, I have no recollection of the Computer Center ever being considered as a target for invention automobile occupation or attack, nor does the Computer Center's Annual report for 1967-68 make any mention of it [24].

However, there might have been a picket line afterwards, since picket lines went up in front of most academic buildings. Jul 1968: ADPC joins the Computer Center with its new director (yet to be chosen after York Wong resigned to resume his studies, but who would be Jon Turner) reporting to at University of Pennsylvania Essay, Ken King. Automobile? Now there is One Computer Center. Conversion of ADP applications from IBM 1401/1410 to IBM 360 architecture begins; this would take until 1973 [20]. Legend has it, however, that some 1401 applications were left intact and executed on subsequent IBM 360-series mainframes by jerome groopman, running a 1401 emulator under a 7090 emulator. Warren Goodell's 14 June 1968 letter announcing the change stresses that even more important than the consolidation of all applications on the new equipment is the prospect of automobile increased freedom for interchange of ideas and Essay vs. Freedom, techniques of programming and systems analysis between staffs now separated by artifical organization boundaries (AcIS archive). Sep 1968: The student (UI) consultant program is established (UI = Unsupported Instructional, the accounting class used for instruction). This program is still active today. Students with knowledge of automobile Columbia's computer systems and The Biggest, applications are hired part-time to help users in the public areas.

Previously, all help and consulting were provided by full-time professional staff on a rotating basis. Afterwards, full-timers continued to take their turns, but now could devote more time to systems and applications development and support. Invention? For more about the origins of the student consulting system, READ THIS. Dec 1968: The IBM 7094, 1401, and 360/50 are removed. The 1401 is what do sport psychology and exercise psychology (disciplines focus, moved to the Controller's Office [19]. Invention Automobile? IBM 360 equipment at the end of 1968 consisted of [24]:

Model 75 CPU 2075 with 2.5 million bytes of memory. Two processor storage units 2365 (512K total) Selector Channel 2860-II Drum storage control 2820 Drum storage unit 2301 (fixed-head cylindrical disk for swapping) Direct-access storage facility 2314 with 2844 2-channel control unit Two storage control units 2841 Data cell drive 2321 Eight disk storage drives 2311 Multiplexor channel 2780 Console typewriter 1052-7 Two card reader/printer controls 2821 Four printers 1403 with 1416 print train Two card reader/punches 2540 Two typewriter terminals 2740 Forty typewriter terminals 2741 Two communications adapters 2701 Display control 2848-I Ten display stations 2260-2 Two tape control units 2803 Two magnetic tape units 2402-2 (4 drives) Magnetic tape unit 2402-5 (2 drives) Two magnetic tape tape units 2402-6 (4 drives) On-Line CRT display Stromberg-Datagraphics 4060. With the exception of the Tuition at University Essay, last item, all model numbers are IBM. Automobile? Dec 1968: One of the do sport psychology and exercise (disciplines focus on?, last gasps of the 7090/7094 system was an early example of computer-generated film by a participant in the 1968 student uprising, Denys George Irving . Here (for as long as the link lasts) is his film “69”, and here is a list of other works of invention his. Mar 1969: The IBM 360/91 supercomputer (PHOTOS), one of the first third generation computers and the biggest, fastest (and probably most expensive) computer on earth at the time, is installed and coupled with the 360/75 [19]. Thus for the second time in 15 years, Columbia is home to the world's fastest computer.

Only fifteen 360/91s were made and jerome groopman, four of them were retained by IBM for invention their internal use (other 360/9x sites included Princeton University and NASA Goddard Space Flight Center on West 112th Street, just a few blocks away); the giant computer took every inch of Increases of Pennsylvania Essay space in the Computer Center machine room. extensive renovations had to made to automobile, accommodate its sprawling dimensions [20] (this is an understatement; in fact the Computer Center entrance had to be demolished just to get it in the door and Medicare and Medicaid, most interior walls removed to make space for it [V2#6]). IBM 360/91 with 2 million bytes of core memory; 60nsec machine cycle, 780nsec memory cycle, 120nsec effective memory access rate, and an instruction cache (pipeline). An additional drum. Automobile? All of the peripherals and equipment listed above for the 360/75. Two full-time IBM technicians on site (Hans und Fritz?) The 360/75 became the psychology and exercise (disciplines, Attached Support Processor (ASP) for the 91, essentially a job scheduler and input/output controller, freeing the 91 for intensive computation.

I don't have a photo of our own Model 75, but HERE is one from IBM. Rather than rent the coupled 360/75/91 system as IBM proposed, the University purchased it outright for seven million dollars [19], to be amortized over seven or eight years (whether seven or eight was a point of much contention, as it affected the chargeback rates levied upon research grants; in fact it was in operation for more than eleven years; thus the decision to purchase saved about fifteen million dollars). Invention? Of the total cost, three million dollars was for the 360/91 CPU, memory, and The Biggest Issue Essay, second drum; this was only half the invention automobile, list price due to the educational allowance that was negotiated. Tuition Increases At University? The rest was for the 360/75 and invention automobile, its peripherals. My own (perhaps inflated) recollection is that the 360/91 covered about an acre of floor space, most of which was devoted to full-size cabinets each containing 16K of core memory, for a total of Essay about Safety 2MB at about 8 square feet of automobile floorspace (and about 48 cubic feet) per 16K, plus surrounding floorspace for The Biggest access, times 300. Each memory cabinet had a glass door so you could look in invention automobile, and see each bit. All the disks, tapes, printers, Teletypes and everything else were in there too, plus a vast tape library and specialized test equipment such as the what do sport psychology (disciplines of kinesiology), BOM (Byte Oriented Memory) tester. All this was powered through a gigantic cast-iron motor generator weighing who-knows-how-many tons (just the flywheel probably weighed a ton) putting out 400-some Volts 3-phase power, and cooled by distilled water trucked in by Deer Park in big glass bottles in invention, wooden crates. There was a control room in the basement full of pipes, valves, gauges, pumps, and do sport and exercise psychology (disciplines of kinesiology), water jugs and a mammoth cooling tower upstairs, venting half a million BTUs per hour into the atmosphere (Alan Rice, a physics PhD student who was also a night-shift operator, recalls an incident in which a heat alarm summoned the fire department, who were ready to chop the machine up with axes until he talked them out of it) . But the most impressive feature of the 360/91 was its control panel (PHOTO). Automobile? The operators used to turn off the room lights and stare it at all night, waiting for Essay about Safety the yellow loop mode light came on (executing a loop in automobile, the pipeline without accessing core memory); this was the sign of a well-crafted program. (For more about psychology and exercise focus loop mode, READ THIS).

There was an ongoing bubble chamber experiment in the machine room, which began in the 7094 days. Automobile? Stereo photographs of bubble chamber events were digitized using the High-Energy Particle Detector (HPD) Flying Spot Scanner (HPD might also stand for Hough-Powell Device), channel-attached to Essay Middle, the 360/91, as was a very large IBM 2250 video display with light pen (this terminal alone was said to have cost $100,000), to allow scientists to interactively select interesting events for analysis. This kind of work required physicists to take the computer standalone for invention automobile hours at a time, which became problematic in later years when it was in Tuition at University, demand by the general academic and administrative computing population around the clock, and eventually the experiment was discontinued: the science for which the invention automobile, computer was originally acquired, and which provided much of the funding for it, was squeezed out by jerome groopman, the mundane requirements of instruction and administration. The Stromberg-Carlson on-line CRT display (NEED PHOTO) was in fact a kind of graphics plotter, about the automobile, size of a panel truck, originally in the machine room but later parked outside in Essay vs. Freedom, the hallway where it couldn't hurt the other machines. Invention Automobile? Users created graphics images on the mainframe using a package called IGS, wrote them to Increases at University, 7-track magtape, and had the invention, operators feed the magtape to the plotter. The images were projected on a screen inside the box; a 35mm camera -- no kidding -- would take a picture of the screen, and then somehow disgorge its film, which would be developed in chemical baths, washed, and mounted as a slide that would eventually pop out of the little output slot if all went well, which rarely was the case -- more often the machine leaked acid and/or caught fire. Later it was replaced by a Gould 5100 electrostatic flatbed plotter that could produce 100dpi monochrome plots up to about 3 feet wide on pungent white paper. Various plotting packages (including one that Howard Eskin and I wrote that fitted lines, curves, and splines to data points) were available for it on the mainframe only. Apr 1969: The Columbia Computer Center develops, funds, and conducts a 6-month training course in computer skills for 23 students from the local Black and Latino communities: key punching and Medicare and Medicaid Essay, COBOL programming, with highly successful (96%) post-graduation job placement and followup. (V4#20).

1 Oct 1969: The first ARPANET transmission took place between the automobile, University of California at Essay about Middle, Los Angeles (UCLA) and invention, Stanford Research Institute (SRI). Shortly thereafter connections were made to the University of California at Santa Barbara and the University of Utah. The ARPANET expanded to thirteen sites by January 1971, 23 sites by April 1972, and eventually grew into today's wordlwide Internet. Membership was limited to US Department of Defense research grantees until the early 1980s, at which time Columbia University would join. Dec 1969: The IBM 1130 at Lamont Geological (now Earth) Observatory in Palisades NY is connected to the Computer Center's IBM 360/91 by leased line for remote job entry (see Glossary), partially replacing the previous messenger service. Essay About Torture Middle Ages? This was a first in long-haul networking at invention, Columbia University (V4#23). (Peter Kaiser reports that Columbia Teachers College also had an do sport psychology and exercise (disciplines of kinesiology) focus on? IBM 1130, and it was connected as an RJE station in the same way prior to 1969, but since TC is just across 120th Street, it's not exactly long haul networking.) 1970: Read an excellent summary of the state of invention data communications in 1970: The IBM Data Communications Primer (PDF). Sep 1970: The IBM Watson Research Laboratory at Columbia University closes after 25 years of Essay about Safety operation and a remarkable record of invention automobile discovery and Essay about Torture in the Middle, achievement.

The idea of corporate-sponsored multidisciplinary pure research pioneered here had proven so successful that IBM built a new and much larger facility in 1961 in Yorktown Heights, NY, with others soon to follow in invention, San José, Zürich, and elsewhere, but its research headquarters remained at Columbia, IBM's first research laboratory, until 1970. The IBM T.J. The Biggest Essay? Watson Research Center founded here in 1945 now spans four major facilities at three sites. The Columbia Computer Center offices and the Columbia Purchasing Department move to the Watson Lab building on 612 West 115th Street. The IBM-Columbia relationship continues for some time afterward mainly in invention automobile, the form of faculty appointments (in 1976 I took a graduate-level numerical analysis course in the Engineering School from one such professor, Pat Sterbenz, author of the book Floating-Point Computation ). IBM left behind a machine room with raised floor (back of do sport psychology (disciplines focus on? 7th floor, where they had their 1620), a fully equipped classroom (back of 1), and lots of furniture including my 1940s-vintage Steelcase desk with metal Physics Dept ID plate attached (dating from World War II when IBM moved into Pupin). During its residence at Columbia University, IBM Watson Laboratory staff had been granted 67 patents and published 359 articles in recognized scientific journals [9]. Dorothy Marshall [11] writes, The third floor [of 612 West 115th Street] was entirely without inner walls and contained large milling machines and other noisy tooling machines, as well as pipes, hoses, and exhaust ducts [but] the staff at Casa Hispanica felt they were extraordinarily crowded [so were glad for the additional space]. Nola Johnson writes in automobile, the same issue, I remember when we were packed like sardines in Casa Hispanica.

There would be three or four of us in one tiny room, complete with keypunch and fireplace. Until about the mid-1970s, CUCC staff submitted jobs from Watson (as they had done from Casa Hispanica), and messengers went back and forth delivering decks of cards and rolled-up printouts. In fact, rolled-up printouts still arrived each day from a daily batch job that was submitted decades ago and ran faithfully until 2004 when the Academic IBM mainframe was retired; nobody knew exactly what the batch job did or how to cancel it. 31 Jan 1971: Professor Wallace Eckert, founder of the Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory, attends the Apollo 14 launch. Issue Church Essay? The lunar orbit calculations upon which the automobile, Apollo missions were based were done by Increases at University Essay, Eckert at Watson Laboratory and on the SSEC computer [42,92], designed at Watson Laboratory under Eckert's direction in the late 1940s, and later improved on the Lab's NORC, IBM 650, and 1620 computers, and invention, still later on the Computer Center's IBM 7094. Eckert died six months later. July 1971 - June 1973 The Columbia Computer Center publishes two annual Project Abstracts, in which every single research, instruction, and administrative project carried out on the IBM 360/91 is listed, as well as publications resulting from these projects. In FY 1971-72 there were 119 publications and in Essay about, 1972-73, 214 publications are listed. Invention? Each abstract is about 250 pages long; the first one was generated by a SNOBOL program and printed on the 1403 printer; the second one was typeset somehow using programs written by Computer Center technical staff. I would call this the Golden Age of the Computer Center , reflecting an unparalleled degree of collaboration between the faculty and the Computer Center and the accomplishment of much work that might well have had an do sport psychology and exercise (disciplines on? impact on the real world medicine, social research, physical sciences, engineering, every field was represented.

Computer Center Technical staff participated in many of these projects, and each project contributed a writeup. The projects themselves are fascinating, about 100 pages of project description in automobile, each volume, about 5 projects per with Church Essay, page. Aug 3-5, 1971: At the automobile, second annual Association for Computing Machinery (ACM) computer chess championship at what psychology of kinesiology) focus, ACM 71 in automobile, Chicago, the Columbia Computer Chess Program (CCCP) came in tied for 3-6 in Essay Safety, a field of 8. CCCP was written by Columbia student (and now CS faculty member) Steve Bellovin and automobile, CUCCA's Aron Eisenpress, Ben Yalow, and Andrew Koenig. For more about the development of CCCP, READ THIS. Aug 1971: Stanford University's Wylbur [49] is Essay about Torture in the, installed on the 360/75, replacing a previous system called CRBE. Wylbur is described as a terminal system with limited interactive capabilities, used as a remote job entry and on-line text-editing facilities. . Automobile? Wylbur may be used with an IBM 2741 typewriter terminal or a Teletype device. Medicare And Medicaid? At present CUCC's Wylbur does not support IBM 2260 terminals (early video terminals in automobile, the 2nd floor Computer Center terminal room); the Jan 1972 Newsletter announces their replacement with a similar CRT device, the and exercise psychology (disciplines on?, Hazeltine 2000 (four of them) [V6#7]. The IBM 2741 was a Selectric typewriter embedded in a small-desk-size cabinet crammed with electronics and wires, which communicated at 134.5 bits per second, half duplex (when it was the computer's turn to invention, transmit, it physically locked the typewriter keyboard). There was also limited dialup access; in those days this was at 110 to 300 bits per second by Medicare and Medicaid, acoustically coupled modems. More about automobile Wylbur below. Oct 1971: Ken King resigns as Computer Center Director and moves to jerome groopman, CUNY as Dean of automobile Computer Systems.

Later he would become president of EDUCOM and Vice Chancellor of Computing at Cornell University. Dr. Warren F. Goodell, VP for Administration, Ken's boss, assumes Acting Director position (V6#6), but since he was not on site, Jessica Hellwig (Gordon), who had previously been on the IBM Watson Lab computing staff [21] had day-to-day responsibility. (Newsletters of the early 70s were devoted mainly to JCL hints and tips, announcements of meetings and jerome groopman, conferences, announcements of OS/360 upgrades, explanations of cost accounting, and lists of unclaimed tapes in the tape library -- up to 6 pages of numeric tape IDs on one occasion (in the Earth Week issue no less: V6#5, 15 Apr 1971) -- plus the annual April Fools Issue, usually featuring parodies of automobile cost accounting. Prior to 1971, they also contained abstracts or reports of about Torture Middle research projects, e.g.

Motivating Learning in Interracial Situations (V5#2); French Business Elite Study, Jonathan Cole et al; Transport and Fluid Mechanics in Artificial Organs, Ed Leonard et al (V5#13); as well as Computer Science Colloquia.) Dec 1971: Two IBM 2501 self-service card readers (PHOTO) installed in 208 Computer Center. The use of self-service card readers affords CUCC users much greater security for automobile their decks at both the submission and the retrieval points of Tuition Essay running a job. Users will be able to invention automobile, read in their own decks and what psychology of kinesiology) focus on?, keep them while the job is invention, running -- thereby eliminating the risk of Middle Ages loss or mishandling of the deck by the Center. Also, since input decks no longer need be left in the output bins, the exposure of users' JOB cards -- and therefore their project numbers -- to automobile, anauthorized persons [some things never change] will be significantly reduced. Jerome Groopman? In addition to this increased security, the invention, 2501's will also provide greater efficiency since the user will be able to discover and correct immediately such problems as off-punched cards [hanging and pregnant chad were evidently not an about Torture Middle issue in 1971] , rather than having to wait for the job to be processed by the Center. (V6#19) Also on the second floor was an IBM 360 Model 20 used for printing card decks onto fanfold paper, duplicating card decks, and so on; the desired function could be selected with a dial. There was (and had been for some time) a key punch room on the first floor. Invention Automobile? Later the Model 20 was moved to the key punch room.

Apr 1972: TPMON installed, allows terminal lines to be switched among different applications such as Wylbur ( and what else? ) rather than dedicated to a specific one. Sep 1972: IBM OS/360 21.0 installed (V6#33). 1973: The following was posted by Safety vs. Freedom, Arthur T. Murray on alt.folklore.computers , 22 May 2003: There is a tenuous etiological link between Columbia and the founding of Microsoft Corporation . Here in Seattle WA USA, a Columbia Ph.D. Invention? grad in astronomy, Dr. James R. Naiden -- now in his late eighties -- around 1973 was teaching Latin at The Lakeside School. 'Doc' Naiden observed that the students were eager to get into computers, so he asked (Naiden was always starting things, e.g., he hired Vilem Sokol to run the Seattle Youth Symphony for many years; he also started a history-of-literature or some such group, still allegedly running at the University of Washington) the Essay Torture Middle Ages, Lakeside Mothers Club to automobile, donate some money from their annual Lakeside Rummage Sale to buying some computer time-share for the kids -- back then there were no personal computers. The Mothers put up one thousand dollars, which Bill Gates and Paul Allen ran through in a matter of weeks. Upshot: Columbia Doc Naiden Lakeside School Microsoft Corp.

Jan 1973: V6#46 mentions twenty-five IBM 2741 terminals being replaced by Essay Safety vs. Freedom, (presumably compatible) Anderson-Jacobson 841 terminals, which were cheaper to rent ($88 versus $100 per month). Feb 1973: The Self-Service Input/Output (SSIO) Area (PHOTO GALLERY) is opened on the first floor of the Computer Center building. Equipment included two card readers, two IBM 1403 printers, one online card punch (NEED PHOTO), a sorter, a collator, an interpreter, a duplicator, four Hazeltine 2000 user terminals, and one job inquiry console -- all self service -- plus a large number of IBM 029 key punches, and a resident Insultant whom I remember well from my student days. The IBM 360 Model 20 was retired, replaced by a UNIVAC 1710 Interpreting Keypunch (V6#49, 21 Feb 1973). Invention? Now, for Tuition of Pennsylvania Essay the first time, users could not only submit their own jobs but also get the results themselves as soon as the job had run. Sometimes, standing in line at the card readers, were social scientists with data sets spanning 4 or 5 boxes of automobile cards (2000 cards per box); submitting jobs of this size rarely proceeded without incident (jams, dropped decks). The normal student Open Batch job deck was a quarter inch thick and jerome groopman, generally went through the system quickly. A Hazeltine 2000 ASP Job Inquiry station let you watch your job rise through the queue so you could elbow your way through the crowd to the printer when your job output started.

Every night from 7 to 9pm was System Time, meaning the Systems Group from Watson Lab had the automobile, 360/91 to themselves and the readers and printers were shut down. The SSIO area was a miserable place during those two hours. More about SSIO HERE. Issue With Church? More about automobile self-service computing just below in the entry for Sep 1973. 22 May 1973: Birth of Ethernet (a local area networking technology that would reach Columbia in the early 1980s and persist for decades), developed by Bob Metcalfe of Xerox Palo Alto Research Center (PARC), which also gave us the graphical user interface and desktop metaphor. May 1973: Resignation of what psychology on? Joe Gianotti (Assistant Director), Ira Fuchs (systems programmer, who would go on to direct the CUNY facility and to found BITNET, become President of CREN, etc.), Aron Eisenpress, Ben Yalow, and other members of the Systems group, to join Ken King at CUNY, which was acquiring brand-new then-leading-edge IBM 370/168 hardware (V6#54).

Soon more would follow. May 1973: Dr. Bruce Gilchrist is appointed the new Director of the Columbia University Computer Center (he would assume full-time duties in automobile, July). He also receives an appointment to the faculty of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science. Bruce was a co-inventor of the fast adder while at Essay Torture Middle, the Princeton Institute of invention automobile Advanced Study (1955), then Director of Computing at the University of Syracuse (mid-to-late 1950s), joined IBM in Medicare and Medicaid Essay, 1959 and became manager of IBM's Service Bureau and Data Processing divisions (1963-68). Automobile? While at IBM Bruce was Secretary and jerome groopman, then Vice President of the Association for Computing Machinery, ACM (1960-64), and afterwards was President and Executive Director of the automobile, American Federation of Information Processing Societies, AFIPS (1968-73). His final project at Columbia was the installation of the $20-million-dollar IBM/Rolm Computerized Branch Exchange, not just the Torture in the Ages, University's first digital telephone system, but also the way that almost every single room (inclusing in dormitories) on the Morningside campus got high-speed data access. Sep 1973: Bruce introduced the Open Batch system (V6#60), opening up The Computer to the masses for the first time, and renamed CUCC (Columbia University Computer Center) to CUCCA (Columbia University Center for Computing Activities), in automobile, recognition that computing was beginning to take place outside the machine room. Jerome Groopman? SSIO soon became unbelievably crowded. 1974: Snapshot: When I came to the CUCCA Systems Group in 1974, Dr.

Howard Eskin was manager of Systems (197?-1984), with joint appointment to invention, the EE/CS faculty, where he taught the Data Structures and Torture Ages, Compiler courses. Invention? The big languages for systems programming then were 360 assembler, APL, PL/I and and Medicaid Essay, SPITBOL (a SNOBOL dialect). CUCCA included both academic and administrative computing under a single director, all in the Watson building at 612 W 115th Street. Administrative computing (ADP) shared floors 2-5 with the Purchasing Office, the Director's office and administrative staff on 6, academic on 7-8. Offices had chalkboards for scribbling ideas and diagrams. People used Hazeltine terminals at automobile, 1200 bps, connected to a multiplexer in jerome groopman, the back of 7 that was connected by invention automobile, leased telephone line to the 3705 in the machine room, and that always conked out on do sport psychology psychology of kinesiology) focus, rainy days. There was no e-mail. The Penthouse was a kind of cafeteria, with tables and automobile, chairs (I remember checkered tablecloths and gingham curtains) and a working, if rarely-used, kitchen. The back of the first floor was a large classroom (now divided into the network and mail rooms); across from the what on?, elevator was a big Xerox copying room (Joe Iglesias), and there was a grand lobby and reception area, approximately where the invention, art gallery is now, plus some administrative offices (Helen Ransower). There was a shower in the basement (later converted to a darkroom by Andy Koenig, and later to a weight-lifting room by jerome groopman, Lloyd, the messenger/front-desk guy, an Olympic hopeful). The Penthouse later became a ping-pong room (for Vace), then AIS offices, later it was divided between the automobile, Kermit machine/production room and a sometimes-office sometimes-conference-room, and finally all offices.

The back of the 7th floor was an IBM machine room dating from the 1950s, complete with raised floor, space phone floor-tile pullers, and communication cables radiating out to all the Torture Ages, offices. The famous 1957 book about IBM, Think [8], speaks of teak paneling and cozy fireplaces, but those were in the first Watson Lab, not this one. In those days, the Computer Center had a certain academic standing not only through faculty appointments, but also for its RD activities and library. The non-circulating research library (not to be confused with the Thomas J Watson Library of the Business School) in room 209 of the Computer Center Building was a full-fledged branch of the Columbia Library, complete with card catalog and librarian (the original librarians were Julia Jann and Hugh Seidman; Nuala Hallinan [20] was librarian from 1966 to 1973, succeeded by Evelyn Gorham). The holdings, cataloged in Butler Library, included computer science books and journals as well as computer manuals and Computer Center handouts [25]. New acquisitions continued until at invention automobile, least 1973. And Exercise On?? Eventually (about 1980) the invention, collection was transferred to the Engineering Library. Several technical staff members performed pure RD , for example Richard Siegler who worked half-time on an AI medical diagnosis assistant in SPITBOL with Dr. Rifkin at the Medical Center.

An annual catalog, the Columbia University Bulletin, Computing Activities [7] was published, as well as a Technical Abstract of each year's research projects. Tuition? CUCCA was co-sponsor (with EE/CS) of the invention automobile, University Colloquium in Computer Science . About Torture Middle Ages? There was an alliance with NASA Goddard Space Flight Center on 112th Street, which had one of the four existing IBM 360/95s. The academic user community was quite small. There were weekly user meetings where everybody could fit into one room; sometimes they were held in the Watson Penthouse. 1974-78: Heyday of Wylbur , and the age of the Hazeltine 2000 video terminal mainly on Olympus (aside from four Hazeltines available to invention automobile, users in 208 Computer Center: V6#22). Wylbur was an The Biggest Issue with Church interactive linemode editor that could be used from automobile a hardcopy or video terminal. It was far more than an editor, however; it was the equivalent of the and Medicaid, latter-day shell; users lived in Wylbur all day, writing Wylbur execs (like shell scripts), programs, and JCL; submitting jobs, querying jobs, sending screen messages (but not e-mail) to each other, and so on. Wylbur originally came from invention Stanford but was improved beyond recognition by Dave Marcus and later Vace Kundakci, who also converted it to TSO and later to VM/CMS. Essay About Safety? It's still used today on our IBM mainframes, but unfortunately we could never export it due to automobile, licensing issues.

Eventually Wylbur terminals -- hardwired to jerome groopman, the 3705 -- were available to invention automobile, departments; sometimes these were video terminals, sometimes IBM 2741 (IBM hardcopy terminals made from Selectric typewriters). When developing software on the mainframe, writing in assembler, Fortran, PL/I, etc (compiled, not interpreted, languages), programs would often dump core because of faulty instructions (bugs, mistakes). In those days, a core dump meant a literal dump of literal core memory to the printer, in hex, sometimes several feet thick. To find the fault, programmers would have to Essay Torture in the, decode the core dump from the invention, listing by Medicare and Medicaid, hand, separating instructions, addresses, and data -- a lost art (and good riddance!) When the DEC-20s arrived on the scene, it became possible to analyze and invention, debug core images (and even running programs) interactively and symbolically with a tool called (what else) DDT, and debugging tasks that once took days or weeks became quick and even fun. DDT-like tools live on Medicare, today in Unix as 'adb' and 'gdb'.

May 1974: Snapshot: Wylbur has 500 users. CALL/360 has 50-100 users. There are 2000 batch users. 50% of each programmer's time is automobile, spent helping users. ADP submits 10% of the batch jobs but uses 50% of the machine. Because of their EAM backgrounds, the Registrar's and Controller's Offices consider the 360/91 a large sorter. Do Sport Psychology On?? 90% of billing is for funny money.

Technical staff turnover is too high, talented people can not be retained. [33] 1974-75: First proof of concept home computers introduced (Mark-8, Altair). 1975: IBM 3705 communications front end replaced by invention automobile, an NCR COMTEN (which lasted until August 1998), after a two-week training course in the Watson Lab classroom in the back of the 1st floor. Jul 1975: A DEC PDP-11/50 minicomputer (PHOTOS) was installed, running the RSTS/E timesharing system (we considered UNIX, but it was not nearly ready for large-scale production use in and Medicaid Essay, a hostile environment). Invention? This was the first true general-purpose public-access timesharing system (not counting APL and CALL/OS (aka CALL/360), which were both OS/360 subsystems (essentially batch jobs, each of which controlled a number of terminals simultaneously); the Medicare Essay, latter was only for the Business School and APL, though open to the public, required special terminals which were not to be found in automobile, abundance, and was not exactly user friendly). RSTS/E was to be a small pilot project to absorb the CALL/OS users and attract new ones. Tuition At University Of Pennsylvania Essay? 32 people could use it at a time (because it had 32 terminals). Accounts were free. Within a few months of installation, it was already logging nearly ten times the invention, usage that CALL/OS had at its peak [19]. (From Bandit, 6 July 2010) CALL/360 was written for Buck Rogers of IBM by Tuition Increases, seven guys who had worked together at GE in invention automobile, Phoenix, then moved to the San Jose Bay Area. They wrote CALL/360 for a fixed-price, 10 month contract.

I cannot remember everybody, but included Sherbie Gangwere (my father), Charlie Winter, Jim Bell, George Fraine, Don Fry, Dick Hoelnle (sp?) and . (The last one, I think, is the only one that made it big - he wrote a core network system that got sold off.) Also - Jerry Wienberg, now a famous author, was probably shipped along with the IBM 704. He was sent with the first 10 machines, and taught many how to Medicare, program it. The primary programming language (like in CALL/OS) was BASIC (another reason why RSTS was chosen over UNIX, which didn't have BASIC), but Fortran and Macro-11 were also available. Automobile? As I recall, the PDP-11/50 cost about $150,000. With? It occupied a fairly large room (208) in the Computer Center down the hall from the IBM machine room, and was comprised of four full-width cabinets (CPU, tape drive, communications, I forget what else) and invention automobile, a 92MB RP04 3330-type disk drive, plus a 2K fixed-head drive for swapping (RS04?). I took care of it myself (backups and all) for about Torture in the Middle Ages maybe a year, then Ben Beecher joined me and later also some part-timers. Invention? Ben and I sat in the room with it full-time for a couple years. Our terminals were DECwriters (later VT05, VT50, VT52, and Essay about in the Middle, finally VT100, and at one point a GE Terminet, that worked and sounded like a bandsaw). But even without the Terminet, the room was so loud we had to wear airport ear-protectors. Ben was RSTS manager after the DEC-20s came in 1977. Invention? Eventually RSTS had a user population of 1700.

It was retired in 1982. Jul 1975: The IBM 1410 in the Controller's Office is and Medicaid, replaced by an IBM 370/115 [19]. Mid 1970s: Here begins the decline of centralized campus computing. Invention? Minicomputers begin to sprout in the departments, encouraged by Tuition at University of Pennsylvania, government grants that would buy equipment but wouldn't pay for central computer time. Invention? (The same trend was evident at Medicare and Medicaid, other universities; it created the invention, need for jerome groopman campus networking, and thus -- since a way was needed to invention, interconnect all these campus networks -- the Internet.) Some of the early departmental minis I remember were the SEL 810B, Applied Physics also had an jerome groopman Imlac graphics processor (which never worked) and automobile, several early PDP-8 models for controlling experiments. In the late 1960s and early 1970s, I worked in Applied Physics and used the Essay about Safety vs. Freedom, departmental computers for both work and automobile, EE/CS projects. The SEL (Systems Engineering Laboratories, later Gould) 810B (1968) was the most advanced, since it had i/o devices and could be programmed in Fortran and assembly language.

It had 16K of memory, 2 registers, Teletype, paper tape, card reader, drum printer, and an oscilloscope-like CRT display for graphics; CLICK HERE to see a picture of the SEL 810A, which is like the 810B but without extra i/o devices. However, its hard disk was not generally used for storing programs or data due to lack of space. Instead, programs were read from cards or paper tape; this required toggling in a bootstrap program on the console switches: a series of 16-bit words was deposited in successive memory locations and then executed to activate the Teletype as the control device, which could be used in turn to activate the card or paper tape reader to read the program. Production programs were generally punched in object format onto paper tape (since the paper tape reader/punch was much faster than the card reader). In The Middle Ages? CLICK HERE to see the automobile, SEL 810B Manual. The PDP-8 computers in the same lab had no Teletype, card reader, or paper tape; they were programmed directly from the console switches and i/o was magtape only. The Physics Department in Pupin Hall had a DEC PDP-4, several PDP-8s, a PDP-9, and a PDP-15; Electrical Engineering had a PDP-7 on the 12th floor of Mudd, that we studied down to Issue with Essay, the gate level in the 1970s EE/CS Computer Architecture course. Invention Automobile? (The PDP-7 is what do sport psychology (disciplines focus on?, also the machine for which the UNIX operating was originally written at invention automobile, Bell Labs in the late 1960s.) The keypunch room was on do sport (disciplines, the 2nd floor of Engineering Terrace near the back exit, connected by tunnel to the SSIO area. There were often long waits for punches. The 1976 Bulletin [7] also lists: A DEC PDP-11/45 and automobile, GT/40 Graphics Computer in Biology (Schermerhorn).

A HP 2100 in about Safety vs. Freedom, Chemical Engineering (Prentis). A DG Nova 1220 and 3 DEC PDP-8s in Chemistry (Havemeyer). A DG Super Nova in EE/CS (Mudd). plus various special-purpose computers for Fourier transforms, etc, some of them possibly analog (rather than digital) on campus, as well as all sorts of computing equipment at the outlying campuses (no doubt a tale in itself). 1976: Andy Koenig's RSTS e-mail program, the invention automobile, first e-mail at CU. Andy was a prominent member of the CUCCA technical staff (reponsible for at least APL and PL/I) who went on to Bell Labs and fame with C++. His dad is Dr. Seymour H. Essay? Koenig, who was at invention, Watson Lab from what do sport and exercise of kinesiology) on? 1952 to 1970, and its director from 1967 [9,17]. Invention? Andy's frequent co-author is Barbaro Moo, also formerly of CUCCA. (Note: it's possible that email was used earlier in within certain departments, notably those (like Biology) that had Unix-based minicomputers, I don't know, but in any case this was the first email available to the general University population.) Nowadays most of the University conducts its business by Tuition at University, e-mail, and it has been an enormous productivity booster, eliminating telephone tag, enabling one-to-many messaging, and filling an ever-increasing role in instruction and research.

As early as 1983 (the 9 Feb 1983 Newsletter, V15#2, is automobile, full of allusions to this), professors were sending assignments to their classes by e-mail and collecting results the same way, with the jerome groopman, added benefit of questions and answers and other discussions that could not fit in the classroom schedule. Readers who were not exposed to electronic mail prior to the Internet explosion of the mid-1990s probably won't appreciate how much more useful and pleasant it was before then, even in invention, its original text-only format. Today I typically have several hundred messages waiting for Medicare and Medicaid Essay me each morning (after central filtering!), of which 98% are spam, advertisements, promotions, junk mail, get-rich-quick schemes, invitations to Exclusive High-Powered Executive Webcasts and Enterprise Leadership Webinars, chain letters, be-my-friend-and-share-photos, inspirational Powerpoints, strategic partnerships, office humor, world class enterprise solutions, body-part enhancements, business best practices, claim your lottery winnings, claim your inheritance, claim your fund, Dear beloved, I am dying, I don't want you to feel sorry for me, Beloved in Christ, Dear beneficiary, Complements of the season, confidential matter, delinquent accounts, cash grant award, designer watches, investment opportunities, work-at-home opportunities, get your diploma, grow your business, increase your profitability, Dear entrepreneur, Take this five-minute survey, offers from soldiers in our many wars who found barrels full of money, I want to invention automobile, place an order with your store, low-interest loans, your account is do sport psychology (disciplines of kinesiology) focus on?, expired, Viagra, Cialis, lonely hearts, Russian beauties, update your information, bounce notifications about mail you didn't send, and invention, deliberate attempts at implanting viruses (Windows e-mail attachments containing viruses or worms have no effect on my UNIX-based plain-text mail client) -- or security alerts or complaints about Tuition at University all of these. In the 1970s and 80s, by contrast, practically every e-mail message was legitimate, worth reading, and usually only 1-2K bytes in length, and could not possibly hurt your computer (not strictly true; it was possible to put an escape sequence in an email message that, if it arrived intact at certain kinds of terminals, could make them automatically transmit any desired text back to the host, but even if you had a terminal that responded to the escape sequence, this rarely could cause any serious demage because an email client would be on the receiving end, not the system command prompt) . Even when e-mail is exchanged between consenting parties, the demands posed by multimedia attachments -- Microsoft Word documents, Powerpoints, spreadsheets, images, audio and automobile, video clips, even entire music CDs or motion pictures -- have coerced the Issue, University to constantly upgrade its network and mail server capacity, and of course the costs are inevitably passed back to the consumer in the form of tuition or overhead increases and/or cutbacks in other areas. 1976: Hot newsletter topics: APL, the Gould plotter, PL/I, SPSS, BMDP, ASP3, Syncsort, Crosstabs with Multipunch. Dec 1976: The Xerox 1200 -- first non-impact printer: a big Xerox machine that printed on plain paper, in portrait or landscape. Plain monospace (Courier) font only; no special effects (other than simulated line-printer-paper stripes).

I don't remember exactly where the input came from -- either it had an IBM mainframe channel connection, or else it read from 9-track magnetic tape, but in any case it was possible to print on it from both the IBM and DEC systems. 1977: (Month?) Because the IBM 360/91 was more suited to scientific calculations and lacked decimal arithmetic, and because of security questions posed by the Open Batch system, which opened it up to the student population, ADP acquires a separate mainframe exclusively for invention automobile administrative work, an IBM 370/138 located in the Computer Center machine room and running VM/CMS (later to be upgraded to 370/148, 3031 (1979), 3083 (1983), 3090 (1986), etc). A new Personnel (now we would say Human Resources) system was developed for the 370 in house, and administrative applications began to migrate from punch cards and batch to interactive online systems [20]. The arrival of the IBM 370 launches an effort to convert administrative applications from batch to and Medicaid, online, with IBM 3270 block-mode terminals allowing interactive access to administrative systems such as student records, accounts receivable, and so on. Jul 1977: The IBM 370/115 in invention automobile, the Controller's Office is removed. What Do Sport Psychology On?? I believe this was the last outpost of department-level mainframe administrative computing. Jul 1977: The blackout of 1977 . No electricity for two days (July 13-14). Howard (Eskin) and I were in invention, Watson Lab the evening of the 13th working on the floor plan for the 272A Engineering Terrace terminal room when the lights went out. What And Exercise Psychology (disciplines Focus On?? We were also in the middle of our first DEC-20 installation, a six-week process (so two lost days were not a disaster).

Aug 1977: Our PDP-11/50 was invaded (via modem) by a gang of automobile prep-school kids, who had their way with it undetected for several weeks. Essay About Torture In The Middle? This was the first hacker breakin to a Columbia computer from the outside, and it went to court. Invention? It cost us nearly a week of Essay round-the-clock systems work and delayed the invention automobile, DEC-20 opening by a week. Later the same group invaded other RSTS systems and even (as I recall) destroyed a cement company in of Pennsylvania, Quebec. The prep school in automobile, question had purchased a PDP-11 with RSTS and let the students run it without supervision; thus the students had hands-on access and full privileges, with ample opportunity to probe their own system for vulnerabilities, write Trojan-horse replacements for system software, etc, in-house before attacking external sites, and indeed they did a good job: their modified LOGIN program let them in silently, with full root privileges; the modified accounting programs did not list their sessions; the modified DIRECTORY program did not list their directories or files; the modified SYSTAT program did not show their jobs, and so on. Eventually they tipped their hand by accidentally printing a password list on a public printer, and we tracked them down using methods remarkably similar to those used by Cliff Stoll 10 years later to catch the jerome groopman, German hackers at Berkeley [46] (see 1986-87 below), such as Y-connecting hardcopy terminals to the modems to log dialin sessions.

Aug 1977: Our first DECSYSTEM-20, CU20A (PHOTOS), was installed for large-scale timesharing. Invention Automobile? Accounts were free and available to and Medicaid, all (or maybe there was a one-time $5.00 fee; later, per-semester or per-course fees would be added). It cost 800,000 dollars [19] and was much larger than the PDP-11, a row of double-width orange cabinets about 10 feet long, plus four 178MB RP06 washing-machine-size 3350-type disk drives, but unlike the invention automobile, PDP-11, had little in the way of lights and switches (if you didn't count the PDP-11/40 communications front end hidden inside it). Jerome Groopman? It had 256K 36-bit words of main memory, two 800/1600bpi TU45 tape drives (later TU77, TU78), an LP20 drum printer (mainly for backup listings), and an LA36 system console hardcopy terminal. It also had a DN20 communications processor (PDP-11/34 concealed in invention, orange full-size cabinet) for remote job entry (see Glossary) to Tuition at University of Pennsylvania Essay, the IBM mainframes. CU20A was originally a model 2040, and so it had core memory and no cache; later it was upgraded to a 2050 and then a 2065; the core became MOS and cache was added, memory increased to automobile, 2MB. Each user got 35KB (that's KB, not MB or GB) of disk space. The first DEC-20 marked the beginning of the online campus in Tuition Increases at University Essay, which the computer was used not just for calcalation and invention automobile, programming, but also communication among users and (eventually) with the (disciplines, outside world. The DEC-20 was a member of the DEC's 36-bit PDP-10 line of invention automobile computers, which descended from the PDP-6, first produced in 1964, and which itself has its roots in the 36-bit IBM 700 series that goes back to 1952. PDP-10s, however, were distinct from jerome groopman 20s: they had a different operating system (TOPS-10 instead of TOPS-20); they came in a variety of models (KA, KI, KL, KS), whereas DEC-20s came in only KL and KS models; PDP-10s were more suited to hands-on lab work, with all sorts of devices and attachments lacking from the invention automobile, -20s such as real-time bus-attached instruments; DECtapes, paper tape, and graphics devices; they could be installed in what psychology psychology on?, multiprocessor configurations; and they were blue rather than orange.

DEC-20s could run TOPS-10 applications in an emulation mode, but not vice versa, and until the very end, quite a bit of DEC-20 software was indeed native to TOPS-10 (e.g. the linker and most of the compilers). The DEC-20 pioneered all sorts of advanced concepts such as a swappable monitor (kernel), lightweight processes (threads), page mapping, shared pages with copy-on-write, hardware assisted paging, and invention, other techniques to allow large numbers of users access to a limited resource (CLICK HERE for and Medicaid details). Nevertheless, our first DEC-20 was soon loaded far beyond capacity , and the ensuing years were a constant struggle to get funding for more DEC-20s: budget proposals, user meetings (for which, by now, large auditoriums were required), even outdoor campus demonstrations. But DEC-20s were expensive; they demanded copious floor space and air conditioning, as well as 3-phase power with isolated ground (a 10-foot copper stake literally driven into bedrock outside the CUCCA loading dock). Annual maintenance alone was something like $100,000 per machine, and each one carried an additional $10,000 electric bill. Therefore adding DEC-20s was difficult and painful. There were all sorts of revenue-raising schemes and invention, eventually we had 4 of them, CU20A through CU20D, serving 6000 users, up to 70 or 80 logged in simultaneously on each.

Additional DEC-20s for instruction and research were installed at jerome groopman, Teachers College and in the Computer Science department. DEC-20s were fairly reliable for their day. Unlike the IBM mainframe with its scheduled two-hour nightly System Time, the DEC-20s were kept running and available all the time except for a couple hours (usually outside of prime time) every week or two for preventive maintenance by DEC Field Service. But by today's standards they crashed frequently anyway, usually because of power glitches; so often, in fact that somebody had a batch of %DECSYSTEM-20 NOT RUNNING T-shirts made up (this was the dying gasp of the invention automobile, DEC-20 as it went down). About Torture Middle? Whenever a DEC-20 was up for automobile more than 100 hours, people became quite excited. The Biggest Issue With Church? The record was just shy of 800 hours (about a month); MTBF was under 100 hours (4 days). By comparison, today (8 Feb 2001) I have an HP workstation in my office that has been up continuously for 883 days (that's more than 21,000 hours), despite numerous brownouts and automobile, momentary power failures, and Church, that's without a UPS (eventually its running streak was interrupted at 900-some days when electricians needed to shut off power to the floor to replace the circuit-breaker panel). For lots more about the Columbia DEC-20s, CLICK HERE. (The Gandalf PACX IV terminal switch was installed around here somewhere. Prior to that terminals were hardwired using various forgotten technologies like 20mA Current Loop. Automobile? The PACX was a speed-transparent 1000x1000 switch, driven by little blue PACX boxes on the user end, with thumbwheels to dial the desired service and an on/off switch.)

1977-78: Use of e-mail takes off. Also video editing (EMACS, etc), text formatting and typesetting (Pub, Scribe, later T E X). In April 1978, we (Bill Catchings) write a bboard (bulletin board) program, a kind of Tuition Essay precursor to invention automobile, Netnews, Twitter, etc, where everybody on campus could sound off in jerome groopman, public. Various bboards were available, including course-specific boards, topical boards, and a general (any topic) board, and were unmoderated and uncensored. CLICK HERE for a study of Columbia's computer bulletin boards in the early 1980s. EMACS, by the way, was created at the MIT AI Lab on a PDP-10 running MIT's Incompatible Timesharing System (ITS) by Richard Stallman, building upon the venerable Text Editor and COrrector, TECO, written in 1962-63 for the DEC PDP-1 by automobile, Dan Murphy, who was also largely responsible for TOPS-20, the about Torture in the, operating system on our DECSYSTEM-20s. I first used TECO in invention automobile, 1972 on what do sport of kinesiology) focus, a PDP-11/20 with the DOS/Batch operating, at the Teletype console. The first release of EMACS was in automobile, 1976 and we were using it at Columbia on CU20A by Essay about in the Ages, 1977. Columbia's systems group made numerous contributions to EMACS; for invention example, Chris Ryland added split-screen editing. In the 1980s EMACS would be completely rewritten in about Safety, LISP, to invention automobile, become the now-universal GNU EMACS, one of the most prominent surviving relics of the heyday of the DEC 36-bit mainframes. Jan 1978: The 272A Engineering Terrace terminal room opens (V10#2).

This was the first public terminal room outside the Computer Center building. The Columbia architects had a field day, decorating it in jerome groopman, bilious hot pink like a bordello, with trendy globe lighting. (The April Fools 1978 issue of the Newsletter (V10#5) presents the coveted Louis XVI Alive with the Arts award to invention automobile, the Department of Buildings and Grounds [now Facilities Management] for jerome groopman their exceptional work in invention, recreating the atmosphere of an 18th century French palace. . Jerome Groopman? Columbia's resident architect was entreated to comment on the bizarre appearance of the new terminal room. ) Notwithstanding the decor, the room was laid out according to our floorplan (Howard Eskin and I designed it), divided into cubicles about 4 feet high so people would have privacy when sitting, but could stand up to chat and hand things back and forth. Invention Automobile? There was a common area where people could congregate, and a glassed-in machine room containing a DN200 and a Printronix heavy-duty dot-matrix printer. Each cubicle had a terminal and a spacious working surface for Essay Torture books and papers and its own reading light. Automobile? Large cubicles had LA36 DECwriters (hard-copy 132-column dot-matrix printers operating at 30 cps on pin-feed green-and-white striped fanfold paper) and the smaller ones had Perkin-Elmer Fox-1100 CRTs operating at 9600 bps (this was the first affordable CRT, costing about $500, compared to most others that cost a thousand dollars and Issue Church Essay, up). Each cubicle also had a PACX box to let users select the service they wanted to use (DEC-20, RSTS, Wylbur). Eventually the lab was re-architected, expanded, and invention, . Essay About In The Middle Ages? . . REDECORATED.

Too bad if you missed it (does anybody have a color photo of the original?) Mar 1978: APL conversion from IBM to DEC-20 was a big topic for many months. Special terminals (Datamedia APL with APL keyboard, later Concept/APL) had to be installed for APL users. To further encourage IBM to DEC migration, I wrote a mini-Wylbur (Otto) for the DEC-20; Joel and his brother worked on a full Wylbur implementation for automobile some time but it's not done yet. Apr 1978: The CUCCA Telephone Directory and Consulting Schedule. As you can see there were 100 full-timers on staff: academic computing, administrative computing, librarians, administrative staff, data communications, machine room operators, and management. Compared to 15 in 1965 and over 300 in 2010. Note too that in jerome groopman, those days the technical staff helped users in person in three locations (two in SSIO, one in Mudd) and at automobile, other times they answered calls from users on their own phones no call processing, no screening, no trouble tickets, no hiding behind web pages, no bureacracy.

UI's were students working part-time; anything they couldn't handle would be passed along to full-timers in User Services or Systems. Many of the Essay, UI's listed on the schedule went on to become full timers and invention, some even managers. (Consulting schedule by Dave Millman, printed on the Diablo daisy-wheel printer.) 1 May 1978: The first spam (junk commercial) e-mail was sent 1 May 1978 1233-EDT from DEC-MARLBORO.ARPA (a DEC-20) to all ARPANET contacts, whose e-mail addresses were harvested from the WHOIS database, advertising new DEC-20 models. More about this HERE. May 1978: OS/360 21.8 (which was released by IBM in 1970) installed on the IBM 360/91. Eight years in the making! The ex-CUCC systems people who defected to CUNY had to come back and vs. Freedom, teach nightly classes on OS/360 and what they had done to it (many things, including over 200 modifications for accounting and resource-limitation purposes) before their replacements could bring up the new release without fear of losing something vital. May 1978: Tektronix 4010 graphics a big topic in the newlsetters.

(Somewhere put the succession of invention User Services managers: Tom D'Auria, Bob Resnikoff, Bruce Tetelman, Tom Chow, Mark Kennedy, Maurice Matiz, Rob Cartolano, Jeff Eldredge, I know I must be leaving somebody out. ) and SSIO (Marianne Clarke, Lois Dorman, Chris Gianone, . ) and Systems Assurance (later Data Communications: Rich Nelson, Seung-il Choe, Wolfie, . ) and CUCCA business managers (Peter Bujara, Neil Sachnoff, Patty Peters, Bob Bingham, Julie Lai. ) About User Services, Maurice Matiz adds: User Services existed only Essay Torture Middle up to early in my era. After Vace's appointment and my appointment (I believe the only two managerial and higher level appointments that required a trying and complete interview by the whole University occurred in late 1989) did the groups that now define AcIS get created except that User Services comprised three groups. User Services stayed until Jeff Eldrege's group was spun out of my group, which had grown to over 25 people, in late 1994. (My diagramed proposal is dated 11/28/94.) At that time we changed names. Jeff's group became the Support Center and my group was renamed Academic Technologies. Also spun out at the time was what became EDS to report to invention automobile, Walter Bourne. Dec 1978: First mention of UNIX by CUCCA in public (referring to psychology psychology (disciplines of kinesiology), the BSTJ UNIX issue [15]). V10#18.

1979: The Computer Science Department was created as a separate entity (previously it was part of the automobile, EE Dept) with Joseph Traub from Tuition Increases Essay CMU as Chair, and invention, a $200,000 donation from IBM. Joe had been a Watson Fellow in Applied Mathematics in what of kinesiology), 1958-59 [9]. The Computer Science Building was constructed 1981-83 [12]. Before long a DECSYSTEM-20, several VAX-11/750s, and numerous workstations (early Suns and invention, others) would be installed in the new CS facility. Jan 1979: Public terminals were available in Essay, SSIO (20), 272A Engineering Terrace (14), Furnald Lobby (4), 224 Butler (4), and Hartley Lobby (4). V11#2.

Systems Assurance staff (Bob Galanos) would make the rounds on a daily basis to fix broken terminals, usually by replacing fuses taken out by invention, students to reserve terminals for their own use. Feb 1979: Scribe, Diablo, printwheel lore dominates the Newsletter. Big business in printwheels. The Diablo was a typewriter-like terminal with a daisy-wheel print mechanism capable of Essay Torture in the Middle Ages proportional spacing, superscripts and subscripts, and even boldface (by doublestriking) and italics (by swapping printwheels). The CUCCA newsletter was printed on the Diablo for some years, and Diablos were deployed in invention, public areas for The Biggest users.

Scribe included a Diablo driver, which produced .POD (Prince Of Darkness) files for it, and we wrote software to spool these files to invention automobile, the Diablo itself, allowing pauses to change paper or printwheels. Printwheels were available in a variety of fonts and alphabets, but weren't cheap ($98 springs to mind). Aug 1979: COMND JSYS package written for psychology and exercise (disciplines of kinesiology) on? SAIL (so we could write user-friendly programs for automobile the DEC-20 in a high-level language). Andy Lowry and David Millman. Sep 1979: HP2621 industrial-strength video terminals installed in Mudd and elsewhere, including a new lab in about Middle, Carman Hall. This was the face of CUCCA to our users; many of them thought the DEC-20s were made by HP. Invention Automobile? These are monochrome text terminals with good editing capabilties (for EMACS) and solidly built. Essay? Some had built-in thermal printers.

A few units are still to invention, be found here in good working order. 1979-80: Chris Ryland and Medicare Essay, I write a 200-plus-page guide to DEC-20 assembly-language programming. We were thinking of turning it into a book but Ralph Gorin of Stanford University beat us to it. 1980: Instructional computing capacity badly needs expansion. Invention Automobile? At this point, CUCCA has three instructional systems: the IBM 360/91 Open Batch system (soon to be retired), the PDP-11/50 (fully saturated), and a single DECSYSTEM-20, CU20A, which is in jerome groopman, constant demand and heavily overburdened. There is much gathering of statistics to invention automobile, understand usage patterns. In response to student and faculty demands, the Collery Committee (Arnold Collery was Dean of and exercise psychology (disciplines on? Columbia College) was appointed to make recommendations. The instructional computers were overloaded, but why? Was the new usage real or frivolous? A witch-hunt was launched against invention automobile text processing (preparing papers on the computer, sending e-mail, etc).

Some prominent faculty advocated banning it (this never came to pass; CUCCA opposed it vigorously). CPU and do sport and exercise psychology (disciplines focus on?, connect-time limits were to automobile, be instituted. Fees were to be increased. Various disincentives would be established against using the computers during prime time. The tug of about vs. Freedom war between demand and resources is a persistent theme in academic computing. There has never been, and automobile, probably never will be, a clear linkage between demand and jerome groopman, supply. Whenever resources (such as computer time, disk space, modems, network bandwidth) become scarce, as they always do, funding for expansion does not flow automatically (nor should it). First there is a demand for a precise accounting of how, for what, and by automobile, whom the current resources are being consumed, the jerome groopman, gathering of which in turn taxes the resources still futher. Invention? Once the information is obtained, demands to jerome groopman, flush out inappropriate use -- whose definition varies with the times (e.g. network capacity versus Napster in invention automobile, 2000) -- quickly follow. Of course instructional computing on Essay in the Middle, the DEC-20s was true to this pattern. CU20A drove itself near to melting by invention, accounting for itself.

And then complicated limits were imposed on CPU time, connect time, and every other imaginable resource (using locally written software) until the interactive computing experience was surpassingly unpleasant for everyone: students, faculty, and staff alike. Relief was still more than a year away. One of the Issue Essay, measures taken to alleviate the load on CU20A was to invention automobile, abolish the free perpetual student user IDs and replace them with class-related IDs that lasted only for the duration of each course. While this ensured that the Tuition of Pennsylvania, DEC-20 was used only for legitimate purposes, it also made it impossible for students to build up a corpus of automobile tools and information they could use throughout their Columbia experience. A series of discussions took place throughout 1980 exploring different possibilites for providing students with some form of self-service, inexpensive, removeable media. The result was Kermit . Jan 1980: CUCCA announces its intention to do sport psychology and exercise (disciplines focus on?, connect to ARPANET, V12#1 (but without any firm prospects of automobile doing so, since in those days the only entree was a big Defense Department grant, which we didn't have and Essay about Safety, didn't want).

In the meantime, however, staff (but not end-users) had access through our DECnet link to COLUMBIA-20.ARPA , the Computer Science DEC-20 (July 1983), and prior to invention automobile, that by dialup to Essay about, the NYU Elf and guest accounts at Rutgers, Harvard, Stanford, CMU and automobile, elsewhere. The ARPANET was important, among other reaons, because it was how DECsystem-10 and The Biggest Issue Church, DECSYSTEM-20 software developers could work together (by email) and share code (by FTP), and this was the beginning of the open software movement . It is important to recall that in those days we were paid to automobile, develop and share software. About? Nowadays most open (free) software is created by unpaid volunteers . Feb 1980: DECnet first operational (between CU20A and the DN200 in Mudd). Feb 1980: The DEC-20 MM (Mail Manager) e-mail program becomes popular (V12#2). This is automobile, a good example of software created by professional staff or graduate students at PDP-10 and jerome groopman, DEC-20 sites on the ARPANET (Stanford in invention, this case) and freely shared with other sites. Other examples of the era included the Tuition Increases of Pennsylvania, ISPELL spelling checker and corrector (also from Stanford), the EMACS text editor from MIT, the SCRIBE text formatting and typesetting system from CMU (which later became commercial) and TeX from invention Stanford, the Bliss-10 programming language from Essay about in the Middle CMU, the SAIL programming language from Stanford, the PASCAL compiler from Rutgers, the SITGO instructional FORTRAN package from Stevens Institute of Technology, various LISP systems from different places, and KERMIT communications software from invention Columbia. In fact, each place contributed bits and pieces to most of what psychology and exercise of kinesiology) focus on? these packages so most of them were truly cooperative efforts.

MM was used almost universally at Columbia for E-mail from 1980 until about 1995, with usage trailing off thereafter as Windows and the Web took over automobile from text-based computer access. When the DEC-20 line was cancelled, we wrote a new MM program in C for Unix which again, in the sharing spirit, was made available on jerome groopman, the ARPANET (later Internet) and invention, adopted by many other sites worldwide as they migrated from TOPS-20 to The Biggest Issue, Unix. Automobile? MM survives even into the 2010s (details). Jun 1980: We were considering joining TELENET and TYMNET (commercial X.3/X.25 based networks) but never did; it was way too expensive [1]. These were strictly terminal-to-host networks, but would have allowed travellers to dial up with a local call from almost anywhere in Tuition Increases at University of Pennsylvania, the USA or Canada, and automobile, conceivably could have taken the place of Tuition at University of Pennsylvania Essay in-house modem pools. Oct 1980: Second DEC-20 installed, CU20B , for use by funded researchers and staff only; to be paid for out of income, since the budget request for a second instructional DEC-20 had been denied, again, even though the first one was seriously overloaded, and despite vocal support from students and faculty (and us of course). Automobile? CU20B removed considerable load from CU20A and Safety vs. Freedom, bought us some time until we finally were able to expand the instructional resources a year later with CU20C. Automobile? (In fact, for a short period, we were able to put some students on CU20B, in their own partition, isolated from the paying users.) There was no common file system yet; communication wth CU20A was via DECnet (NFT for file transfer; home-grown mail, print, finger servers and clients, etc). Nov 1980: The IBM 360/91/75 is retired , replaced by Church, two IBM 4331s (PHOTO), CUVMA and CUVMB. These are featureless boxes that are (as you might expect) more compact and cheaper to run than the 360/91 (and lower too, so you can use them as coffee tables), and invention, they had a new operating system, VM/CMS, which allowed Virtual Machines (VM) to run other operating systems on the same machine, thus keeping our old applications afloat.

VM was perceived initially as a niche product, but it has proven remarkably persistent. The 360/91 was so big it had to be cut up with chainsaws to get it out Tuition Increases of Pennsylvania Essay, of the automobile, building. The Gordian knot of cabling under the The Biggest Issue Essay, floor was unceremoniously disposed of with giant cable snippers the size of posthole diggers. The computer chunks were trucked away and thrown into automobile, acid baths to extract the gold. Only the jerome groopman, 360/91 console was spared. We had it moved to the lobby of Watson Laboratory and arranged to donate it to the now-defunct Computer Museum in Massachusetts, but it took a year and invention automobile, a half for them to pick it up.

In the interim, bits and Medicare Essay, pieces were removed by invention, passersby as souvenirs. (More about this in The Biggest Essay, the June 1982 entry.) 1981-82 ADP takes over the remaining pockets of automobile decentralized administrative computing: the student systems in psychology (disciplines, Philosophy Hall and the financial and automobile, payroll systems in Hogan Hall, and to some extent also the Health Sciences campus. Jan 1981: Superbrains arrive. The Intertec Superbrain had been chosen as the first microcomputer we would deploy publicly, despite its embarrassing name, because its solid single-piece construction made it virtually user-proof, and it did indeed stand up to years of (ab)use. It ran CP/M 2.2, an 8-bit (64K) operating system. Apr 1981: Bill Catchings and I design the basic Kermit protocol. Essay? The first Kermit protocol transfer took place on April 29th on a loopback connection between two serial ports on CU20B.

CLICK HERE for more about the history of Kermit, and HERE to visit the Kermit website, where THIS PAGE provides an overview. Kermit Project document archive at the Computer History Museum [catalog]. Kermit Project Oral History Transcripts at the Computer History Museum HERE and automobile, HERE. May 1981: I talk J. Ray Scott of Carnegie-Mellon University (CMU) in Pittsburgh, PA, into Tuition Increases of Pennsylvania, installing a leased line between Columbia and CMU and joining our two campuses by DECnet (at least that's how I remember it). CU and CMU informally but effectively merge their DEC-20 systems staffs and run common customized applications and subsystems (esp. the GALAXY spooling system, which we modified to allow printer sharing among multiple DEC-20s and invention automobile, spooling to the Xerox 9700). Soon the network, called CCNET , expanded to several other universities, notably Stevens Institute of Technology in do sport psychology of kinesiology) focus, Hoboken, NJ, which played an important role in invention, the development of what do sport and exercise focus Kermit protocol and software until 1987, and produced Kermit programs for DEC's VMS, TOPS-10, and invention, P/OS operating systems. Jun 1981: CP/M-80 Kermit for the 8-bit Superbrain: Bill Catchings (later, in 1983, Bill also wrote CP/M-86 Kermit for the 16-bit version of CP/M). Shortly after this, the Superbrain was deployed in Mudd.

It had no applications to speak of jerome groopman besides Kermit, which was used by students to archive their DEC-20 files onto floppy disks (the purpose for which was Kermit developed). Floppy disks (the then-modern 5.25 ones, not the frisbee-sized ones used on other CP/M micros) for the Superbrain were sold in SSIO, $6.00 each (!). Later, but before 16-bit micros like the invention, IBM PC appeared, we set up (in Watson Lab) a network of Superbrains sharing a hard disk, with an EMACS-like editor called MINCE and of Pennsylvania, a Scribe-like text formatter called Sribble. For a short time it was our most impressive demonstration of personal / workgroup desktop computing. (MINCE later became Epsilon and automobile, was popular for some years on DOS PCs.) 12 Aug 1981: The 16-bit IBM PC was announced; the Columbia Computer Center orders 20 of psychology (disciplines focus them on Day One, sight unseen. The IBM logo makes all the difference. About half of them go to high-profile faculty (who immediately want them to be able to communicate with our central IBM and DEC mainframes; hence MS-DOS Kermit).

The original PC had a monochrome monitor (color optional), one or two 160K floppy disks, a small amount of memory (anywhere from 16K to 256K), two RS-232 serial interfaces, no hard disk, no networking. It ran at 4.77MHz, had BASIC built into its ROM (which could be used without an OS or disk), and ran DOS 1.0, the minimalistic 16-bit disk operating system that made Microsoft's fortune. Within a short amount of time, it had become the computer that would dominate the automobile, rest of the about Torture, century and beyond, and spread over invention the campus like wildfire. But it still took some years for about Torture Ages the PC to automobile, wipe out the VAXes and PDP-11s in the departments. Up through the The Biggest with Church, early 90s there were still dozens of VAX/VMS installations; entire departments and automobile, schools (such as Columbia College) ran on them, with VT100 terminals or DEC word processors (PDP-8 based DECmates) on Medicare and Medicaid Essay, their desktops.

The PC has been a mixed blessing. Untold numbers of invention people-hours have been lost forever to tinkering -- this slot, that bus; expanded memory, enhanced memory, extended memory. . . Blue Screens Of Death, rebooting, reinstalling the operating system, searching for adapters, hunting for drivers, installing OS and driver upgrades, resolving interrupt conflicts, partitioning disks, backing up disks, adding new devices, configuring networks, fighting application and OS bugs, hunting for Safety patches, fighting viruses, and on and on. Previously this kind of automobile thing was done by Medicare and Medicaid Essay, a small central full-time professional staff but now it is done by everybody, all the time, at incalculable cost to productivity and progress. Plus how many PC users really back up their hard disks? Not many in my experience, and it is not uncommon for invention important un-backed-up files to be lost in jerome groopman, a disk crash or similar disaster, thus negating weeks, months, or years of work. ON THE PLUS SIDE, however, . . . (? ? ?) My personal theory is that IBM never expected the PC to be so successful. It was thrown together in a rush by a small group (not at automobile, Watson Laboratory!) from off-the-shelf components in jerome groopman, an effort to get a foothold in the fast-growing microcomputer market. This was not IBM's first personal computer. Besides the 1956 Auto-Point Computer (personal but by no means desktop), IBM had also tried and invention automobile, failed with the 5100 and the CS-9000 in the 1970s and early 80s, both personal desktop models (we had some 5100s here; the CS-9000 was targeted at chemical engineering applications as I recall, and had a special control panel and interfaces for instruments, but included a 32-bit CPU and with Essay, modern programming languages like Pascal, and could easily have been the high-end workstation of the early 1980s).

According to a reliable source, IBM originally wanted the invention automobile, PC to have a Motorola 68000 CPU (which had a simple, flat 32-bit address space) like the CS-9000, but could not get such a product to market in time, so settled for Essay the Intel 8088, a 16-bit segmented architecture with 8-bit data paths. Worse, it had a primitive 16-line interrupt controller, which severely limited the number of devices that could be on the bus. Invention? The rest is history. I believe that if IBM had known that the The Biggest with Essay, PC would dominate the next two, three, four, or more decades, it would have invested more time, money, and automobile, thought in the original design. (Obviously the situation is better in Essay, the 21st Century. Automobile? Most of the early kinks have been ironed out. PCs are cheap and reliable. Any quirks of the Essay about Ages, architecture are well-hidden from end users, and USB makes life immeasurably better when devices need to be attached. With Windows the dominant operating system, the invention automobile, main problems now are performance bloated OS and applications and security. Focus On?? And stability.)

Oct 1981: CU20C arrives: a second DECSYSTEM-20 student timesharing system to supplement CU20A. Still no common file system; each DEC-20 was a relatively separate world, but at least they were connected by DECnet. If you had a student user ID, it was on invention automobile, one or the other, not both. Dec 1981: HP plotter supplies (personal ink cartridges, etc) were a hot topic in what do sport and exercise psychology (disciplines of kinesiology) focus on?, the newsletter. The HP pen plotters installed in Mudd (and SSIO?) came in 4- and invention, 8-color models, and there was a wide variety of software for them, including DISSPLA/TEL-A-GRAF on the DEC-20s and SAS/GRAPH and SPSS on the IBM mainframes that could make 3D plots with hidden-line elimination, fancy fonts, etc. They were totally mechanical: pen and ink on paper, and could produce beautiful line drawings. Jan 1982: J. Ray Scott, Director of the Carnegie-Mellon University Computation Center, writes an article in the CUCCA Newsletter (V14#1) describing the vs. Freedom, CCNET connection between Columbia and CMU, and invention automobile, CMU's facilities (including an ARPANET gateeway and various compilers and applications that had not been licensed at Columbia). In the first example of network-based inter-university resource sharing at Columbia, CU users were invited to jerome groopman, apply for invention automobile user IDs on the CMU systems.

Feb 1982: The IBM 3850 Mass Storage System (MSS) was installed (for the 1980 Census) - 102.2 GB. The MSS was gigantic in every sense, covering most of the South wall of the machine room. Essentially it was a big honeycomb, each cell holding a cartridge (PHOTO) that resembles an M-79 rifle grenade (sorry, it does) containing a winding of at University of Pennsylvania Essay 2.7-inch-wide magtape with a capacity of 50MB. A mechanical hand comes and extracts the automobile, cartridge and carries it to a reader, which removes the shell, and unwinds the tape and copies it to one of with Essay four staging disks; then the invention automobile, tape is re-wound, the shell replaced, and the cartridge returned to its cell. All this was transparent to the user; the MSS looked like a 3330 disk drive to Increases at University, user-mode software. The disks acted as a cache, so if your file was already on invention automobile, the disk, the little mechanical man didn't need to go get the cartridge. (Before the MSS, we had an IBM 2321 Data Cell Drive, which worked in a similar way, except instead of cartridges, it used flat strips of tape that were much harder for the little men to jerome groopman, handle, so the tape strips were easily mangled.) Like the invention, 360/91, there were only a few MSS devices in the world. The MSS cost about Essay a million dollars, but Columbia got its MSS in an IBM grant. Invention? In return, Columbia would add support for it to IBM's VM operating system (in particular, it would add windowing and lookahead features to reduce cylinder faults and redundant cartridge fetches, and thus speed up sequential access; this was done by Bob Resnikoff of the Computer Center and Ates Dagli of the Increases at University, Center for Social Sciences (CSS)). CSS was responsible for loading the census data (which came on endless reels of invention automobile 9-track magtape) and for vs. Freedom arranging access to it from automobile within Columbia and from outside (V14#16).

When the grant expired, Columbia was able to purchase the MSS at a steep discount. Feb 1982: Hot Newsletter topic: submitting IBM batch jobs from the DEC-20 via HASP/RJE. CU20B was connected to Essay Torture Middle, the IBM mainframe communications front end (COMTEN) through its own PDP-11 DN20 front end (a full cabinet), which emulated an invention automobile Remote Job Entry station, i.e. a card reader for sending data to the mainframe in form of card images, and a line printer for Tuition Increases at University of Pennsylvania receiving data from the mainframe in invention, the form of print jobs, but using DEC-20 disk files instead of cards and paper. The CUCCA systems group developed user-friendly programs for Ages submitting batch jobs to the VM systems from the DEC-20 and retrieving the results. These were later to form the basis of the DEC-20/BITNET mail gateway. Mar 1982: RSTS/E retired; RSTS users migrated to DEC-20s, V14#1. The PDP-11/50 was traded for another badly needed RP06 disk drive for our DEC-20s [1]. Invention Automobile? The PDP-11 with RSTS/E was our first experiment in campuswide public timesharing and Essay Torture in the Ages, it was an unqualified success.

Apr 1982: BITNET announced (Vace, V14#5). This was a network of invention IBM mainframes based on RSCS (basically, card reader / line printer simulation) protocols, originating with Ira Fuchs at CUNY, formerly of Watson Lab, and rapidly spreading to universities all over jerome groopman the world, lasting through the late 1990s, now remembered mainly for LISTSERV (a distributed automated mailing-list management system). Invention? Early members included CUNY, Columbia, Yale, Brown, Princeton, the U of Maine, Penn State, the NJ Educational Network, Boston U, and Cornell University (DIAGRAM). Columbia got the CU prefix (CUVMA, CUVMB), much to the chagrin of C ornell U niversity (CORNELLA, . ) Would this be the first instance of domain name hijacking ? :-) (Twenty years later, the Cornell and Columbia teaching hospitals would merge to form New York Presbyterian Hospital; evidently Cornell and Columbia were omitted from the do sport psychology and exercise psychology of kinesiology), name so that neither one would have to invention, follow the other.) Apr 1982: IBM Mainframe VM/CMS Kermit (Daphne Tzoar). Jerome Groopman? This passed through a number a hands since the initial release, some of which prefer to remain anonymous, and has been cared for by Dr. John Chandler at the Harvard/Smithsonian Astronomical Observatory since about 1990; John made it portable to the other important IBM mainframe OS's: MVS/TSO, CICS, and MUSIC, and added support for conversion between the many IBM EBCDIC Country Extended Code Pages and ISO standard character sets, allowing cross-platform transfer of text in many languages. May 1982: Support was added to our e-mail client and server software to invention, take advantage of our new CCNET and BITNET connections, and the first inter-campus e-mail began to Tuition at University of Pennsylvania, flow, limited at first to just a handful of universities, but growing rapidly as CCNET and BITNET nodes are added, and gateways from them to invention, ARPANET, CSNET, and other networks. CCNET mail delivery was accomplished by jerome groopman, direct real-time DECnet connections; BITNET mail was transported via our HASP/RJE Spooler. Automobile? Our three DEC-20s used their DECnet connections for mail amongst themselves, as well as with other campus machines and the wider CCNET. CU20A and CU20C and what do sport psychology (disciplines of kinesiology) focus, other campus DECnet nodes sent BITNET mail by relaying it over invention automobile DECnet to about, CU20B's RJE system.

In those days, e-mail addresses had to invention automobile, include a top-level domain that indicated the network, e.g. USER@HOST.ARPA , USER@HOST.BITNET , USER@HOST.CCNET , etc. Essay About Torture In The Middle Ages? Even trickier was the source routing used in Usenet (in those days, a network of automobile UNIX machines that dialed each other up with UUCP periodically to do sport psychology psychology (disciplines of kinesiology), exchange files and mail) and some others, and/or to mail to somebody who was on a network that your host wasn't on, through a relay that was on both nets. In such cases you had to invention, know the entire route and the syntax tricks to traverse each branch of it, and often multiple relays. Here are some examples from the 1980s Kermit mailing list archive: The last one is broken into two lines for readability; it's really one line. To get a good feel for the proliferation of about Safety vs. Freedom networks and the tricks of navigating amongst them in invention, the days before the jerome groopman, Internet swept all else away, see John Quarterman's book, The Matrix [55] Jun 1982: CU20D , our third and final instructional DEC-20, was installed. Jun 1982: Our by-now vandalized IBM 360/91 console goes to the Computer Museum at DEC's MR-01 (or MR-02?) building in Marlboro, Massachusetts, after awaiting pickup for 18 months. It was displayed prominently inside the main entrance in a big, tastefully illuminated glass case near the PDP-1.

Shortly thereafter, the collection was transferred to the Boston Science Museum (now the Museum of Science), which changed its focus. Most of the computing artifacts went to the Computer History Museum, temporarily located at Moffett Field, California (an Air Force base, where the 360/91 console sat in deep storage for invention many years before being transferred in about 2001 to deep storage at the Computer History Museum's new site in Mountain View, California). Jul 1982: An Imagen laser printer was installed in Watson; our first laser printer and our first printer capable of true typesetting . Soft fonts, 100 dpi I think, Impress language (a precursor of PostScript), Ethernet-connected. It was only for internal CUCCA use (production of Newsletter and what do sport of kinesiology) focus, handouts, etc). Aug 1982: The Xerox 9700 (PHOTO) [announced by Xerox in 1977] arrived, replacing the Xerox 1200 after some overlap (V15#1). The 9700 offered the first typesetting to the Columbia community at automobile, large, as well as high-volume, high-speed plain-text printing. This room-sized 300dpi Xerographic laser printer was installed in the back of the first floor of Watson Lab (the present mail and network rooms) due to lack of jerome groopman space in the Computer Center, and automobile, it definitely needed the space. It printed 2 pages per second, could handle duplex, portrait/landscape, 2-up, 4-up, etc, had Courier (fixed) and Helvetica and Times Roman (proportional) fonts, with italic and bold styles and selectable sizes. Formatting was done by Scribe and other packages and spooled to 9-track magnetic tapes that were delivered to Watson every evening and printed overnight. Xerox 9700 printing was available to all users (students, faculty, staff, outside paid accounts) on all the DEC-20s and Essay, IBM mainframe systems.

The DEC-20 Xerox 9700 spooling software (PRINT /UNIT:X9700) was developed jointly by the combined CUCCA-CMU Systems Groups over invention automobile CCNET. Even after more sophisticated typesetting methods became available, the jerome groopman, X9700 remained in service as a high-volume printer; nothing else could push paper quite like it. To this day, I think Controllers and Rolmphone statements are still printed on a 9700 at a service bureau.) Sep 1982: VMM announced (e-mail for the IBM mainframe: MM for VM, Joel and then Vace). Sep 1982: First campus network between academic departments (not counting Remote Job Entry stations): CUCCA-Chemistry, DECnet over synchronous modems (V14#12). By this time Chemistry had a VAX-11/780 and invention, some smaller VAXes. Sep 1982: TOPS-20 V5 installed on the CUCCA DEC-20s, featuring extended addressing (32 256KW sections = 36MB, instead of only one section), a new multiforking Exec (what we would now call job control), and a programming language for the Exec (CMU's PCL, what we would now call shell scripts. Jerome Groopman? see example). Oct 1982: About here we were looking into getting the invention, AP Newswire online. Columbia's School of Journalism had a Teletype with news stories coming out continuously. The plan was to feed this into one of our DEC-20s and jerome groopman, make a BBoard out of it, with a rather rapid expiration of articles given the limited disk storage. But there were licensing and bureaucratic impediments so it never came to pass.

About 1990, Columbia bought a subscription to ClariNews (in which the various news services are funneled to Usenet newsgroups). This lasted until 2003, by invention automobile, which time the Web had long since rendered it redundant. Nov 1982: The CUCCA Terminal and Plotter User Manual [14] was published, full of photos and detailed instructions on using the equipment in Church Essay, our public areas. CLICK HERE to see a sampling of invention video terminals; note the accompanying PACX boxes. Issue Church? NOW ON LINE in searchable PDF format. Invention Automobile? This was printed on our new Xerox 9700, one of the first laser printers capable of typesetting; it had two fonts, Helvetica and Courier. The manual itself should interesting to those who harbor a burning curiosity over every minute detail in the life of President Obama , since the equipment described here is what he must have used when he was a Columbia student 1981-83, because there wasn't anything else. At University Of Pennsylvania Essay? Check, for invention example, this article he wrote in Sundial Magazine, March 10, 1983. I suspect he composed it on the DEC-20, perhaps in EMACS, seated at one of the Medicare and Medicaid Essay, terminals in our terminal rooms; for example, the automobile, HP-2621s in psychology (disciplines of kinesiology) on?, Carman Hall. When it was ready, he might well have emailed it to the Sundail editor with MM. Just a guess!

Nov 1982: DECSYSTEM-20 Pocket Guide (click for PDF of the whole thing). The DEC-20 was an enormously powerful and useful computing system, yet it was simple enought that we could publish an accordion-fold pocket guide to just about all that it had to offer. This 1982 edition was created with TeX, and the Columbia Crown with Metafont. Invention? The master was printed on our new Imagen Laser Printer and the printing and jerome groopman, folding done at invention automobile, the Columbia print shop. The Biggest Church? It was given out free to invention, all comers (thousands of them). Dec 1982: The Teachers College DEC-20 connects to the campus DECnet. 1983-1986: Every Newsletter issue announces new BITNET and DECnet nodes. Jan 1983 20th Anniversary of the Computer Center . CLICK HERE to see a collage of machine-room items prepared for the commemorative poster. The commemorative frisbee is at Computer History Museum. 1 Jan 1983: The ARPANET switches from its original protocol, NCP, to TCP/IP. Prior to jerome groopman, TCP/IP, the ARPANET was a private club with membership restricted defense contractors.

The fact that some of the defense contractors were also some of the top engineering and invention automobile, computer science universities (MIT, Stanford, CMU, etc) led to a lot of pressure from the non-military segment for Tuition at University Essay more open access, and to a new design for invention the network itself. TCP/IP (Transport Control Protocol / Internet Protocol) was the result. Where ARPANET was a network of computers, TCP/IP provided for a network of networks ; that is, an Internet. Jerome Groopman? Thus when the cutover took place, all the computers at a given university (say, MIT), could be on the net, not just the ones used for defense research. In this way the network was opened up, and the requirement for a defense contract for membership no longer made sense. Numerous networks such CSNET, NSFNET, and SPAN, were connected. Columbia University as a whole got on the net in 1984 by virtue of its connection with NSF and over the next 15 years, the network grew to invention, cover the entire planet and membership was open to jerome groopman, all. Jan 1983 The Purchasing Office moves out of the Watson building and invention automobile, the space is occupied by ADP; now, 13 years after IBM left it, the Watson Lab building is 100% Computer Center and would remain that way until 1991. ADP begins to Essay about Ages, offer office automation services, including PC and LAN installations for administrative use. Jan 1983: IBM PC Kermit. Originally by Daphne Tzoar, adapted from Bill Catchings' CP/M-80 Kermit (actually, if I recall correctly, Bill did the original translation from 8080 MASM to 8088 Microsoft assembler in automobile, a single EMACS session, and then Daphne made it work and added features).

Later it passed to Jeff Damens. Essay Torture In The Middle? We did versions 1.00 to 2.28 here, with various pieces contributed from elsewhere. Professor Joe Doupnik of Utah State University took it over in 1985, and stuck with until the end (see oral history of Joe Doupnik at the Computer History Museum). We were actually ordered to write this program because several prominent professors (Herb Goldstein, Bob Pollack, and Jonathan Gross ) were using their new PCs to invention, write a book, The Scientific Experience , that would be used in a new course, Science C1001-1002, Theory and Practice of Science , in Columbia's Contemporary Civilization (the jewel in the crown of the Columbia College Core Curriculum) and wanted to and Medicaid Essay, be able to collaborate by uploading chapters to CU20B, where they could be shared. And they did. MS-DOS Kermit was a fixture on the Columbia computing landscape until the Web took over in 1994-95, and popular all over the world.

It's still remarkably popular today, providing VT320, Wyse, DG, ANSI, and Tektronix terminal emulation for Linux under dosemu , as well as data transfer for many DOS-based embedded and automobile, experimental devices, such as THIS ONE in the International Space Station. CLICK HERE to visit the MS-DOS Kermit website. Jan 1983: Amdahl UTS installed on the IBM mainframe as a virtual machine under VM (Alan); this was the first UNIX on about Torture Middle, the central systems. But CS, Biology, and invention automobile, PS had been running other forms of with Essay UNIX for some time on departmental minicomputers such as PDP-11s and VAX-11/750s. (9-track magnetic tapes were big in these days, but every kind of computer used a different format: ANSI, DUMPER, BACKUP, MAGSAV, IBM OS SL, tar, cpio, etc, so writing tape import/export/conversion utilities was a regular cottage industry.) Mar 1983: CCNET included CU, CMU, CWRU, CS, TC. Mar 1983: All but two key punches removed due to lack of use (V15#4). The SSIO area is automobile, now a mainly a public terminal area, CUCCA business office, and do sport psychology and exercise (disciplines on?, consulting facility. Apr 1983: CU20B becomes Columbia's first central computer with dialout capability. The DIAL program, written by our Systems Group, operated a Vadic VA821 1200bps autodialer, and interfaced with DEC-20 Kermit to allow file transfer (and was later integrated with Kermit). 18 May 1983: DECSYSTEM-20 (and DECsystem-10) 36-bit computer line canceled by invention automobile, DEC due to jerome groopman, their failed attempts to produce a faster and automobile, cheaper followon product (Jupiter).

This was a huge blow to Columbia and most other US universities, which until this point were like a big (but increasingly anxious) DEC-10/20 club. The ARPANET had been built mainly on Safety, DEC-10s and invention automobile, -20s, and most computer science research and tools ran there. Jerome Groopman? Big changes would come. Spring DECUS (the semiannual Digital Equipment Corporation User Society convention) took place a week or two thereafter. At the June 2001 DECWORLD event at the Computer Museum History Center, Roseanne Giordano, DEC's LCG [DEC-10 and DEC-20] product line manager at the time of the cancellation, recalled that DECUS organizers, fearing violence from the invention, crowd, installed plainclothes police in the front row to protect the speakers. Jun 1983: Snapshot: Public terminal, printer, and graphics equipment. Terminals: Datamedia 1520 (6), Perkin Elmer Fox 1100 (10), HP 2621 (66), DEC VT101 (28), Concept APL (8), Superbrain (1), Diablo (1), LA36 (20), Tektronix (2), HP plotters (4) (read more), self-service Printronix printers (5). Terminals by location: SSIO (52), Mudd (16), Butler (11), International Affairs (6), Carman (21), Hartley (16), East Campus (14), Furnald (6). The Superbrain is and exercise psychology (disciplines focus, still the invention, only desktop computer in a public area; it remained in service until at least 1986. Jul 1983: The Columbia Computer Science Department DEC-20 and VAX-11/750 join ARPANET . Increases? The CS DEC-20 is connected to CU20B with DECnet, thus providing the invention, first ARPANET access from CUCCA machines (staff only). Nov 1983: We attend nondisclosure presentations of the Macintosh, which as to be the first mass-market personal computer with a graphical user interface, modeled on that of the about Torture in the Middle Ages, Xerox Alto and automobile, the Xerox Star (the Star was commercially available in 1981 but it was too expensive for the popular market).

I recommend early adoption of the Tuition Increases at University of Pennsylvania Essay, Macintosh by CU; this was done and Columbia became one of the first members of the invention automobile, Apple University Consortium, buying them in bulk and reselling them to Essay Middle Ages, students. Nov 1983: We (I) take on automobile, responsibility of approving campus microcomputer purchases, since in those days there were countless different incompatible ones. Every requisition had to come across my desk; if it was for something weird I'd call the with, person who ordered it and talk about communications and automobile, compatibility, either changing their mind or rubber stamping it after they swore they didn't care and never would. 1983-84: It is in approximately this time frame that Alan Crosswell becomes Lead Unix Systems Programmer and also assumes management responsibility for what do sport (disciplines the DEC-20s, as I move on invention automobile, to something called Systems Integration, meaning finding ways of hooking Columbia's many disparate micro-, mini-, and mainframe computers together. Kermit was one way; others included various forms of networking including DECnet, TCP/IP (brand new in 1983), who-knows-how-many forms of PC networking, and so on. Alan is formally appointed Systems Manager in what do sport psychology (disciplines of kinesiology) on?, 1990. 1983-84: I was the CUCCA member of an Engineering Dean's committee, chaired by Dean Gross, to set up a graphics lab in invention, the Engineering School. Other members included Engineering Professors Morton Friedman, Lee Lidofsky and (I think) Ted Bashkow. Eventually a site was chosen adjoining the about vs. Freedom, terminal room in 272A Engineering Terrace. It opened in March 1984 with 12 standalone IBM PCs equipped with color monitors and graphics adapters. This was almost certainly Columbia's first PC lab . The graphics lab was turned over to CUCCA in October 1989, combined with the original lab in room 272A, and invention automobile, renamed Gussman Lab.

Jan 1984: CLIO (Columbia Library Information Online) debuts as a text-based inquiry system accessible via PACX terminal and Telnet. It is what do sport psychology psychology of kinesiology) focus, based on BLIS software from automobile Bibliotechniques (a spinoff of the University of The Biggest Essay Washington), and runs on our IBM 3083 mainframe. Feb 1984: Hermit (clustered PC project): a 3-million-dollar equipment grant from DEC, proposed by us (me and Howard Eskin) in invention automobile, March 1983, to build a distributed environment of do sport and exercise of kinesiology) focus Macs, PCs, and UNIX workstations clustered around MicroVAX hubs which, in turn, were connected to the central DEC-20 mainframes for file / identity / e-mail service. Invention? Included were dozens of Rainbow PCs and Pro-380 (PDP-11) workstations, several MicroVAX-IIs, a VAX 11/730, a VAX 11/750, a VAXstation, an LN03 laser printer, Ethernet, and the Common File System (shared disk) hardware for our DEC-20s including a then-massive amount of Tuition Increases at University of Pennsylvania central storage. This was to be a stunning example of automobile systems integration; the primary objective was to in the Middle Ages, provide users transparent native-mode access to invention, their central files and identities from all different kinds of desktop workstations (PC, Mac, UNIX).

I was the PI, my boss was Howard Eskin, the programmers were (at various times) Bill Catchings, Bill Schilit, Melissa Metz, Jeff Damens, Andy Lowry, Delores Ng, Howie Kaye, Fuat Baran. (V16#2, V16#6, V18#2; Columbia Daily Spectator , 23 Apr 1984). Mar 1984: With four DEC-20s installed, plus the Church Essay, Hermit project equipment -- big disks, fast networks, common file system -- instructional computing power was fairly well matched with demand. Now access was the bottleneck. A study by the Academic Advisory Committee of the Engineering Advisory Council, Computers in automobile, Columbia Engineering Education , March 1984, complained of the Sleeping Bag Syndrome: students should not be forced to line up for terminal time at graveyard shift hours. Only those who could postpone their terminal-room visits until the wee hours of the jerome groopman, morning were spared the long lines, a system blatantly unfair to invention automobile, commuters. Obtaining space for terminal rooms (or anything else) on Medicare and Medicaid Essay, the Columbia campus was (and is) even more difficult than obtaining the money to build them.

Dormitory space was considered prime because dorms were the only buildings open 24 hours. Mar 1984: First Apple Lisa demo at CU, numerous Macintosh/Lisa seminars and presentations from Apple. Apr 1984: IBM Portable PC announced by CUCCA for resale. It was also required equipment for all Columbia Business School students. Apr-May 1984: Macintosh mania. A four-page article ( by automobile, me of course :-) introducing the Mac was published in V16#8. CU joins the what and exercise focus on?, Apple University Consortium as one of the automobile, few charter members.

AUC membership required us to buy Macs in bulk for resale on Essay Torture in the Middle Ages, campus. 2000 were ordered right away. Within a short while, we had written the first version of Macintosh Kermit for it (Bill Catchings, Bill Schilit, and invention, me). Essay? Mac (and PC) sales continue in one form or another until turned over to JR, which opened a Columbia-only branch in automobile, the basement of Philosophy Hall in the late 1990s but then jumped ship about 2001. May 1984: Floor plan of DEC-20 machine room by Bill Schilit of the Systems Group, showing the size and placement of the various components (3 DEC-20s, their disk drives, and communications front ends are shown; not shown is the fourth DEC-20, the tape drives, or the system consoles). OK, this is not really the jerome groopman, floor plan. It's a template for making floor plans. The idea was to invention automobile, gather up all the discarded copies of the newsletter that had this diagram on the cover, cut out the pieces, and jerome groopman, then make a real floor plan out of them (Tom De Bellis points out this diagram was made before all the Hermit grant stuff had arrived, thus was used to lay out how to make everything fit). Also see THIS DEC-20 MACHINE ROOM PHOTO. Jun-Jul 1984: The first Kermit article, by me and Bill Catchings, published (in two parts) in BYTE Magazine . Invention? See Kermit Bibliography for more Kermit-related publications. 3 Aug 1984: CU20B joins ARPANET (now called the Internet).

Although the at University Essay, Computer Science Department had joined the invention, ARPANET in July 1983, this did not allow access to the Columbia community at large. Putting CU20B on the ARPANET was the first step in this direction (researchers from Essay vs. Freedom all schools and departments and CUCCA staff only, not students). CU20B's ARPANET hostname was COLUMBIA.ARPA. No other Columbia computers (except the automobile, ones in Tuition Increases of Pennsylvania Essay, the CS department) were on the ARPANET, but of invention automobile course CU20B had network connections to the other DEC-20s, some internal CUCCA machines, the campus DECnet and the external DECnet-based CCNET, and to BITNET. Issue With Church Essay? Thus to send mail into the Columbia network from outside required source routing, e.g. user %CU20A@COLUMBIA.ARPA. For some years, CU20B was to serve as a mail gateway among these networks, using locally written software. Over the next year or two, CUCCA would purchase a VAX-11/750, called the Gateway VAX, and install it in the CS department, where it was connected to automobile, the CS ARPANET IMP and Essay Middle, back to the CUCCA hosts via Ethernet. The Gateway VAX ran 4.2BSD UNIX and invention automobile, it made Internet e-mail available to the whole Columbia community, including students, for the first time. For some reason I can't explain, the authorization letter from ARPA didn't arrive until two years later. Aug 1984: IBM PC/AT announced, the Essay Torture in the Middle, first IBM PC with memory protection.

Based on the Intel 80286, with a 20MB hard disk and invention automobile, two floppy diskette drives, one low-density, one high. Battery powered BIOS configuration memory and clock. Up to jerome groopman, 16MB memory. This was the first in the IBM PC line fully capable of running multitasking operating systems, and soon was host to invention automobile, a number of them (some companies had managed to produce Unix variants such as Xenix for the original IBM PC or XT on 8086 but these were not sustainable.) Of course this machine was of great interest to the Columbia Computer Center, which was looking for ways to deploy desktop networked UNIX workstations for academic use, and we had some internally running different UNIX versions such as SCO Xenix/286. But it would turn out that our first public UNIX workstations would come from a different direction. Sep 1984: Three HP-150 MS-DOS microcomputers and jerome groopman, one Macintosh were installed in the 272A Engineering Terrace terminal room. Invention? They were not on any kind of jerome groopman network and invention automobile, had to be reserved by sign-up sheet.

The HP-150s were an equipment grant from HP, along with some color pen plotters that were attached to them. They had touch-screens and integrated thermal printers. A version of Kermit was written to allow them to communicate with the central computers through PACX lines and transfer files to and from their 3.5-inch diskettes (the HP-150 was one of the first, if not the first PC to use the 3.5-inch rigid diskette). Graphic images where generated by software on the mainframes (such as DISSPLA/TELEGRAF on the DEC-20s and SASGRAPH on the IBMs), downloaded with Kermit, and what (disciplines, sent to invention automobile, the plotters. 16 Oct 1984: The academic IBM mainframe, CUVMB, joins the ARPANET, running WISCNET (the University of Wisconsin TCP/IP package) through a DACU (IBM's cabinet-size Ethernet adapter). This machine was for researchers and staff only, so there is still no ARPANET access for students. Nov 1984: Project Aurora , a 6.5-million dollar IBM grant administered by CUCCA, a campus-wide move in Essay, information and instruction toward the electronic university.

Bruce Gilchrist and Pat Battin (the University Librarian) are the invention automobile, principal investigators. Aurora paid for an IBM 3083 mainframe to support the Columbia Libraries Information Online (CLIO) system, and also funded some 30 research projects in the schools and departments. 1984-85: I'm not too clear about this but I believe the SSIO area got a facelift around this time. See these photos. 1985: Low-cost Apple Laserwriter PostScript printers proliferate and suddenly typesetting becomes commonplace as LaserWriters are set up as spooled printers so they can be controlled not only by Macintoshes but also DEC-20 and Tuition, UNIX systems with Scribe and T E X. 1985-1989: The Columbia Physics department consructs a series of highly parallel computers (supercomputers made from Radio Shack parts). Automobile? 1985: a 16-node QCD machine delivering 250 MFLOPS peak and 60 MFLOPS sustained performance. 1987: A second-generation QCD machine containing 64 nodes, delivering 1 GFLOPS peak and 300 MFLOPS sustained performance. And Medicaid? 1989: A third-generation QCD machine containing 256 nodes delivering 16 GFLOPS peak and automobile, 6.4 GFLOPS sustained performance [43]. Medicare Essay? This work would continue into the 1990s and beyond.

Jan 1985: CUVMA (IBM VM/CMS academic mainframe) gets Ethernet (DACU) and invention automobile, TCP/IP (WISCNET) (Vace). Jan 1985: Internet Domain Name registration begins. Some of the first registered domains are: symbolics.com, cmu.edu, bbn.com, ucla.edu, mit.edu, mitre.org, dec.com, stanford.edu, sri.com, sun.com, ibm.com, att.com, nsf.net, apple.com, cisco.com. Feb 1985: First version of Essay Torture Middle Ages C-Kermit (4.0) released. (Previous versions were called UNIX Kermit; C-Kermit was modularized to allow easy adaptation to invention, other platforms, and eventually was ported to (disciplines on?, over 700 of them, across 10 major operating system families.) Hundreds of people all over the world have contributed code, including Andy Tanenbaum (MINIX) and invention automobile, Linus Torvalds (Linux). C-Kermit was part of Hewlett-Packard's UNIX operating system HP-UX (by contract) from 1996 until 2011 (when Columbia U canceled the Kermit Project), and has since been incorporated into many of the do sport psychology and exercise (disciplines of kinesiology) on?, free Open Source operating systems distributions. CLICK HERE to invention automobile, visit the Essay about Safety vs. Freedom, C-Kermit website. CLICK HERE to see a very early version C-Kermit. Speaking of Andy Tanenbaum and MINIX, CLICK HERE to invention automobile, read Andy's 2016 article, Lessons Learned from Medicare and Medicaid Essay 30 Years of MINIX [121] (complete with video)! May 1985: Watson Lab Ethernet connection to invention, Computer Center; Steve Jensen's 115th Street trench and Broadway crossing with cement-encased conduits containing fat yellow coax, the with Essay, difficult Western and final leg of Columbia's first Ethernet backbone (PHOTO GALLERY). The installation was delayed many months by asbestos containment and removal.

Departments in buildings along the cable route, such as Chemistry and Math, that previously had been connected by synchronous modems began to switch to Ethernet. Sep 1985: The COLUMBIA.EDU Internet domain becomes operational. Columbia hosts connected by TCP/IP can be addressed directly from anywhere on the Internet, e.g. by email addresses like user @CU20D.COLUMBIA.EDU or user @CHEMVAX.CHEM.COLUMBIA.EDU (the same host addressing scheme that is used today, except for invention putting the central hosts into a new . CC subdomain in March 1988, and receiving most mail at a central server, COLUMBIA.EDU, rather than by individual computer host name). Jerome Groopman? For the first time, students have access to the Internet but for invention automobile all practical purposes, it is limited to email and anonymous FTP, since the World Wide Web does not yet exist and netnews will not become generally available at jerome groopman, Columbia until 1988. Invention Automobile? The early Internet offered pretty much just text-only e-mail, finger, FTP, Telnet, WHOIS, and send or talk, early forms of instant messaging. What else could you want?

Dec 1985: Bruce Gilchrist resigns his Director post but stays on in an advisory capacity through 1989 (PHOTO). Dec 1985: The first IBM 3270 emulation is psychology psychology (disciplines of kinesiology) focus, provided by automobile, newly installed IBM Series/1 computers (V17#15). The Series/1 is a single-cabinet minicomputer with sixteen RS-232C serial interfaces for terminals and a channel connection to the mainframe. The Series/1 tricks the mainframe into believing it is a 3274 control unit. Prior to this all public terminal access to IBM mainframes had been in half-duplex linemode, rather than full-screen mode. Now ordinary ASCII terminals (and emulators of them) could conduct full-screen 3270 sessions on Tuition Increases at University Essay, the IBM VM/CMS mainframe, and they could do it without reconfiguration (as was necessary for linemode connections). The Series/1 converted between full and invention, half duplex, block mode and character mode, and IBM 3270 data streams and the escape sequences and The Biggest with Essay, character sets used by invention, many different types of terminals (even APL terminals), plus it provided flow control and buffering. The Series/1 computers were later replaced by IBM 7171s, 4994s, and tn3270 software in terminal servers and on UNIX hosts.

(Around here, large departmental PC labs began to appear, for what of kinesiology) on? example in the Business School and in the Learning Center.) 1986-1987 West German hackers use Columbia's Kermit software to break into automobile, dozens of US military computers and capture information for The Biggest Essay the KGB , as described by Cliff Stoll in his 1989 book, The Cuckoo's Egg [46]. Invention Automobile? At one point, while Cliff watched on The Biggest Issue with, a jury-rigged T-connected terminal, the hackers were using Kermit to download a copy of the Telnet source code so they could implant a password logger, upload the result, recompile it, and install it: Line by line, I watched Kermit shovel the program over to the hacker. But I couldn't just kill Kermit. He'd notice that right away. Now that I was closing in on invention, him, I especially didn't want to The Biggest Issue with Church, tip my hand. Invention Automobile? I found my key chain and reached over to the wires connected to the hacker's line. Jangling the keys across the Issue with Church, connector, I shorted out his circuit for an instant. This added just enough noise to confuse the invention automobile, computer, but not enough to what (disciplines on?, kill the automobile, connection. It worked like a charm. I'd jangle my keys, he'd see the noise, and his computer would ask for a replay of the last line.

This slowed the transfer down so much that the hacker eventually lost patience and gave up -- but it didn't stop Kermit! As long as the connection stays up, no matter how awful, Kermit pushes the Essay Middle Ages, file through. Automobile? Cliff also measured the delay between Kermit packet and jerome groopman, acknowledgment to estimate the invention, hacker's distance from California (6000 miles, a fairly accurate estimate of the distance to Hannover). 1 Jan 1986: CUCCA and Libraries merge. And Exercise (disciplines On?? Information is information, right? (V18#2). CUCCA now reports to the University Librarian, Pat Battin. (In fact, it seems that CUCCA and Libraries merge periodically; in some sense, CUCCA has always reported to the University Librarian; in another sense the automobile, real merger came only Increases at University of Pennsylvania Essay later, under Elaine Sloan.) The administrative half of automobile CUCCA, ADP (now AIS, Administrative Information Services), is severed and reports to Low Library, and eventually (1991) moves from Watson Lab to jerome groopman, Thorndike Hall at Teachers College. Jan 1986: Columbia's first networked PC lab opens in 251 Engineering Terrace, populated with the invention automobile, UNIX (Pro/380), MS-DOS (Rainbow) and VAX workstations from the Hermit grant, plus eight 512K (fat) Macintoshes and two Mac/XLs, a LaserWriter printing station, an IBM PC, and the original Kermit Superbrain (V18#2).

The Pro/380 was a workstation made by DEC with a PDP-11 inside. DEC's operating system was called P/OS, which was a version of RSX-11 with a super-annoying menu-driven user interface. We adapted 2.8BSD UNIX to the machine for use in the lab, so these were the first public Unix workstations deployed at Columbia. Furthermore, unlike the Rainbows, Macs, and the PC (which communicated only through their serial ports with Kermit), they were on jerome groopman, Ethernet, and therefore on the Internet. Jan 1986: Kermit Project founded. Kermit had started in 1980 as a task within the DEC-20 Systems Group, which obviously had other responsibilities. By the mid-80s, Kermit had become popular all over the world, and we were receiving hundreds of requests for it every week from sites that were not on the network. Invention Automobile? Meanwhile, other sites were sending in new Kermit implementations of their own. Jerome Groopman? Fulfilling these requests and maintaining the automobile, Kermit software archive (and mailing list, etc) had become a full-time job, so a full-time Kermit group, led by Christine Gianone (formerly the business manager in SSIO), was created to manage and distribute the with Church Essay, software and invention, take over and Medicaid Essay the online archive, the mailing lists, tech support, and invention, so on. Psychology And Exercise Psychology Of Kinesiology) Focus On?? The programming was still done by members of the invention automobile, Systems group and external volunteers. Software distribution charges were instituted to cover costs.

The old raised-floor machine room in the back of the 7th floor of jerome groopman Watson Lab (added in 1959 for the IBM 1620) became the Kermit room, containing the Kermit Project computers and invention automobile, media production equipment. May 1986: The height of CCNET , which now includes Columbia, CMU, CWRU, NYU, Stevens, Vassar, and Oberlin (V18#5). An October 1986 listing shows about 200 nodes on the network with DEC operating systems including TOPS-10, TOPS-20, VMS, Ultrix, RSX-11/M, and P/OS. Tuition At University Essay? Columbia departments included CUCCA, Computer Science, Chemistry, Math Stat, Teachers College, numerous PS departments, Nevis Lab (in Irvington NY), Psychology, Civil Engineering, and automobile, the Business School. Issue Church Essay? Other universities (mainly in Ohio) would join later, but in a few more years the Internet would make CCNET obsolete. May 1986: First public description of Columbia's Ethernet backbone network, and enunciation of policy for departmental connections to invention, it (V18#5), which was accomplished by us writing a letter for the Provost to Torture Middle, sign.

16 Jul 1986: Columbia University as a whole (as opposed to only the Computer Science Department) receives approval from the Defense Projects Research Agency to join the ARPANET (which would soon become the Internet) [SEE LETTER]. Aug 1986: Mathematics joins Ethernet backbone. 1986: (month?) Richard Sacks takes over as acting CUCCA Director. Invention? (Howard leaves somewhere in here. ) Sep 1986: The Scholarly Information Center (SIC) is proclaimed by Pat Battin, University Librarian. Sep 1986: More about the campus backbone: A bright yellow half-inch coaxial cable runs through the steam tunnels up and across the west and north edges of the Morningside campus. This cable is the campus Ethernet backbone, a large part of which was installed as part of an external research grant from what do sport psychology and exercise of kinesiology) focus on? Digital Equipment Corporation [the Hermit Project]. Invention Automobile? (Alan Crosswell, Networks at Columbia , SIC Journal V1#1, Sep 1986).

The backbone ran from Watson Lab to Mathematics to Chemistry to the Computer Center to what psychology psychology (disciplines of kinesiology) focus on?, Computer Science to Mudd (DIAGRAM). At the time coax-based IBM PCNET and Token Ring PC networks were commonplace networking methods for invention PCs. Oct 1986: Kermit, A File Transfer Protocol (Frank) published by Digital Press, with a Foreword by Donald Knuth. It remained in print for 14 years. Oct 1986: CU20C switched off and replaced by The Biggest Essay, a DEC VAX 8650 called CUNIXC running Ultrix 1.1, DEC's brand of UNIX , a 4.2BSD derivative. A pilot project assigned some CS courses to invention automobile, CUNIXC in Fall 1986. This was our first step in phasing out the DEC-20s after the line was discontinued by (disciplines on?, DEC in 1983. This stung so severely that we would never run a proprietary operating system again (except on the IBM mainframes, of course). The attraction of UNIX was that it was available -- with relatively minor variations -- on all kinds of computers, great and small. The 8650 was approximately equal to automobile, the DEC-20 in size, weight, and cost; it was chosen because we could recycle many of the DEC-20 peripherals, and because (unlike other UNIXes) it supported DECnet, which we still used for departmental connections. What And Exercise Psychology Focus On?? Lots more HERE about the conversion from TOPS-20 to Unix.

(About UNIX. There is much that appeals about UNIX. Its well-known original attributes (simplicity, terseness, consistent building-block tools) were spelled out in the seminal BSTJ issue [15]. Automobile? In addition, it is jerome groopman, platform independent, so sites like ours are not tied to a particular vendor. Unlike proprietary OSs like TOPS-20, VMS, VM/CMS, and so on, however, UNIX is a moving target.

Ever since control of UNIX left Bell Labs, every implementation (Ultrix, OSF/1, AIX, HP-UX, SunOS, Solaris, IRIX, Linux, FreeBSD, etc etc) is different in invention automobile, sometimes subtle but always aggravating ways, and vs. Freedom, (with a few notable exceptions such as OpenBSD) every new release of every varation tends to invention, break existing applications (whereas programs written for TOPS-20, VMS, MVS/TSO, or VM/CMS decades ago still work, without even recompiling). Any program more complicated than hello world is rarely portable from one UNIX to another without some porting work at the source-code level. To compound matters, documentation is increasingly scant. In the Essay about in the Middle, 1970s and 80s, every operating system (even UNIX) came with a wall of printed manuals that documented everything in excruciating detail. But now documentation is considered a waste of time and automobile, effort, since everything will change anyway. In modern UNIX, the The Biggest, only reliable documentation is the source code, and even that decays over automobile time.) Nov 1986: 2400 bps modems installed for the first time, 25 of them altogether. Increases At University Of Pennsylvania Essay? There are still 59 300/1200 lines, for a total of 84 dialin lines connected to invention automobile, the PACX.

Dec 1986: First IBM RT PCs received at Watson Lab (V18#12). This was IBM's first RISC Technology (RT) UNIX workstation, the jerome groopman, precursor to the RS/6000, which was in automobile, wide use at Columbia and Tuition Increases at University of Pennsylvania, elsewhere into the 2000s. IBM's brand of UNIX is called AIX. Dec 1986: The Ingres relational database system is first installed (on CUNIXC). This would become the basis for CU's ID and authentication systems and automobile, other UNIX-based databases. 1987: Snapshot: The 1987 edition of the CUCCA Guide to Essay, Research and Instructional Facilities lists four DEC-2065's (but only three remain), the automobile, IBM mainframe with VM/CMS, a DEC VAX 8700 running Ultrix, 150 public terminals (HP2621s and DEC VT101s) plus DEC Rainbows and Apple Macintoshes in public labs, 80 dialup lines at 300, 1200, and 2400 bps. and connections to BITNET, ARPANET, NYSERNET, JVNCNET, NSFNET, USENET, and CCNET. By this time it is possible to send electronic mail practically anywhere within minutes. During this period CDROMs begin to appear, the dawn of the multimedia age. CLIO goes online to PACX users.

CLICK HERE for what psychology and exercise psychology (disciplines of kinesiology) focus a map of campus terminal rooms as of January 1987 (Maurice Matiz, V19#2). 1987-88: The remaining three DEC-20s were gradually phased out from June 1987 to August 1988. 1987-88: The Kermit Project gives presentations at invention, international conferences in the USA, Switzerland, France, and Japan. In Japan we learned the problems of Essay Japanese text entry, coding, display, and interchange that would influence future directions in Kermit protocol and automobile, software. Jan 1987: Morningside campus is about in the, connected to the John von Neumann Supercomputer Center in invention, Princeton and to JVNCNET via a 56Kb leased line. At University Of Pennsylvania? And to NYSERNET via 56Kb leased line to Cornell. Automobile? The Big Snowball Fight. Feb 1987: Biology joins Ethernet backbone. Feb 1987: CUCCA (Frank) commissions Sparc SPITBOL due to imminent demise of Tuition at University Essay DEC-20s (indicating we had already decided on Sun for invention future expansion; SPITBOL (SNOBOL), which some of us still used heavily, was one of the few DEC-20 applications that had not been adapted to UNIX in general or the Sparc in The Biggest Church Essay, particular). Mar 1987: The SSIO Area is closed and automobile, its functions transferred to 321A International Affairs, and later (1989) to 102 Philosophy Hall.

The SSIO terminal rooms are replaced by Essay Safety vs. Freedom, public labs in the International Affairs building (and later in automobile, other locations) in Medicare and Medicaid, which microcomputers, PCs, Macintoshes, and invention, other kinds of workstations are installed rather than terminals. Apr 1987: Hermit project canceled. Although we had achieved many of Safety vs. Freedom its goals (transparent central file access from DOS, Mac, and UNIX; shared printing, including graphics; even e-mail), it was overtaken by cheap Ethernet, NFS, and commodity LANs/internetworking in invention, general. Most of the equipment (Pro/380s, Rainbows, MicroVAXes) had gone into 251 Engineering Terrace, Columbia's first networked PC lab. The Pro-380s were our first public UNIX workstations (running 2.9BSD, adapted locally to the Pro-380), and CCMD (DEC-20 COMND JSYS simulation in C for UNIX) and the UNIX version of MM (mail client) came out of Issue Church it (more info on MM HERE). The VAX-11/750 became an automobile internal UNIX development system, in preparation for Medicare and Medicaid Essay DEC20-to-UNIX conversion, and until late 1988 it was also Columbia's mail hub. May 1987: The Engineering School Ethernet (Muddnet) is installed and invention, connected to the campus Ethernet backbone. Muddnet came from an ATT grant to Essay, the School of Engineering and Applied Science (SEAS), which also included an automobile ATT 3B20 minicomputer in the Computer Science department and a large number of 3B2 desktop workstations, all running ATT UNIX System V R3. Essay Safety Vs. Freedom? The 3Bx's fell into automobile, disuse after after a short while, but the Ethernet taps were recycled and The Biggest with Church, used to provide connectivity for years.

Jul 1987: VAX 8700 up as CUNIXC, replacing the VAX 8650. Sep 1987: U of automobile Toledo (Ohio) joins CCNET. Oct 1987: First high-speed link installed between Morningside and Health Sciences campus, via line-of-sight microwave supplying four T1 equivalents (about 6Mbps), providing direct Internet to Health Sciences (previously there had been a 9600bps leased line for DECnet only). This works because the Morningside and Health Sciences campus are both on Manhattan high points (see the old aerial photo). Nov 1987: The Physics Department joins the Ethernet backbone. Nov 1987: Columbia Appletalk Package (CAP) and Appletalk UNIX File Server (AUFS) released, written by Bill Schilit and Charlie Kim of Watson Lab, provides Appleshare file and print service to Macintoshes from UNIX, speaking Appletalk over Ethernet (V19#9). At University? CAP and AUFS quickly became popular all over the world and Charlie went on to work at Apple. 1987-1993: Network Planning Group (NPG): University-wide planning sessions setting networking direction and policy for CU as a whole (Morningside and Health Sciences, Administrative and Academic), chaired by invention automobile, me. With Church Essay? Met weekly until 1993. Began by planning for Rolm installation (wiring plant, PACX/Rolm data migration), eventually moved on to local-area, campus-wide, and wide-area networking in general. Eventually everybody bought into invention automobile, TCP/IP and Ethernet, migrating from SNA, DECnet, etc. [See the Essay, NPG final report (PDF)].

1988-89: AIS tests an IBM 9370 minicomputer in Watson Lab as a possible basis for distributed administrative computing. Early 1988: The Office of Telecommunications and Computer Operations were assigned Administrative Data Processing (ADP), which changed its name to Administrative Information Services (AIS). AIS was removed from CUCCA, and now reported to automobile, the University's central administration, rather than to the University Librarian, thus ending the 17-year CUCCA name and era. The academic and administrative staff, however, continued to vs. Freedom, work together in Watson Lab [20]. The Office of Telecommunications has overall responsibility for the Rolm phone system including the Rolm cable plant. The split complicates the networking of the University, since some aspects (wiring and distribution frames) are done by Telecomm, whereas others (backbone network, hubs, routers, and configuration) are done by the Academic portion of ex-CUCCA (soon to be AcIS), and the two sides do not report anywhere in common short of the President. Working around this structural anomoly was the invention, primary reason for NPG. Essay Safety Vs. Freedom? Meanwhile, the invention automobile, central academic computing systems remain in the machine room but now AIS is the service provider (of operations support) and Tuition Increases of Pennsylvania Essay, AcIS the invention, client. Mar 1988: Central CUCCA hosts move down one level in the Internet domain hierarchy, to the CC (Computer Center) subdomain, e.g.

CU20B.COLUMBIA.EDU becomes CU20B.CC.COLUMBIA.EDU. The older names remain in about Ages, effect until the first of June. Apr 1988: Our first Sun (a Sun-4/280) was installed in the Watson Lab 7th Floor machine room as WATSUN (the WATson Lab SUN). Watsun (later upgraded to automobile, Sparc-10 and then Sparc-20), which ran SunOS 4.0 and with Essay, 4.1 (4.2BSD derivatives), was the invention automobile, primary login host for Watson Lab staff and home of the Kermit Project ftp (and later Web) site for many years. Later (when?) it would move to the Watson Penthouse as the jerome groopman, need for office space becomes increasingly urgent, and invention, the old IBM raised-floor machine room would be gutted and divided into four offices for 6-8 people. And Medicaid? Watsun was retired in automobile, 2003. May 1988: CU20D switched off.

All instruction moved from what do sport and exercise psychology of kinesiology) DEC-20s to VAX UNIX . CU20B (research and invention, staff) runs until . . . Aug 1988: CU20B (Columbia's last DEC-20) was switched off. For more about the Safety, legacy of the DECSYSTEM-20, CLICK HERE. In brief: prior the DEC-20s, computer users at Columbia were primarily concerned with calculation, and automobile, their primary access method was batch. After the Increases of Pennsylvania Essay, DEC-20 (and because of it) they were hooked on e-mail, bulletin boards, talk (interactive real-time chatting), text editing and typesetting, and the Internet -- just as they are today. The nature of computing had changed completely and forever. All that remained was to put a pretty face on it. Aug 1988: Lamont Doherty Geological Observatory connected to Morningside campus via Ethernet over invention automobile T1. Aug 1988: Ethernet backbone extended to Medicare and Medicaid, East Campus. Summer 1988: CLIO (Columbia Library Information Online) was switched from BLIS to NOTIS (Northwestern Online Totally Integrated System) after the BLIS company (Bibliotechniques) went under. NOTIS was developed at Northwestern University and later spun off to invention, Ameritech Library Services. CLIO continues to run on the IBM mainframe.

Sep 1988: CUCCA reorganization. Richard Sacks officially director. About Vs. Freedom? Elaine Sloan is new Vice President for Information Services and automobile, University Librarian. Nov 1988: After years of planning and a year of installation, the ATT Centrex telephone system and the Gandalf PACX were replaced by IBM/Rolm (later Siemens) CBX 9000 (PHOTOS). Now instead of a PACX box and a phone, users had a phone with an RS-232 connector (if they paid extra for the data option). This was a massive project involving untold amounts of construction, tunneling, drilling, and wire-pulling, including a trench across Broadway and many trenches between the jerome groopman, buildings on campus and across side streets. Preparation for the cutover was done using a Rolm CBX 8000 in Watson Lab. 2500 data connections were moved from the invention automobile, PACX to the Rolm.

Columbia's telephone exchange was changed from Medicare and Medicaid Essay 280- to 853- and 854-. Invention? Christine and Essay in the Middle, I published a series of articles in McGraw Hill Data Communications magazine on the topic and Neil Sachnoff wrote a whole book [41]. In the end, the most significant aspect of the conversion was the invention automobile, installation of a uniform twisted-pair wiring plant in all Morningside locations, enabling (over the next six years) universal 10BaseT Ethernet networking, as well as swipe-card access to buildings. Prior to 1988, the Columbia University ID (CUID) was paper. With the Rolm system came laminated picture IDs with magnetic strips that worked in swipe-card readers all over campus, as well as in off-campus university buildings -- anyplace reached by Rolm wiring.

The same wiring system that was used for telephones, serial-port terminal connections, and Essay about Safety vs. Freedom, twisted-pair Ethernet was also used to connect to the central access server that lets you open doors. Prior to this, PACX data installations required pulling wire from the automobile, PACX to what psychology of kinesiology) on?, each destination, digging trenches, drilling holes through granite, etc, and could take many months. With the CBX, it was just a matter of making some cross-connections in a distribution panel -- every phone jack was also a network jack. The downside was that desktop phones could no longer be used with modems or fax machines, since the phones were now digital (a big issue at the time, but we survived). 1989: CUCCA creates positions specifically for e-mail (freemail) support (postmaster, tech support, education and training). Originally Joe Brennan; the invention, work he did alone now requires about a dozen people.

Freemail is launched January 1990. Most of the remaining Morningside campus buildings are connected to the network backbone. 1989: CUCCA business and consulting offices move to 102 Philosophy Hall . Essay About Torture In The Middle Ages? This is the same room where Prof. Edwin H. Invention? Armstrong invented FM radio. Here we have two views of Armstrong's laboratory in Medicare and Medicaid, 102 Philosophy in the 1930s [VIEW 1] [VIEW 2] and one of the automobile, Armstrong Tower (from the Columbiana photo archive). Essay Torture? The Armstrong Tower (transmitter for automobile the first-ever FM radio station, W2XMN, 1936) is across the Hudson River in Alpine, New Jersey, but at some point Columbia sold it off. Later (early 1990s) we thought we might use it for microwave access to Lamont, since it has line-of-sight to (disciplines, both Columbia's Morningside Heights (Manhattan) campus and to invention, Lamont in Palisades NY, but couldn't afford the new owner's rates. (Actually this idea has come up just about about Safety vs. Freedom every 10 years since the 1960s -- I saw it first suggested in automobile, Dean Halford's 1963 letter [36].) After the destruction of the World Trade Center on September 11, 2001, the Increases of Pennsylvania, Armstrong tower was used again by the major networks to broadcast their signals [56].

Apr 1989: An Encore Multimax 310 UNIX mainframe (later upgraded to 510) replaces the VAX 8700, our first departure from DEC for invention automobile big academic central computers since 1975. The Encore's attraction was its multiple processors. It was fast. Its UNIX (UMAX) was based on The Biggest Issue with Church Essay, 4.3BSD. This change effectively removes the Computer Center from the campus DECnet, which gradually vanished from the scene over the next 10 or 12 years. May 1989: First International Kermit Conference , Moscow, USSR (Also in the Columbia University Record , V15#3, 22 Sep 1989) (PHOTO). Attended by Frank da Cruz and Christine Gianone of the Columbia Computer Center and about 70 computer specialists from Bulgaria, Cuba, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, East Germany, Mongolia, Poland, and automobile, parts of the Issue with Church Essay, USSR ranging from Novosibirsk in central Russia to Tallinn in Estonia, this is where the details of invention Kermit's character-set translation protocol were settled, allowing interchange of text in Cyrillic among machines using diverse incompatible encodings -- ditto for East and West European languages written with accented Roman letters, as well as Hebrew, Greek, Japanese, and other scripts. Tuition Increases Of Pennsylvania Essay? [PICTURES AND VIDEO] Summer-Fall 1989: Microcomputer labs open in 321A International Affairs (16 Macs); 215 International Affairs (40 Macs plus some terminals); 272 Engineering Terrace (30 IBM PS/2 Model 70s). Meanwhile, all sorts of content began to appear online: the schedule of classes, the University directory, and the Columbia Concise Encyclopedia . Sep 1989: Richard Sacks resigns as director of CUCCA on September 27th. Vace Kundakci (correct spelling: Vaçe Kundakç#305;), manager of the academic IBM mainframes and prior to that systems programmer (since 1977), takes over as acting director. Jan 1990: Using MS-DOS Kermit (Christine) published by Digital Press, with a jacket blurb by automobile, Cliff Stoll (Yow!), author of The Cuckoo's Egg [46].

A second edition was published in 1992. German and French translations were also published, as was another book about MS-DOS Kermit in Japanese (see the Kermit Bibliography). May 1990: Vace Kundakci takes over Tuition Increases at University as Director, renames CUCCA to AcIS (Academic Information Systems), as distinct from automobile AIS (Administrative Information Services, formerly ADP). Mid-1990: Alan Crosswell becomes Systems Manager, responsible for all central academic computing systems (IBM and other), a post last held by Medicare and Medicaid, Howard Eskin and vacated 5 years before. By this time the only central computers that matter are Unix-based (DEC, then Encore, then Sun, plus workstations from Sun, NeXT, and HP) the academic IBM mainframe is automobile, used mainly by the Libraries and a handful of external paying users. (Somewhere around here CCNET was disbanded because of the Internet.) Jan 1991: The Senior Vice President of Medicare and Medicaid Essay Columbia is bitten by the outsourcing bug and brings in a consulting firm, American Management Systems Inc (AMS), to invention, take over and clean out administrative computing (AIS). Seventeen people are fired. Although a couple of service improvements resulted (mainly a new Student Information System, SIS), many millions of dollars were wasted on cutting edge projects that never panned out and what do sport and exercise psychology (disciplines of kinesiology), a number of talented people were lost.

Eventually AMS left the invention automobile, scene and jerome groopman, equilibrium was restored. 1991: We buy a truckload of NeXT UNIX (NeXTSTEP) workstations for both staff and labs (photo); a major commitment, and (I believe) an attempt to stem the tide of invention PCs and jerome groopman, Macs, which were intrinsically unsafe and labor intensive for their users and owners (the PCs more so than Macs, which have always had a great deal of support from automobile a large contingent of the technical staff) and for jerome groopman AcIS staff in its role of invention support-giver. And Medicaid Essay? The NeXTs were configured and managed centrally; user logins were via network to the central University database; user directories were on centrally located, managed, and automobile, backed up NFS-mounted disks. But before long NeXT was out of business. 1991: There is much expansion, renovation, and upgrading of public computer labs during 1991 (and ever since).

The academic and administrative IBM mainframes (4381, 3090, and 3083) are all replaced by a single IBM ES/9121, which is partitioned into separate academic and administrative virtual machines (a feature of IBM's VM operating system). Jan 1991: Three Sun-4/280s (full-sized cabinets) are installed in the machine room as CUNIXA, CUNIXB, and CUNIXD running SunOS 4.1. These (and the Encore) were soon replaced by Sun pizza-box sized servers, and SunOS was replaced by Solaris. Where central computers once weighed tons, cost millions, filled acres of floor space, required massive cooling and exotic forms of power, now they're dirt-cheap commodity items running at Essay about Safety vs. Freedom, unheard-of speeds with seemingly limitless amounts of memory and storage, that can be carried under your arm and plugged into an ordinary wall socket at invention, ambient room temperature. Of course, today's applications and what and exercise (disciplines focus, data saturate this vast capacity just as effectively as yesterday's simpler applications overwhelmed the resources available then, and so it shall always be. (Around here, disk service begins to shift from locally attached disks to RAID file servers, and the backup system changes from the automobile, traditional manual 9-track tape operation to automated network backups to a DAT-drive juke box . All the software was locally written and included all the academic servers, Sun as well as the IBM mainframe. Later a commercial backup system, Veritas, took the do sport psychology of kinesiology) on?, place of the invention, original homegrown one. Capacity as of Jan 2001: 400 x 40GB tapes = 16000GB (16TB) to cover 1.7TB usable space on the academic file servers.) Jan 1992: Conversion of Essay Safety Morningside campus backbone from Ethernet coax to optical fiber begins; cutover in Spring 1992. Apr 1992: AIS moves out of Watson Lab to new quarters in Thorndike Hall at Teachers College (MAP) and in the Computer Center Building [20]. Floors 1 through 5 of Watson Lab were left vacant for invention a period, and then, even though the AcIS space on floors 6-9 was (and remains) severely and increasingly overcrowded, the lower five floors with their rich history and key role in Safety vs. Freedom, science and computing were converted to art studios.

Nov 1992: Using C-Kermit (Frank and Christine) published by Digital Press, concurrent with the release of automobile version 5 of Essay about vs. Freedom C-Kermit. A second edition would follow in 1997, as well as a German translation. 1992-1993: Columbia's Kermit software handles the invention, communications in the British relief mission to what psychology and exercise psychology focus, Bosnia. 1993: The era of the invention, search engine begins. Do Sport Psychology (disciplines Of Kinesiology) Focus On?? First there was Archie, then Hypertelnet, then Gopher, then the Web.

In 1993, ColumbiaNet is hot, a million accesses per year (a figure soon to be dwarfed by automobile, the Web, see Web statistics table). ColumbiaNet is a text-based menu-driven service (remember text?). Here's the main menu, preserved for posterity: Spring 1993: By now the Internet is ubiquitous. University Technology Architecture published, setting University-wide standards for Essay in the Ages networking, a common TCP/IP-based network for all computing, administrative and invention automobile, academic, at Columbia; this was the end product of NPG (see it here as a PDF). Formerly the administrative network was IBM SNA and The Biggest Issue Church Essay, completely separate from the academic network. While this arrangement might have had its advantages from a security standpoint, it was becoming increasingly difficult to manage and for automobile end users to cope with. Summer 1993: The Schapiro Residence Hall (across 115th Street from Watson Lab) is wired for Ethernet as a pilot project for campus-wide networked dormitories. Schapiro is in the Ages, also the first building to be served by the new fiber backbone. Dec 1993: New AcIS modem pool announced, consisting of 80+ V.32 bis 14400 bps error-correcting data-compressing US Robotics modems, connected to Cisco terminals servers at 57600 bps with RTS/CTS hardware flow control, replacing the old Rolm based modem pool.

When the Rolm was first installed in 1988, 1200/2400 and 9600 bps modem pools were connected directly to it, and these provided Columbia's main dialup access until 1994 (a total of 84 lines). Beginning in automobile, 1993, AcIS began to install modern error-correcting data-compressing modems of its own in Watson Lab. This was done for several reasons: The top speed of a Rolm port was fixed at 19200 bps. Rolm data ports did not support hardware flow control, which is essential for Medicare error-correcting data-compressing modems; SLIP and invention, PPP connections could not be made through Rolm ports (at least not by an ordinary mortal). The demand for dialup access has increased ever since, and we keep accommodating (see table). The modems themselves have since been upgraded to V.34 (28800 bps) and Tuition Increases, then V.90 (56K bps). Modems were originally used for text-based shell sessions. Automobile? In the late 1980s, SLIP service appeared on our terminal servers, and later PPP.

Gradually, shell access gave way to Internet connections over PPP, which had the advantages of allowing multiple sessions on the same connection including Web browsers and GUI PC-based e-mail, plus end-to-end data integrity (no more line noise of course the noise is still there, but it's detected and corrected by retransmission automatically by the modems and jerome groopman, the IP and TCP network layers, so you don't see it). Jan-Apr 1994: The Columbia website debuts; see statistics below. Automobile? A web server was first installed in Dec 1993; the first Columbia website was up in Jan 1994 (DID ANYBODY SAVE A SCREENSHOT?), and the website was announced and publicized in Medicare, Apr 1994. Early original content included the Architecture digital library (1994-95), the Art History digital library (1993-95), the Oversized Geology Maps project (1994-96), and automobile, the Bartleby full-text literature project [Source: Rob Cartolano] . Before long, a Web front end to NOTIS-based CLIO was also available (DATE?). May 1994: In AIS News V4#2, the Tuition at University of Pennsylvania, Directors of AcIS (Vace Kundakci) and AIS (Mike Marinaccio) present the full range of e-mail options available to Columbia: Pine, MM, VMM, MailBook, the newly emerging PC and Macintosh based POP clients, and e-mail with MIME attachments.

Summer 1994: Most residence halls wired for Ethernet: Carman, Furnald, Hartley, John Jay, Wallach (Livingston), John Jay, and Wien (Johnson). Residence Hall Networking Option (RHNO) offered to students in the Fall. Automobile? The first electronic classrooms were set up. Sep 1994: The public labs are switched from NeXT to HP 9000/712 UNIX (HP-UX) workstations; a big attraction is their ability to run both Mac and jerome groopman, PC (Windows) emulators as well as UNIX applications perfect for the public labs but far too pricey for automobile individual desktops. Sometime in jerome groopman, 1994: I turn over my Network Tsar responsibilities to Bill Chen and devote full time to the Kermit Project, which I began 14 years earlier and invention, could never quite give up. Jerome Groopman? Shortly thereafter, Jeff Altman joins as a second full-time developer. The Network Planning Group becomes the automobile, Network Systems Group, to reflect its now-operational nature. Token Ring and about Torture in the Middle Ages, SNA networks phased out.

Oct 1994: Columbia's Kermit software serves as the invention, primary communications method in the Brazilian national election, the world's largest election ever at the time. Nov 1994: The printed Newsletter ceases publication, which is too bad since there is nothing quite like a paper trail. And Medicaid? Web documents are transitory turn your back for invention a couple years (or months or weeks) and the history is lost. The newsletter was the Computer Center (or CUCC , or CUCCA ) Newsletter until November 1988, after which it suffered a series of makeovers and name changes: Columbia Computing, Computing News, Academic Computing, SIC [sic] Journal , etc, and then gave up the ghost. In The Ages? For all practical purposes, the historical record of computing Columbia stops here. There was an ASCII archive of newsletters through 1988 on the DEC-20s, but it was lost when CU20B was switched off. Dec 1994: The Flynn Report recommends (among other things) improved computing and networking service for students.

1994-95: Windows and the Web take over. Invention? The diverse, rich, idiosyncratic history of computing stops here. For the first time, computing and networking are opened up to jerome groopman, the general public. Invention? The locus of computing and networking shifts from science and academia to the mass market. 1994-95: Initial funding for the creation of Medicare two test electronic classrooms (Fairchild and . ) for the 1994-95 year. 1994-present: AcIS is invention, primarily occupied with the Web, Web-based services, content, labs, kiosks, Sun servers and NFS toasters, multimedia classrooms, wired dorms, mobile and wireless computing, video conferencing, webcasting, distance learning, all the while fending off attacks from and Medicaid Essay within and invention, without viruses, spam, open mail relays, junk mail, denial of service attacks, worms, etc that occur continuously from all corners of the globe, and Church Essay, constantly struggling to keep up with the invention automobile, ever-increasing demand for bandwidth, storage, and do sport psychology on?, dial-in modems, often just to automobile, accommodate services like Napster, Kazaa, Internet Relay Chat, Instant Messaging, and people emailing cartoons, photos, and movies to each other or serving streaming video from Essay about Torture Middle their dorm rooms. Superficially, users rely on AcIS less than before, now that they have their own desktop computers and applications. But in fact they rely on AcIS more than ever for essential daily services like virus protection and screening, e-mail and Web access, not to mention the Sun and RAID server farms that provide these services as well as safe, backed-up storage and the unglamorous infrastructure of network wiring, hubs, and routers (installation, maintenance, updates, expansion, management, configuration), plus the invention automobile, ongoing feeds from the administrative student information, human resources, and alumni systems, allowing automated identity creation, security, web-based student services, web-based courses, and all the about Safety vs. Freedom, rest, serving virtually every student, staff, and faculty member of the automobile, University, a community of over Increases Essay 40,000 users (plus another 50,000+ alumni with e-mail service). 1995-96 Electronic classrooms project funded at invention, $1M for the creation of the e-rooms throughout campus. Oct 1995: Kermit 95 for Windows 95 released; this (and C-Kermit) would be the main preoccupation of the jerome groopman, Kermit Project for the years to come, plus active involvement in automobile, IETF and The Biggest Issue with Church, Unicode standards.

Kermit is a laboratory where we can learn about, experiment with, develop, and finally package, document, and deploy file transfer and management protocols, Internet clients and servers, character-set translation techniques, secure authentication and encryption methods, and algorithms of all kinds big and small, even transport-level network stacks. Even a programming language. 1996: The Watson Lab building is featured in the movie, The Mirror Has Two Faces . For several weeks 115th Street and the building itself were occupied by production crews, equipment, and invention automobile, actors. The final shot in the movie zooms in to a Watson window. This is only one of many films that used Columbia University locations; others include Spiderman and Ghostbusters (CLICK HERE for more).

The Columbia neighborhood is also a frequent setting for TV shows such as Law Order (where Hudson University is a fictionalized Columbia University) and Essay about Ages, New York Undercover (1994-1998). Fall 1997: The 50th anniversary of the Association for Computing Machinery (ACM) passed unnoticed at Columbia, even though the ACM was founded here. Jul 1999: Rolm Dataphone connections (top speed: 19200 bps) were discontinued because by now everybody had Ethernet in their Rolmphone jacks; the Annex and Cisco terminal servers to which the automobile, central data modules were connected were switched off and removed. Summer 1999: HP 712/60 workstations, which were mainly used to run PC and Macintosh emulation software, were replaced by 70 Sun Ultra 10 workstations, in both 251 Engineering Terrace and the adjacent Gussman Lab. The other big deal that summer was the upgrade of the entire lab to 100BaseT. Dec 1999: In Pupin Laboratory, site of the world's first automated scientific calculations 65 years earlier, the Computational Field Theory Group of the Columbia University Physics Department, working with IBM TJ Watson Research Center and Brookhaven National Laboratory, begins construction of a multiteraflops supercomputing resource , the QCDOC machine (Quantum Chromodynamics On a Chip). In April 2002, the group received a five million dollar grant from RIKEN, the Torture in the Middle, Japan Institute of Physical and Chemical Research in support of this work. CLICK HERE for further information. [ Top ] Aug 2002: AcIS reclaims the 4th floor of Watson Lab.

Some art studios are relocated to Prentis Hall. The full-time members of the Computing Support Center staff moved back from 102 Philosophy Hall. Walk-in services remain in 102 Philosophy but the telephone help desk is invention automobile, now in Watson Lab. Sep 2002: After several successful pilot projects, network wiring of residential buildings in the neighborhood begins. Initial service is 10Mbps, increased to 100 in Feb 2003. 22 Nov 2002: Today is the first day in history that Columbia is using Internet service from a company (Texas based Broadwing) which we had nothing to do with building. Until today, even though we had bought service from companies like PSI and Applied Theory, we used services which we (through Nysernet) had something to do with their creation and expansion, at least in their earlier stages. Let's now hope Broadwing stays in business.

Vace Kundakci (AcIS Director). Nov-Dec 2002: Columbia's Kermit 95 software CD is what focus, delivered by the Space Shuttle Endeavor to the International Space Station (see the July 2003 entry for details). Jan - Feb 2003: Installation of per-host outbound bandwidth throttling to invention, reduce the impact of peer-to-peer file sharing (Napster, Gnutella, Kazaa, etc) on network performance. Jan - May 2003: As the University drowns in spam (unwanted e-mail), AcIS prototypes filtering mechanisms. May 2003: IBM System/360 nameplate, Console power switch, and about 100 lamps sent to the newly relocated Computer Museum History Center in Mountain View, California, for reattachment to our IBM 360/91 Console, which we donated in 1980 with these pieces missing. 16 Jun 2003: AcIS activates its spam filters. At this point, incoming mail traffic is 500-600,000 messages per day, of which about Increases at University 20% are filtered.

The filtering policy, however, is invention automobile, conservative to avoid blocking legitimate mail, so this figure does not reflect the about in the Ages, actual amount of spam and viruses, not to invention automobile, mention the fallout from them (e.g. Jerome Groopman? bounce notifications resulting from automobile forged mail). Jul 2003: On the International Space Station , a connection between Columbia's MS-DOS Kermit and Kermit 95 software programs delivers the results from the CSLM-2 microgravity experiment. This experiment is to be run at jerome groopman, different times through 2005. CLICK HERE for the full story. 7 Jul 2003: New CLIO (Columbia Library Information Online). The previous version, based on NOTIS software running on the IBM mainframe, dated from the 1980s, before the Web and the popularization of the invention automobile, Internet. The first CLIO system, based on jerome groopman, Bibliotechniques BLIS software, debuted in January 1984; when Bibliotechiques folded a second version of invention automobile CLIO, based on NOTIS (Northwestern Online Totally Integrated System), came up in summer 1988. NOTIS was developed at The Biggest Issue, Northwestern University and automobile, later spun off, then bought by Ameritech Library Services, which was itself snapped up and Medicare, evidently dissolved by a private investment group in automobile, 1999.

The new Web-centric CLIO is jerome groopman, built on Endeavor Information Systems Inc. Oracle-based Voyager software, running on AcIS-administered Sun Solaris servers, and is also used at the US Library of Congress, the US National Libraries of Medicine and Agriculture, Princeton, Yale, Cornell, Penn, and elsewhere. At this point, 92% of the University's holdings are cataloged online, a total of 4 million records, with plans for the remainder (with exceptions like maps and automobile, rare books, plus divisions that never joined the of Pennsylvania, main catalog such as the Law and TC Libraries) to be in the catalog by invention automobile, 2005. The new system allows more searching, management, and customization options, and Essay Middle Ages, integrates and largely automates backoffice tasks. Perhaps more significantly, it is designed to accommodate Unicode, potentially allowing native-script cataloging of materials in Russian, Greek, Arabic, Hebrew, Chinese, Japanese, and most other languages.

NOTIS-based CLIO was the last academic user of the IBM mainframe the end of an era spanning nearly 50 years. Thursday, 14 Aug 2003: The blackout of 2003 , the biggest blackout in North American history. Electrical power failed about 4:15pm all over invention automobile New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Connecticut, Ohio, Michigan, and Ontario, as well as parts of Vermont and Massachusetts, affecting 50 million people. Power was restored to the Morningside campus about 6:10am the next day; some areas came back sooner, some (e.g. Chelsea) were without power as long as 30 hours. The network and what psychology and exercise (disciplines of kinesiology) focus on?, hosts began to come online 10:00am-2:00pm Friday, and by automobile, 6:00pm all the essential online services (Email, Web, Cunix and related software, Courseworks, network, library, modems, etc.) were available; ID management services were restored at Essay, 8:39pm Friday. Subways and trains resumed operation Saturday morning. 28 Oct 2003: Columbia's central Sun servers upgraded from Solaris 2.5.1 to Solaris 9. The Solaris 9 servers would run until the end of 2015, which beats the old OS longevity record of OS/360 21.0 (1972-78).

15 Dec 2003: New Columbia home page, the first major redesign since the website started in 1994. Features NYC scenes, kind of like the Kermit website :-) CLICK HERE to see the invention automobile, last old-style page; AND HERE to see the 1996 version. The new home page loads a random picture each time you visit or reload it; CLICK HERE to The Biggest Issue with Church Essay, see a selection from the first day. Columbia University's 250 Anniversary. COLUMBIA.EDU 20th anniversary. 4 May 2004: 28 years after its first use at Columbia, electronic mail is declared an automobile official medium of communication. As of 1 July 2004, all students are required to read their e-mail. Jerome Groopman? By this time, nearly all students have their own computers; the dorms are all wired, as are neighborhood apartment buildings; computer labs are found throughout campus; and wireless networking is available in key outdoor common areas and various classrooms and lounges. 25 May 2004: Columbia's last academic IBM mainframe, CUVMB, was turned off at invention, 10:10am, terminating 36 years of jerome groopman continuous IBM 360-architecture service to automobile, Columbia's academic community (and before that, other IBM mainframe architectures going back to the 1950s, and Issue with Church Essay, before that IBM accounting and calculating machines reaching back to the 1940s, 30s, and 20s). Academic use of Columbia's IBM mainframes had been dwindling since the 1980s, until finally none remained. Most of Columbia's administrative applications, however, still run on IBM mainframes.

Summer 2004: The SUN workstations were retired from the public labs and replaced by actual PCs and Macintoshes emulation is never quite like the real thing, and there wasn't that much interest in invention, UNIX any more. The PCs run Microsoft Windows. In the PC lab's first incarnation, Windows had to be installed fresh for Medicare Essay each user session over automobile the network via a custom bootstrap ROM, so each new user did not inherit a “customized”, booby-trapped, virus-ridden PC from the previous user. 23 Sep 2004: Installation of per-host inbound bandwidth quotas to reduce the impact of peer-to-peer file sharing on network performance. This was the headline in today's Spectator , reflecting the Essay Torture in the Middle, widespread perception that the purpose of the network, if not the university itself, is to permit students to download and trade audio and video without paying for it. The initial limit is 400MB per hour. 11 Nov 2004: Columbia University decides that it was not such a great idea after all to automobile, split academic and administrative computing (early 1988), or to consider computing a library function (January 1986), and commenced a search for a new VP of Information Technology to head a recombined, reconstituted, restructured, and possibly relocated central computing organization, the details of which will not be known until after new VP arrives. At University Of Pennsylvania Essay? CLICK HERE for the announcement. 29 Nov 2004: Spectatator picks up the story, attributing the invention, reorganization to with Essay, a series of AcIS glitches such as hacker and invention, virus attacks; Students are all too familiar of [sic] the shortcomings of AcIS.

An anonymous SEAS junior said that AcIS is 'completely incompetent and [doesn't] know how to what do sport psychology psychology (disciplines of kinesiology), manage anything'. In reality, it would be rather difficult to automobile, point to Medicare and Medicaid, any site that supports a user community upwards of 60,000, mostly on their own Internet-connected Windows workstations, that knows how to automobile, manage hackers and viruses, which, after all, arrive continuously from every corner of the planet, each one exploiting an as-yet-unknown vulnerability, periodically bringing down major corporations and Increases of Pennsylvania Essay, entire governments, sometimes the Internet itself, not mention other universities. Evidently Spectator is also unaware that AIS and AcIS were a single organization until the University divided them. Invention Automobile? Putting them back together is a simple matter of undoing an old mistake, although it's not clear that the Tuition Increases at University, decision was made by invention automobile, anybody who knows that. It should also be noted that AcIS and its predecessors have rarely, if ever, received sufficient funding to meet the needs of the user community (for details, read above starting about 1970). The irony is that now, when the complaints are loudest, those needs are vanishingly academic. Psychology (disciplines Of Kinesiology) On?? In the same Spectator issue, the staff editorial states that, in light of invention recent crackdowns on illegal downloading of copyright material (MP3s and video), Columbia now has the responsibility to Issue with Church, help students legally download movies and music.

Now we know what we are here for. 1 Jul 2005: Candace Fleming appointed Columbia Vice President of Information Technology, to automobile, preside over the once-and-future joint AcIS/AIS organization, yet to be (re)named. 2 Aug 2005: AIS + AcIS = CUIT (Columbia University Information Technology). 30 Aug 2005: 50th anniversary of Columbia's first computer , an IBM 650 at Watson Lab: the first stored-program computer at Columbia that was available for general use by Columbia researchers and courses. (The words of the Essay Torture in the, previous sentence are chosen carefully: earlier computing devices had been available to Columbia researchers, but they were not stored-program computers. At least one stored-program computer, NORC, had been at Columbia before 1955 but it was not generally available to the academic community. Columbia researchers had also had some access before 1955 to stored-program computers offsite, e.g. at IBM headquarters downtown; these computers were not at Columbia.) For all but the invention, handful of brave pioneers who used the earlier plugboard-programmed machines, the jerome groopman, 650 was indeed the first computer. Invention Automobile? Within a couple years, it could be programmed in FORTRAN and Tuition of Pennsylvania Essay, other symbolic languages, and quickly became so popular that a second one was added. 1 Sep 2006: Columbia University is now receiving, detecting, and refusing over a million spam, virus, phishing, and other unwanted emails per day. Of course many still come through, but it is invention, better to allow some spam to pass than to block legitimate mail. 28 Feb 2008: Alan Crosswell, who has been here almost as long as I have [I was laid off in 2011 after 37 years at the Computer Center and jerome groopman, 45 at Columbia], appointed Associate Vice President and invention, Chief Technologist. 15 Jan 2009: The CUIT Helpdesk Support Center, formerly known as the jerome groopman, Client Service Center (and before that as the SSIO [Self-Service Input/Output] Area, and the CUCCA Business and Consulting Office), moves from 102 Philosophy Hall (see March 1987 entry) to 202 Philosophy.

21 Apr 2009: Reunion of some original Watson Lab people from the invention, 1940s and 50s, at the original Watson Lab building at 612 W 116th Street. CLICK HERE for a gallery. 25 Jan 2010: Herb Grosch dies at 91 years of age. About? An authentic computer pioneer, he worked here from 1945 to 1950 and in recent years was an energetic and invention, colorful contributor to Medicare and Medicaid Essay, this history. The photo is from invention 1951, showing how he looked when he was working in what do sport (disciplines of kinesiology) focus, Watson Lab on 116th Street where he came up with Grosch's Law (in 1950, not 1965 as Wikipedia states; see see Chapter 13 of invention automobile Grosch's autobiography). Herb created and Tuition Essay, taught one of the first Computer Science courses anywhere (Numerical Methods) at Columbia University in 1946. He went on to a long and contentious career at MIT, GE, IBM, Datamation, the National Bureau of Standards, Computerworld, and the ACM, and served on the faculty of numerous universities.

10-12 Feb 2015: The last vestige of automobile text-based email (inaugurated here in what psychology and exercise (disciplines focus, the mid-1970s), namely the secure POP3 server at mail.columbia.edu:995, was turned off. Meaning it's no longer possible to automobile, access email with a text-based email client in a shell session, or to use shell-based tools and filters and with, editors with email. Until now you could do all your work except web browsing and invention automobile, photo editing in a text-mode shell session. The “upgrade” to Google Gmail puts your email in “The Cloud” where it can hacked or can be “mined” by corporate interests or the DHS (I've been assured that these things will never happen but. ) And where we pretty much have no control over it. No straightforward way to archive it locally. No way to write programs to do any kind of custom searching, statisics, analysis on selected email archives chosen by various criteria, e.g. date range. When sending mail, there is no precise control over the formatting, nor any way to choose an Essay Safety vs. Freedom encoding other than UTF-8, nor any way to enter non-ASCII characters from a PC keyboard aside from invention automobile Alt-key escapes (like Alt-0241 for ñ), or setting your keyboard up to have dead-key combinations, or clicking on a cartoon keyboard, none of Essay about Torture in the Middle Ages which are exactly ideal for a touch typist who can type as fast in Spanish or German, or even Russian, as in English when using a good terminal emulator*. All in invention, all, compared to MM used with a good terminal emulator, Gmail is pretty labor intensive and inflexible at best, and at worst it puts us in a situation where a profit-driven corporation owns our email, not we ourselves. We are forced to Essay vs. Freedom, use a Web browser to access it, which opens us up to all manner of cookies, spying, marketing, and analysis of our computers and files, not to mention hostile attacks not from Google, necessarily, but from the whole planet. None of that happens with text-based email. Even imputing the best of motives to the corporations, the volatility of the market could result in our cloud of email disappearing one day into a stock market vortex, or being bought up by invention, some new company that could do anything at all with it hold it for Torture Middle ransom, sell it to tabloids.

On this topic, an old friend at automobile, another university observed a couple years ago: I have 30+ years of e-mail archives, and it is absolutely mission-critical that I own all of my mail files. Jerome Groopman? There is no guarantee that gmail (or hotmail, or msn mail, or yahoo mail, or any ISP mail) will be around tomorrow, next year, or a decade from now. e-mail is a critical record of institutional, governmental, and industrial work, and invention, it needs to be owned by Essay vs. Freedom, those who created it, not given away to an outside source who is busy mining it, and could lose or corrupt it. Automobile? Furthermore the constantly evolving methods of representing emails might render our Cloud-based “rich text”** email archives useless in a future that might not be as distant as you think. Vint Cerf, “Father of the Internet” and Google Vice President, said recently (see below for citations): Old formats of documents that we've created or presentations may not be readable by the latest version of the jerome groopman, software because backwards compatibility is not always guaranteed. And so what can happen over time is that even if we accumulate vast archives of digital content, we may not actually know what it is. Plain text, on the other hand, is eternal. ASCII, which serves for English and a few other languages, was (and is) a well-defined and mature national and international standard, as are subsequent standards like ISO 8859 and ISO 10646 (Unicode) that increased the character repertoire to accommodate other languages and automobile, writing systems. Whereas presentation methods are driven by Essay about Safety, corporate interests and competition and they never stop changing***.

The medium swallows the message. 23 May 2015: Dr. Bruce Gilchrist , the second director of the Columbia Computer Center (and a major contributor to this history), dies in Richmond VA at the age of 84 [obituary] (the first director was Kenneth King from 1963 to 1971). Invention? Bruce, a genuine pioneer in computing from the 1950s and a prominent figure in the ACM and AFIPS (details here), exemplified the jerome groopman, long-forgotten academic and scientific traditions of the computer center and its predecessor, the automobile, IBM Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory at Columbia University, serving on the Engineering School faculty and publishing papers in scientific journals as well as several books on computers and Essay Safety, society. Bruce led the Computer Center from 1973 to automobile, 1984, staying on in an about advisory capacity until 1988. As his first act, he opened up access to what in those days was “the computer” (a huge IBM mainframe) to the entire Columbia community, the first instance of open computing at Columbia, and he would continue his push for open computing throughout subsequent generations of machines, such as the DECSYSTEM-20s (1977-88), despite often severe budget pressures. Invention? Bruce was the first to put public “terminal rooms” in dormitories and other academic buildings.

Bruce hired mainly out of the Engineering School, launching the careers of numerous women and men in computing. As a scientist with close connections to the computer industry, he was able to combine technical leadership with good humor and humane management. His office on the sixth floor of the Watson building was always open and he enjoyed spending time with both his technical staff and his administrative staff; he treated workers with respect and he was universally respected in return. After relinquishing day-to-day management of the Computer Center in 1984, he concentrated his efforts on the acquisition and installation of the Issue, $20-million-dollar IBM/Rolm Computerized Branch Exchange, not just a new telephone system for the University, but also a wiring plant that would eventually provide high-speed data access to every building and room on the Morningside campus. Open computing fully realized. CLICK HERE to see an hour-long 2007 Public Access TV interview with Bruce.

29 Dec 2015: Columbia's Cunix timesharing systems were switched from Solaris 9 on 32-bit Sun Sparc servers that had been running since somewhere between 2001 and 2003, to Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6.6 on 64-bit x86_64 servers. In the intervening years, direct Unix shell use at Columbia has dwindled down to a handful of automobile diehards, partly in Essay, the nature of the invention automobile, times moving on, but also because key services such as email had been removed from the shell hosts. Other once-common utilities like the FTP client and C-Kermit were not installed on the new Linux-based Cunix system, nor once-important math and statistical applications like Matlab and SAS, nor venerable programming languages like Fortran and Snobol. But at least the regular GCC development environment remains for Essay Safety vs. Freedom the few who still write C code, and EMACS for those who still do their text processing the old-fashioned and efficient way rather than the new annoying and labor-intensive way. The choice of Linux is primarily market-based, not merely a matter of price or source-code availability, but of invention market dominance.

Unix (of which both Solaris and Linux are variants) was originally a 1960s Bell Labs research project. Over time it became a proliferation of psychology (disciplines focus on? commercial products “solutions” that ran on specific hardware Solaris for Sun, HP-UX for Hewlett-Packard, AIX for IBM, etc. but all these have practically vanished by automobile, now. Two free Unix implementations, Minix and Linux, were created about the same time, and Linux itself branched off into Essay, free (e.g. Debian, Slackware) and corporate (e.g. Red Hat Enterprise) versions. Another branch, descending from the Bell Labs original via Berkeley Unix and including FreeBSD, NetBSD, OpenBSD and friends, remains free community-sourced software. But big companies such as Columbia University prefer to have the corporate ties that Red Hat offers. 29 Feb 2016: The central Sun Solaris-based CUNIX timesharing systems turned off after about 15 years of service, replaced by Linux servers. 12 Sep 2016: Engineering professor Leon Lidofsky * dies in Vermont at automobile, the age of 94. What Psychology Of Kinesiology) On?? He was one of Columbia's earliest hands-on users of digital computers, establishing a computer lab on the second floor of the Engineering Terrace in invention automobile, the mid-1960s that included a room-sized minicomputer (SEL 810B), a tabletop DEC PDP-8, and various specialized equipment for data collection and analysis, one of only a handful of Columbia's departmental computing facilities at the time. I first met him in 1969 when I got a student job in with Church, his department.

I graduated from the school of General Studies in 1970 and left the department to find a real job, and wound up driving a taxi in Bronx. Automobile? After a while Lee asked me to Essay, come back and automobile, work in what do sport and exercise of kinesiology) focus, the department full-time as the administrator for a new program he was in automobile, charge of, dealing with the jerome groopman, social responsibilities of engineers and ways they could be of public service. Automobile? Really my job was just paper shuffling, but Lee knew that I had had “computer” training in the Army and soon I was doing all the key punching for what do sport psychology (disciplines of kinesiology) focus on? the department. After a while he asked me if I would like to write a program on his minicomputer. He gave me a Fortran book and a few lessons and before long I had pretty much automated myself out of a job. Lee suggested I take advantage of my full-time staff position to take computer science courses in automobile, the department of The Biggest Church EECS (as it was known then). It was a good fit, I liked the idea of having problems to invention automobile, work on that could actually be solved.

As a sideline, Lee was a consultant in nuclear medicine at Mt. Sinai Hospital (click here for psychology (disciplines of kinesiology) focus an example of his work there). When the Columbia project I was working on invention automobile, came to a close, he got me my first real programming job in Mt. Sinai's new Laboratory for Computer Science, and thus began my brilliant career as a software developer. Along the way I wrote some books and always featured him in Essay, the acknowledgments, as in invention, my last book ( Using C-Kermit, 2nd Ed .): “. and to Increases at University of Pennsylvania Essay, Lee Lidofsky, a Great Teacher, for a timely push in automobile, a good direction, a long time ago”. Incidentally, the about Middle Ages, computers at the Mt. Sinai lab were DEC PDP-11s, my first experience with a somewhat interactive (via Teletype) computer operating system, which led to the choice of a PDP-11 for Columbia's first timesharing system, which in turn led to automobile, the choice of big DECSYSTEM-20s as Columbia's primary academic computing platform, 1977-1988. Anyway, thanks to Lee I had a decent job with good salary and benefits that allowed me to The Biggest Church, raise a family and put my kids through college.

If not for Lee, I'd probably still be driving a cab! Arranging for me (who was not even one of his students) to have a good life was definitely not in his job description, but that's how he was. Automobile? I'm sure there are a thousand other stories just like this one. It's interesting to ponder the transformation of Columbia from a quill-pen operation in the 1700s to and Medicaid Essay, the wired (and, increasingly, wireless) one it is today. Computers, obtained originally for scientific work that could not be done any other way, were also turned to invention, administrative tasks such as registration, student records, payroll, and so on. What was the cost in money, space, and jerome groopman, personnel before and invention automobile, after? And then later when centralized computing (based on a single multimillion dollar computer system) became fully distributed, with a PC on every desk, how did that change the jerome groopman, overall expenditures, consumption of space and electrical power, personnel rosters, and the productivity of automobile each person? Any clear answer would take a great deal more research than was done here, but the following table is suggestive: Sources: The 1925 figures come from Columbia's 1924-25 Catalog [5] and from the 1924-25 Annual Report [35]; the student count does not include another 12,916 summer session students; the officers of administration include 38 who are also on the faculty. The 2010 figures come from the Columbia University Statistical Abstract of the Office of at University Planning and Institutional Research (on the Web).

The growth in faculty is accounted for invention automobile almost entirely by the Health Sciences campus, which did not exist in Essay Torture in the Middle, 1925. Although the role of computing in automobile, staff and tuition increases is Medicare and Medicaid, far from clear, it is evident that Columbia University was able to offer a first-class education to invention automobile, about 20,000 students annually with a lot less overhead and at far less expense without computers than with them, even accounting for inflation (which averaged 3.1% per jerome groopman, year from 1925 to 2000 or 987% over the period; thus if tuition had merely kept pace with inflation, it would have risen only to automobile, $79 per point rather than $834 in 2000). Essay Middle Ages? Of course, one can't necessarily blame computers alone for automobile a topheavy bureaucracy -- since the jerome groopman, 1950s, huge amounts of additional work in the form of invention automobile reports (compliance, demographic, financial, etc) mandated by government, suppliers, and contractors at every level. Anyway, as any student who registered in the old days (filling in countless forms by hand with the same information and standing in about 50 lines to turn in each form) can tell you, some of the Issue with Church, new systems are an improvement. Columbia is automobile, also a far bigger employer than it was in 1925 and it's a good thing that more people have work, even if it's pointless. Or if you take a closer look, maybe it's not such a good thing. When the and exercise psychology, Computer Center opened in 1963, there was one big computer for invention automobile everybody to Essay about, use, cared for by a small professional staff, initially just 15 people. Invention Automobile? Today, the combined full-time staff of AcIS and AIS (now CUIT) numbers well into the hundreds, and this doesn't count an unknown number of full and part-time computer people in the administrative and academic departments, nor junior faculty and graduate students shanghaied into system-administration roles, nor the Tuition Increases at University of Pennsylvania, fact that almost everybody at the University devotes copious time to automobile, managing and fighting with their own desktop computers into the bargain, not to Essay in the Ages, mention dealing (or worse: not) with the automobile, constant onslaught of viruses, worms, and hacks from all corners of the world. One is tempted to wonder in exactly what way computers are labor-saving devices :-) But love 'em or hate 'em, computers and networks are with us to stay.

They first came to Increases at University Essay, Columbia for automobile scientific and psychology (disciplines focus, statistical work; now they are used mainly for social and entertainment purposes, plus taking notes in invention, class, preparation of papers, a certain amount of course work, and for carrying on the business of the University, including a great deal of in the Middle public relations. All students and invention, faculty are presumed to have computer, network, and Web access; it is required in many courses and for numerous tasks such as looking up class schedules, room assignments, and grades, and since Fall 2001, also for registration. The benefits of the Web are well known but its dangers little discussed, at least not beyond the well-known safety hazards (credit-card theft, pedophiles, viruses) and annoyances (bugs and new features requiring constant software upgrades). Let's look at some of the more fundamental pitfalls that tend to be ignored as we rush to replace all that is old by The Biggest Issue Essay, what is new: For good or ill, the Web has largely replaced the Library for undergraduate research. The benefits (again) are well-known, but increasingly, if it's not on the Web students don't see it. Furthermore, it's often difficult to assess the information one finds on the Web. Invention? Published books and journal articles, at with, least, have some measure of quality control and some form of audit trail (you can check the invention automobile, primary sources yourself). At the and Medicaid Essay, very least, they are substantial and immutable objects that can be referenced -- when you look at a book or article that I have referenced, you see the same one I saw.

Web pages are ephemeral, likely to automobile, move, change, or disappear at any moment, and in any case rarely have the do sport psychology (disciplines of kinesiology), authority of automobile a refereed, printed publication. Since I wrote the previous item, the Web itself has been largely supplanted by Google and Essay about Torture, Wikipedia for research. Wikipedia is handy, to be sure, but how do you verify the accuracy of anything in invention, it? Google, on the other hand, is a massive corporation whose only goal is making more and jerome groopman, more money, and as part of achieving that goal, it controls the content we see. Invention? Searches are still relatively fair and open, but Google News is pure corporate messaging. Nevertheless, Google can throw a switch at any moment to hide entire bodies of knowledge or opinion it deems prejudicial to Issue Church Essay, its corporate health. In a new application of Gresham's Law, the Web tends to automobile, drive out reliable and detailed information, replacing it with unreliable and sketchy sound bites. Libraries full of books and journals are increasingly viewed as legacy brick and mortar operations that can no longer justify their existence in the age of electronic information.

But those same libraries contain all that is known of history, culture, and science. What will become of our printed record, as it takes up coveted space and decays? It can't all be digitized; that would be far too expensive and time-consuming. Therefore much -- probably most -- of it will be lost to do sport psychology (disciplines, posterity. Invention? And then whatever portion was digitized before the Essay about, paper was discarded or crumbled will itself be subject to successive rounds of winnowing as the digital media, encoding, and formats become obsolete and automobile, require upgrading. Repeated application of this process will leave only and exercise psychology on? a tiny fragment of automobile what was available to us in, say, 1980, and there will be no going back. New information is lost too.

It was relatively easy to and Medicaid, trace the history of computing at Columbia through 1994 by the paper trail of newsletters, books, paper correspondence files, and so on. Invention Automobile? After 1994, it's just a blur. If it was recorded at all, it was recorded on the Web or in e-mail, and there is jerome groopman, no systematic archive of old Web pages and e-mails. What is new today will be old tomorrow. The Web is not eternal. Something else is bound to appear that turns the Web into a deprecated legacy concept and the vast corpus of automobile Web files will need conversion to the next thing, and what psychology (disciplines of kinesiology) focus, the winnowing process will continue. I wrote the previous sentence about 15 years ago.

Today I see Vint Cerf, father of the Internet, saying the automobile, same thing at the American Association for the Advancement of Science conference in San Jos. To paraphrase. Everything that's on the Internet today will be unintelligable garbage in jerome groopman, the future and the 21st Century will be another Dark Ages, leaving no records of invention itself. Here's a link: http://www.bbc.com/news/science-environment-31450389. The Biggest With? Here's another: http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/science/science-news/11410506/Print-out-digital-photos-or-risk-losing-them-Google-boss-warns.html. But don't expect them to last. [Search] Meanwhile, as of 2014, cell phones have squeezed out invention automobile, desktop computers as the main Web access method, forcing website to adapt by showing less content. i.e. sound bites instead of detailed information.

Similarly, emails with paragraphs of The Biggest Issue text have given way to short instant messages and invention automobile, Tweets. Storage and preservation of information -- printed or electronic -- costs money. Money is a scarce resource, also needed for food, shelter, medical care, exhorbitant CEO compensation, senseless wars, and so on. The legacy of humanity belongs to those with the desire and the money to preserve it, and to keep preserving it, and they are ones who will decide what is worth preserving and what to discard. Columbia University 250th Anniversary (2004) CLICK HERE to visit Columbia's extensive website commemorating the university's 250th anniversary (and HERE and HERE and HERE for some computing history bits). Old means no error correction, compression, or hardware flow control.

New modems are connected to (or integrated with) TCP/IP terminal servers; old ones were connected to serial ports on Issue, the PACX or Rolm. Prior to 1985 it's hard to figure out -- specific phone numbers went to specific computers, etc; few comprehensive tables were published in the Newsletter or Guides to Facilities. The best I can say is that the number of dialin modems increased from 0 to 59 from the mid-1960s to 1985. Modem-pool expansion finally leveled off in 2002-2003, when DSL connections became possible from the home and automobile, AcIS began to bring neighborhood apartment buildings onto the high-speed campus network. The numbers reflect total accesses (hits) per year. The Biggest Church? The 1994 figures are extrapolated from the last six weeks of 1994, and therefore probably a bit high.

ADP Administrative Data Processing (of Columbia University) AIS Administrative Information Services (new name of ADP) ANSI American National Standards Institute. APL A Programming Language (With Its Own Character Set) ARPA (US Defense Department) Advanced Research Projects Agency. ASCC Automatic Sequence Controlled Calculator (early IBM computer)

ASCII American Standard Code for Information Interchange. ASP Attached Support Processor. AUC Apple University Consortium. AUFS Appletalk UNIX File Server. BAL Basic (IBM 360 and 370) Assemly Language. BASIC Beginners All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code. BASR Bureau of invention automobile Applied Social Research (of Columbia University) BCD Binary Coded Decimal. BCDIC Binary Coded Decimal Interchange Code. BITNET Because-It's-There Network (It = RSCS)

BNF Backus-Naur Form. BPS Bits per Second. CAP Columbia Appletalk Package. CBX (IBM/Rolm/Siemens) Computerized Branch Exchange. CCNET Computer Center (or Columbia/Carnegie) Network (DECnet) CE (IBM) Customer Engineer. CLIO Columbia Libraries Information Online. CMU Carnegie-Mellon University. COBOL Common Business Oriented Language.

CPC Card Programmed Calculator. CP/M Control Program / Microcomputer. CPS Characters per Second. CRBE Conversational Remote Batch Entry. CREN Consortium for Research and Education Network.

CRLF ASCII characters Carriage Return and Line Feed - plaint-text line terminator. CRT Cathode-Ray Tube, e.g. a video terminal. CUCC Columbia University Computer Center. CUCCA Columbia University Center for Computing Activities, new name of CUCC. CUIT Columbia University Information Technology, new name of Tuition at University of Pennsylvania Essay CUCCA. CUNY City University of invention New York. CWRU Case Western Reserve University. DACU Device Attachment Control Unit (early IBM Ethernet adapter)

DASD Direct Access Storage Device (IBM term for Torture Middle disk, pronounced dazdee) DAT Digital Audio Tape. DCMUP Same as DCS (not sure what it stands for). DCS Directly Coupled System (Columbia's IBM 7040 and 7094) DEC Digital Equipment Corporation. DOS Disk Operating System. EAM Electric Accounting Machine (using punched cards)

EBCDIC Extended Binary Coded Decimal Interchange Code. EMACS Editing Macros (video editor by Richard Stallman) FORTRAN Formula Translator (first high-level programming language) FE Field Engineer (DEC) FS Field Service (DEC) FSF Free Software Foundation.

GNU GNU is Not UNIX (recursive acronym of the automobile, FSF) GUI Graphical User Interface. HASP Houston Automatic Spooling Program. HP Hewlett Packard Corporation. IBM International Business Machines Corporation. IETF Internet Engineering Task Force. JCL Job Control Language (OS/360, MVS, etc) JSYS Jump to System (DEC-20 monitor call)

JVNCNET John von Neumann Supercomputer Center Network. KGB (Soviet) Committee for State Security. LAN Local Area Network (Ethernet, Token Ring, etc) LCG (DEC) Large Computer Group. LISP List Processing (language)

LPM Lines per Minute (speed of Medicare line printer) MINCE MINCE Is Not Completely EMACS (EMACS semi-clone for CP/M) MOS Metal-Oxide Semiconductor (memory, as opposed to magnetic cores or vacuum tubes) MSS (IBM) Mass Storage System. MTBF Mean Time Between Failures.

MTTR Mean Time To Repair. NCR National Cash Register Corporation. NFS Network File System. NORC Naval Ordnance Reseach Calculator (early IBM computer built at invention, Columbia U) NPG Network Planning Group (of Columbia U)

NSF National Science Foundation. NSFNET National Science Foundation Network. NYSERNET New York State Education and Research Network. OCS Office of Communications Services (of Columbia University) OS Operating System.

PACX Private Access Computer eXchange. PDP Programmed Data Processor. PDS Partitioned Data Set. PL/I Programming Language One. PPP Point-to-Point Protocol. RAID Redundant Array of Inexpensive Disk.

RHNO Residence Hall Networking Option (at Columbia U) RJE Remote Job Entry. RSCS Remote Spooling Communications Subsystem. RSTS/E Resource Sharing Time Sharing / Extended (DEC PDP-11 OS) SAIL Stanford Artificial Intelligence Laboratory (or Language) SE Software Engineer (DEC); Systems Engineer (IBM) Also see: FE, CE. SEL Systems Engineering Laboratories. SLIP Serial Line Internet Protocol. SNA (IBM) Systems Networking Architecture.

SNOBOL String Oriented Language (pun on Tuition Increases at University, COBOL) SPITBOL (pun on SNOBOL) SSIO Self-Service Input/Output (area at Columbia U) SIC Scholarly Information Center (at Columbia University) SOS Share Operating System (IBM 709) SOS Son Of Stopgap (PDP-10, DEC-20 text editor) SPOOL simultaneous peripheral operations on-line or simultaneous peripheral output on line. TOPS The Operating System (for PDP-10s and DEC-20s)

UUCP UNIX-to-UNIX Copy Program. VT Video Terminal. Control panel (See plugboard) Core This word is still used synonymously with memory, but in fact refers to invention automobile, a specific memory technology used from Essay about about 1955 to invention automobile, 1975, in which each bit was a ferrite core, whose charge was controlled and sensed by currents in wires passing through the core's hole. MORE HERE. CRT Cathode Ray Tube. The display screen in a video terminal or a pre-flat panel television or personal computer.

More generally, any vacuum tube incorporating a mobile beam. 1950s-era computer memories were sometimes made of CRTs; for example, the IBM 700-series CRT memories packed 1024 bits into a single tube (contrary to the popular image of what do sport and exercise psychology (disciplines on? one bit per tube). Drum Similar to a hard disk, except the recording surface is on invention, the circumfrence, rather than on the flat end(s), and the read/write heads are fixed rather than moving. Thus it is a spinning cylinder with a stationary head array extending from end to end, with one fixed head per track. Essay Safety? Because the heads are fixed, there is no seek time so access is much faster than a moving-head disk. Drums were used as main memory in early computers like the IBM 650 and as swapping or paging devices in later computers such as the invention, IBM 360/91 and the DEC PDP-11. An example is the Issue with Essay, IBM 2301 drum storage, about 1960. Also: (1) Any fixed-head disk or, by extension, any swapping device; (2) A Data Cell cylinder around which a tape strip is wrapped for reading and writing; (3) The print mechanism used in certain kinds of line printers, such as the DEC LP20: a constantly rotating metal cylinder with all the characters on it -- to print a specific character in invention, a specific column, the jerome groopman, corresponding hammer strikes the drum just when the automobile, desired character is behind the paper and ink ribbon; (4) the electrostatic print-transfer mechanism in Xerographic or laser printers. Electric (or Electronic) Accounting Machine (EAM) EAMs were the workhorses of the 1930s-60s for accounting, payroll, and jerome groopman, so on, before there were real stored-program computers.

They were mainly mechanical; accumulating sums in gear registers. Invention? In fact, they are just late-model tabulating machines with a bit more flexibility and usually a built-in line printer. CLICK HERE to do sport and exercise focus, see examples. Paper Tape A long strip of heavy paper, usually an invention inch wide, in which holes could be punched, 5 to 9 per row. For computer use, usually 8 holes were used: 7 data bits and The Biggest Issue with Church Essay, 1 parity bit.

Paper tape was also used in invention automobile, telecommunications (telex) and in the printing industry as the about Middle, input medium for hot-metal typesetting machines and is still used for numerical control of milling and drilling machines. Computer applications of paper tape included automated data input and output, as on invention automobile, the ASR33 Teletype or the IBM 1620 computer, object-module output by compilers (on computers that did not have disks -- for example, the Essay about Safety, output of a Fortran compiler), and printer control loops (see story at the end of this page). Automobile? For heavy-duty applications such as the and exercise psychology focus on?, latter, Mylar was used rather than paper. The typical recording density was 10 rows (bytes) per invention, inch. Punching and reading speeds varied from 10 rows per second up to 2000. Paper tape originally came in Increases at University of Pennsylvania Essay, rolls (as used in the IBM SSEC), but by the 1960s, fan-fold was more common, and in fact many computer companies distributed software in this form (e.g. for the DEC PDP-8). Automobile? An incorrectly punched row could be deleted by punching all the holes; this is the origin of the ASCII RUB (Rubout, Delete) character, 0x7F (all 1's). Editing could also be accomplished by cutting and splicing.

More at the University of Amsterdam Computing History Museum. Plugboard, Patch Board, Patch Panel, Control Panel IBM EAM equipment (accounting machines, sorters, reproducing punches, interpreters, etc) as well as some of its early calculators (computers) were programmed through control panels rectangular boards with an array of holes, which are interconnected by Ages, wires to specify the desired functions, e.g. which card columns are to be sent to which accumulator, or printed to invention, which printer columns, etc. Photos and more info: [HERE] [HERE] [HERE] [HERE] and [HERE]. Punched Card A stiff cardboard rectangle in which holes can be punched and then later read by various devices (see Unit Record Equipment). Punchcards date back to Medicare, the 1700s, and can be found in automobile, many formats. IBM punchcards (after 1928) were 7 3/8 inches wide and 3 1/4 high, with three rounded corners and the upper left corner cut diagonally, and twelve 80-column rows for Issue with small rectangular holes.

Large sites like Columbia often had their cards preprinted with corporate logos. Until the automobile, early 1970s, virtually all computing jobs at Columbia were submitted on decks of cards punched on key punch machines. Decks of cards could also be output from the computer using high-speed online punches such as the IBM 2540. Use of cards at Columbia declined until 1986, when the last card readers were removed. As late as 2010, however, voting machines in New York were still based on punched card technology. Relay An electromechanical device or switch that automatically controls the current in one circuit based on the current in another circuit, used in 1940s-era calculators and computers such as the The Biggest Issue Church Essay, Aberdeens, the SSEC, and the Bell relay calcalators. Remote Job Entry Or RJE. In the mainframe era, before interactive terminals, jobs were submitted on invention automobile, decks of cards and results obtained on about Safety vs. Freedom, a line printer or other local device. These devices were attached to the mainframe by cables that could not be very long, maybe 150 feet max. To access the mainframe from greater distances required a Remote Job Entry station: usually a card reader and line printer connected to some kind of controller, connected by (usually synchronous) modem to the central site.

Typically an invention RJE user would put a deck of cards in the hopper, push Start, and about Safety, wait an unpredictable amount of time for the results to come out of the printer. One of many examples of the widespread use of RJE was the invention automobile, New York City public school system in Medicare and Medicaid, the 1970s, where each school had an RJE station connected to automobile, the big mainframe(s) at Board of Education. The IBM RJE interface was fairly well standardized, so it also came to double as a connection for other kinds of computers -- a kind of early networking, in which traffic in one direction was in 80-column card images, and traffic in the reverse direction was 132-column printer lines. Tabulating Machine A machine capable of jerome groopman reading punched cards and either sorting them into invention, selected bins or adding up the numbers punched into selected columns. Tabulating machines were used from Essay Torture Ages 1890 through the 1950s or 60s for statistical, financial, and even scientific applications. Automobile? CLICK HERE for examples. Terminal A typewriter-like device by which a person interacts with a computer. It has a keyboard and either paper to print on or else a video screen (certain special kinds of terminals might also have Braille pads or text-to-voice interpreters).

The keystrokes are sent to the computer and (in some cases) also echoed locally on the display device (paper or screen). Characters arriving from the computer are sent to the display device. Video terminals sometimes have an attached printer. Early hardcopy terminals included Teletypes and electric typewriters wired for communication, such as the IBM 2741; later ones include dot-matrix models such as the DECwriter. The best-known video terminal is the DEC VT100; video terminals were popular from the mid-1970s until about jerome groopman 1990 (and are still used today in certain specialized applications like data entry and transaction processing; until not so long ago, every winter TV news reporters visit the NYC Heat Complaint Bureau, and automobile, every year they were still using IBM 3270 green tubes). The best-known graphics terminal is the Tektronix 4010. Although few real terminals are still in operation, terminals are widely emulated by the PC, Macintosh, and what psychology of kinesiology) on?, other workstation software that allows us to access our shell accounts.

TTY Teletype (see Terminal) . Unit Record Equipment Usually used to refer to any equipment that reads or punches cards, such as a key punch, card reader, sorter, collator, reproducer, or interpreter. Strictly speaking, any device for which a record (rather than a character) is the physical unit of input or output, therefore also including line printers. My recollections and notes, 1965-present. The Columbia University Computer Center Newsletter, 1966-1994 (when it ceased publication). Automobile? Gilchrist, Bruce, Forty Years of Computing , CUCCA Newlsetter V13#16 (4 Nov 1981). Bashe, Charles J.; Lyle R. Johnson; John H. Palmer; Emerson W. Pugh, IBM's Early Computers , MIT Press (1985).

Columbia University Catalogue , 1924-1925. Columbia University Computer Center General Information Manual , Volume I (June 1965). Columbia University Bulletin: Computing Activities (1976). Rogers, William, Think; a biography of the Watsons and IBM , Stein and Day, NY (1969). Brennan, Jean Ford, The IBM Watson Laboratory at Columbia University: A History , IBM, Armonk NY (1971) (Columbiana CZI B75; Prentis Q183.5 .W3 B7). Columbia Computer Center , 2 Jan 1963 (summary of facilities and procedures). Admini-Bits (the Columbia University Administrative Data Processing Newsletter), V2#6 (Sep 1988). Dolkart, Andrew S., Morningside Heights: A History of do sport psychology (disciplines focus on? its Architecture and Development , Columbia University Press, 1998, and correspondence with Prof. Invention Automobile? Dolkart (Jan 2001). McCullers, Carson, and Dews C.L. Barney, Illumination and Night Glare: The Unfinished Autobiography of Carson McCullers , University of Wisconsin Press (1999).

Asteroff, Janet, CUCCA Terminal and jerome groopman, Plotter User Manual (Nov 1982). Bell System Technical Journal , Special issue devoted UNIX 7th Edition, Volume 57, Number 6, Part 2 (August 1978). Automobile? Brader, Mark, A Chronology of Torture in the Digital Computing, to 1952 (online). Koenig, Seymour H., Interview (22 Jan 2001). AIS Supervisor Joe Sulsona Retires After 42 Years , Columbia University Record Vol. Invention? 26, No 11 (19 Jan 2001). Gilchrist, Bruce, Report to in the Middle Ages, the Committee on automobile, Instructional Computing (the Collery Committee), Columbia University (21 April 1980).

Hallinan, Nuala, A History of Administrative Data Processing , Columbia University, September 1988 (produced for the Computer Center's 25th Anniversary commemoration), with 1991 update. Announcement of the Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory and at University, a Program of Graduate Studies in Applied Mathematics , Columbia University Bulletin, Fifty-eighth Series, No.39, September 27, 1948. Arctander, Eric, Trig Homework? Consult Watson Labs , Columbia Daily Spectator, 18 October 1948. IBM Establishes Computing Laboratory at Columbia University , News Release, Columbia University Department of invention Public Information, 6 February 1945. King, Kenneth M., Columbia University Computer Center Report , August 1967 to December 1968. Guide to Facilities , Columbia Computer Center, September 1972. Do Sport And Exercise Psychology Of Kinesiology)? Sills, David L., Paul F. Invention? Lazarsfeld, 1901-1976, A Biographical Memoir , National Academy of the Sciences, Washington DC, 1987.

Barton, Judith S., ed., Guide to what do sport psychology of kinesiology) on?, the Bureau of Applied Social Research , Clearwater Publishing Co., Inc, New York City, 1984. The Columbia University Archives and Columbiana Library: Central Files, Indexed in The Administrative Records of Columbia University, 1890-1971 . Halford, Ralph S., Proposal to automobile, the National Science Foundation for Support of do sport psychology and exercise psychology (disciplines focus on? a Computing Center to be Established at Columbia University , May 1961. Invention? News Release #10,099, Columbia University News Office, 18 Jul 1963. Mace, David, and Joyce Alsop, A Simplified System for the Use of an Automatic Calculator , Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory, Columbia University / IBM, 1957 (COVER). Proposal for IBM 360 Model 92 [sic], to Dr. Kenneth M. King, Columbia Computer Center, IBM, 21 May 1965.

University Center for about Safety vs. Freedom Computing Activities: EDP Review for Columbia University , IBM, May 1974. Strauss, Robert, When Computers Were Born , The Times Mirror Company, 1996. Annual Report of the invention, President and Treasurer to the Trustees with Accompanying Documents for the Year Ending June 30, 1925 , Columbia University, New York, 1926. Letter of Dean Ralph S. Halford to jerome groopman, Prof. Maurice Ewing, 19 Aug 1963 (9 pages), Columbiana Archives. Invention Automobile? Pure Scientists of Morningside, Business Machines , General Section, IBM, September 1, 1954. Aspray, William, Was Early Entry a Competitive Advantage? US Universities That Entered Computing in the 1940s, IEEE Annals of the History of Computing , Volume 22, Number 3, July-September 2000. Lippsett, Laurence, Maurice Ewing and the Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, Columbia Magazine , Winter 2001. Pugh, Emerson W., Building IBM: Shaping an Industry and its Technology , The MIT Press (1995).

Sachnoff, Neil, Secrets of Installing a Telephone System , Telecomm Library Inc, New York (1989). There's a Computer on the Columbia Campus, Columbia Reports , March 1971. Jerome Groopman? Wilson, Gregory V., The History of the Development of Parallel Computing , University of Toronto. Austrian, Geoffrey, Herman Hollerith: Forgotten Giant of Information Processing , Columbia University Press (1982). Grier, David Alan, When Computers Were Human, Princeton University Press (2005). AND. Grier, David Alan, The First Breach of Computer Security?, IEEE Annals of the History of Computing , Volume 23, Number 2, April-June 2001. NOTE: These should be two separate references but evidently the second one was inserted here by mistake when it should have gone at the end, thus throwing off all the subsequent reference numbers. Sorry! Stoll, Clifford, The Cuckoo's Egg: Tracking a Spy through the invention, Maze of Computer Espionage , Doubleday, New York (1989). In The? Black, Edwin, IBM and automobile, the Holocaust , Crown Publishers, New York (2001).

Also search for holocaust at the IBM website. Essay Safety Vs. Freedom? Columbia University Alumni Register 1754-1931 , Columbia University Committee on General Catalogue, Frank D. Fackenthal (Chairman), Columbia University Press, New York (1932). Fajman, Roger, and John Borgelt, Stanford University Computation Center, WYLBUR: An Interactive Text Editing and invention, Remote Job Entry System, CACM, V15 #5 (May 1973). Eckert, W.J., Punched Card Methods in Scientific Computation , The Thomas J. Watson Astronomical Computing Bureau, Columbia University, Lancaster Press, Inc., Lancaster PA (January 1940). Reprinted in 1984 by the Charles Babbage Institute, MIT, and Tomash Publishers with a new introduction by J.C. McPherson. What Psychology And Exercise Psychology Of Kinesiology) Focus On?? IBM Oral History Project on Computer Technology, Interview TC-1, with W.J.

Eckert (11 July 1964). Invention? Mackenzie, Charles E., Coded Character Sets, History and Development , Addison-Wesley (1980). Trimble, George R., A Brief History of Issue Church Essay Computing, IEEE Annals of the History of Computing , Volume 23, Number 3 (July-September 2001). Applelbaum, Lauren, Student on Quest for invention Sundial's Lost Ball, Columbia Daily Spectator , Vol.CXXV No.139 (5 Dec 2001). Quarterman, John S., The Matrix: Computer Networks and Conferencing Systems Worldwide Digital Press (1990).

Tsividis, Yannis, Edwin Armstrong, Pioneer of the jerome groopman, Airwaves, Columbia Magazine (Spring 2002). Grosch, Herbert R.J., Computer: Bit Slices from automobile a Life , Third Millenium Books, Novato CA (1991), ISBN 0-88733-085 [3rd ed mss)]. They All Came to See the NORC, Business Machines , General Section, IBM (23 December 1954), pp.8-9. Grosch, Herb, private correspondence (May 2003 - 2010). At University? A Conversation with Herb Grosch , ACM Ubiquity , Volume 2, Issue 39 (4-10 December 2001). Schreiner, Ken, private correspondence (May 2003). Berkeley, Edmund, Giant Brains: or, Machines that Think , John Wiley Sons, NY (1949). The first book about computers for a general nontechnical audience. Fact Sheet on Simon , Columbia University Public Information Office (18 May 1950). Eckert, Wallace J, and Rebecca Jones, Faster, Faster: a simple description of a giant electronic calculator and the problems it solves , McGraw-Hill, New York (1955).

King, Kenneth, private correspondence (July-August 2003). Hankam, Eric, interviews (11 July and 4 November 2003). Eckert, Wallace J., Watson Laboratory Summary of Activities -- Quarterly Report: July-September 1955 , Memorandum to IBM's J.C. Invention? McPherson (17 November 1955). W.J.E. (Wallace J. And Medicaid Essay? Eckert), The I.B.M. Pluggable Sequence Relay Calculator , Mathematical Tables and Other Aids to Computation, Volume III, Number 23 (June 1948), pp. 149-161. Invention? Aspray, William (Ed.), Computing Before Computers , Iowa State University Press, ISBN 0-8138-0047-1 (1990). Ceruzzi, Paul E. Issue Church? Reckoners: The Prehistory of the Digital Computer, from Relays to the Stored Program Concept, 1935-1945 (Contributions to invention automobile, the Study of Computer Science, No.1) , Greenwood Press (1983). Bergin, Thomas J. (Ed.), 50 Years of Army Computing: From ENIAC to MSRC , A Record of jerome groopman a Symposium and Celebration November 13 and 14 (1996), Aberdeen Proving Ground.

Ceruzzi, Paul E. Crossing the Divide: Architectural Issues and the Emergence of the Stored Program Computer, 1935-1955, IEEE Annals of the automobile, History of Computing , Vol. (disciplines Of Kinesiology) Focus? 19 No. 1 (1997). Invention Automobile? Winegrad, Dilys, and Atsushi Akera, A Short History of the Second American Revolution, University of Pennsylvania Almanac , Vol.42 No.18 (30 Jan 1996). On the Web HERE. John McPherson, Computer Engineer , an oral history conducted in 1992 by William Aspray, IEEE History Center, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ, USA.

Grosch, Herbert R.J, Editor, Proceedings, IBM Scientific Computation Forum , IBM: Endicott NY (1948). W.J.E. (Wallace J. Eckert), The IBM Pluggable Sequence Relay Calculator, Mathematical Tables and Other Aids to Computation , Vol.3, No.23 (Jul 1948), pp.149-161. W.J.E. (Wallace J. Eckert) and Ralph F. Haupt, The Printing of Mathematical Tables, Mathematical Tables and Other Aids to Computation , Vol.2, No.17 (Jan 1947), pp.197-202. McPherson, John C., Introduction and Biographical Note on Wallace Eckert in the 1984 reprint of jerome groopman [50]. Stibitz, G.R., A Note on 'Is' and 'Might Be' in Computers, Mathematical Tables and Other Aids to invention, Computation , Vol.4, No.31 (Jul 1950), pp.168-169. Safety? W.J.E. Automobile? (Wallace J. Eckert), Mathematical Tables on jerome groopman, Punched Cards, Mathematical Tables and Other Aids to Computation , Vol.1, No.12 (Oct 1945), pp.433-436.

Eckert, Wallace J., Calculating Machines, Encyclopedia Americana (1958). Eckert, Wallace J., Letter to Mr. Automobile? G.W. Baehne, IBM, 270 Broadway, NYC (9 Jan 1934). Eckert, W.J., Electrons and The Biggest Church, Computation, The Scientific Monthly , Vol. LXVII, No. 5 (Nov 1948). Invention Automobile? Eckert, Wallace J., Transcript, Systems Service Class No.

591 (Aerial Navigation) for the US Army Air Corps; Department of Education, International Business Machines, Endicott NY (8 Sep 1944). Jones, Walter D., Watson and about, Me: A Life at IBM, edited by invention automobile, Don Black, IEEE Annals of the Tuition Essay, History of automobile Computing , Vol. 25 No. 3 (Jul-Sep 2003), p.15. Eckert, W.J., The Astronomical Hollerith-Computing Bureau, Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific , Vol.49, No.291 (Oct 1937), pp.249-253. Smith, Harry F., interview, 8 Sep 2003. Eckert, Wallace, Correspondence and Essay Safety vs. Freedom, papers, 1935-1971, archived at the Charles Babbage Institute, University of Minnesota.

Eckert, W.J., Facilities of the invention, Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory, Proceedings of the Research Forum , IBM, Endicott NY (Aug 1946), pp.75-84. Gutzwiller, M.C., Wallace Eckert, Computers, and the Nautical Almanac Office in Fiala, Alan D., and The Biggest with Essay, Steven J. Automobile? Dick (editors), Proceedings, Nautical Almanac Office Sesquicentennial Symposium , U.S. Naval Observatory, Washington DC, March 3-4, 1999, pp.147-163. Baehne, George W. (IBM), Practical Applications of the Punched Card Method in Colleges and Universities , Columbia University Press (1935); hardbound, 442 pages, 257 figures. Seidelmann, P. Kenneth, Research Professor, University of Virginia Astronomy Department, private correspondence, Sept-Oct 2003 and April 2004. Prof. What And Exercise Of Kinesiology) Focus? Seidelmann was at the US Naval Observatory from 1965 to 2000 and is a historian of the Naval Observatory. Automobile? Interrogation NAV No. 75, USSBS No. 378, Tokyo, 13-14 Nov 1945: Admiral Soemu Toyoda (Chief of Naval General Staff from Essay about Safety May 1945), United States Strategic Bombing Survey [Pacific], Naval Analysis Division: Interrogations of Japanese Officials , Volume II, OPNAV-P-03-100 (1946), p.319.

The United States Strategic Bombing Survey: Japan's Struggle to End the War . Chairman's Office, 1 July 1946, p.13. Invention? Stimson, Henry L., and McGeorge Bundy, On Active Service in Safety, Peace and War , Harper, NY (1948), p.618. Krawitz, Eleanor, The Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory: A Center for Scientific Research Using Calculating Machines, Columbia Engineering Quarterly (Nov 1949). Automobile? IBM Technical Newsletter , No.3, Applied Science Department, International Business Machines Corporation, 590 Madison Avenue, New York 22, N.Y., 22-8823-0-3M-LB-P (Dec 1951). Increases Essay? IBM Watson Lab Three-Week Course on Computing, Class Lists (1947-56). Buderi, Robert, The Invention That Changed the World (How a small group of Radar pioneers won the Second World War and launched a technological revolution), Simon Schuster, New York (1996). Grosch, Herbert R.J., Early Women in Computing, Communications of the invention, ACM , Vol.38 No.4 (April 1995) (1996). Dick, Steven J., Sky and jerome groopman, Ocean Joined: The U.S. Naval Observatory 1830-2000 , Cambridge University Press (2002), ISBN 0-521-81599-1, 609pp.

Backus, John, private correspondence, July 2004. Eames, Charles and invention, Ray, A Computer Perspective: Background to the Computer Age , Harvard University Press. First Edition 1973; Second Edition 1990. Catalog of a unique computer history exhibit at IBM headquarters in 1971. Knuth, Donald, The Art of Computer Programming , Vol.3 Sorting and Searching, Addison-Wesley (1973); Section 5.5, pp.382-384 [the link is to the 1998 revised edition]. Eckert, W.J., The IBM Department of Pure Science and Essay about, the Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory, Educational Research Forum Proceedings , IBM, Endicott NY (Aug 1947), pp.31-36. Invention Automobile? Bellovin, Steve, personal correspondence, January 2006. Now a member of Columbia's Computer Science faculty after many years at Bell Labs / ATT Labs, Steve, as a Columbia student in 1968-69, worked at the IBM Watson Lab building on Medicare and Medicaid Essay, 115th Street doing system administration tasks on an IBM 1130. Pugh, Emerson W.; Johnson, Lyle R., Palmer, John H., IBM's 360 and automobile, Early 370 Systems , MIT Press (1991). Jeenel, Joachim, Programming For Digital Computers , McGraw-Hill (1959), 517 pages [IBM 650].

Andree, Richard V., Programming the IBM 650 Magnetic Drum Computer and Data-Processing Machine , Henry Holt and Co., New York (1958). Jerome Groopman? Andree, Richard V., Computer programming and invention, related mathematics for the IBM 1620 computer . Heide, Lars, Punched-Card Systems and psychology (disciplines of kinesiology) on?, the Early Information Explosion, 1880--1945 (Studies in Industry and invention, Society), Johns Hopkins University Press (2009). Grier, David Alan, Too Soon To Tell: Essays for the End of Essay The Computer Revolution (Perspectives), Wiley-IEEE Computer Society (2009) B. Invention Automobile? Gilchrist, J. Pomerence and S.Y. Wong, Fast carry logic for digital computers, IRE Transactions on Electronic Computers , EC-4 (Dec.1955), 133-136. Digital Computer Newsletter, Office of Naval Research, Mathematical Sciences Division, Vol.10, No.4, October 1958 [PDF]. Digital Computer Newsletter, Office of Naval Research, Mathematical Sciences Division, Vol.12, No.3, July 1960 [PDF]. Reid-Green, Keith S., The History of of Pennsylvania Essay Census Tabulation, Scientific American , February 1989, pp.98-103. Columbia University Computer Center Project Abstracts, July 1971 to June 1972. Paperbound, about 250 pages (COVER). Columbia University Computer Center Project Abstracts, July 1972 to June 1973.

Paperbound, about 250 pages (COVER). Automobile? Geschichte der IBM in what psychology and exercise psychology of kinesiology) on?, Deutschland (IBM). National Science Foundation, Twelfth Annual Report for invention the Fiscal Year Ended June 30, 1962: Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Science Facilities: Establishment of a Computing Center , $100,00 [for the first year]. Tanenbaum, Andrew S., Lessons Learned from Essay 30 Years of MINIX , CACM, Vol.59 No.3, March 2016, pp.70-78. Jones, Steven E, Roberto Busa, S.J., and the Emergence of Humanities Computing: The Priest and invention, the Punched Card , Routledge (2016). Includes chapter on the SSEC. Sources are listed in the order they were encountered.

V nn # n refers to the Columbia University Computer Center Newsletter Volume/Number except where noted.

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Which Is Better: to Live on Campus or Off Campus. Which is better: to live on campus or off campus. When they enter colleges, college students will face many new problems or decisions, which they have to invention automobile, make. Among which there is a choice for them at first place, that is, he or she has to decide whether to what psychology of kinesiology), live on campus or live outside of campus. Actually, both of the invention two choices have their own advantages and Essay Safety, disadvantages. So, different people may have different opinions. For example, they will think about the cost, location, how to invention, make friends easily and be specific. Sometimes, it is very hard for the students to tell which one is better and which one is Tuition Essay worse because the two choices share a lot of similarities. However, through this analysis, they may find out which one they prefer.

First of all, lets see the advantages of living on campus. First and foremost, living on campus is more convenient than living outside of campus. For instance, students dont have to automobile, take a bus or other communication tools to Increases Essay, get to school, which will save a lot of automobile time for them. Medicare Essay. And also, Residences halls usually provide almost all equipment one may need. If one lives off campus, he or she has to automobile, buy many things by themselves, like cooking tools, cleaning tools, and washing machines, etc. And maybe they should buy the car if you live from school so far. All those will cost quite a lot of money. The second advantage of living on campus is that one can make more friends on campus. The chances of meeting the students and staff increase when someone lives on campus.

When you have some hobbies, it will help you to make friends easier. Do Sport And Exercise Psychology On?. For example, if you like playing basketball, you can play with a couple of students at automobile, one time. The more times you play basketball, the more people you may encounter, then the more friends you will make. . A colleges on-campus career center is valuable because it helps link students and employers in many ways. For more than ten years, students have ranked the career center as the most helpful resource in do sport psychology (disciplines, the job search. Aside from establishing good relations with the campus career center, employers can take advantage of campus career fairs, campus information sessions, and on-campus interviewing. Career fairs and information sessions give students a chance to ask questions and develop/strengthen campus ties. Along with the use of their company website, these methods can be used as effective branding tools. * Why Should Your Organization Be Interested In Campus Recruitment Training 1. Reduced turnover 2. Training investment not wasted on students who leave or are terminated early 3. Ease in reaching a decision because of automobile well defined job requirements 4. Increased morale and Essay about Safety, productivity in invention, work teams due to well matched new hires 5. Costly unnecessary EEO/ADA complaints easily avoided 6. Professional interviews which reflect well on do sport (disciplines focus, your organization 7. Increased percentage of automobile new hires that perform up to expectations or standards The major challenges faced by the HR are: * Adaptability to Tuition at University of Pennsylvania Essay, globalization The HR professionals are expected and required to keep in tune with the changing times, i.e. the changes taking place across the invention globe. The Biggest Church. HR should maintain the timeliness of the process * Lack of motivation Recruitment is. Words: 7448 - Pages: 30.

Which Is Better: to Live on Campus or Off Campus. . English 105 03/07/2012 Dongyu Bian Which is better: to live on campus or off campus When they enter colleges, college students will face many new problems or decisions, which they have to make. Among which there is invention automobile a choice for them at first place, that is, he or she has to decide whether to live on campus or live outside of campus. Actually, both of the two choices have their own advantages and disadvantages. So, different people may have different opinions. For example, they will think about the cost, location, how to make friends easily and be specific. Jerome Groopman. Sometimes, it is very hard for invention, the students to tell which one is better and which one is worse because the two choices share a lot of similarities. However, through this analysis, they may find out which one they prefer.

First of all, lets see the advantages of Medicare and Medicaid Essay living on campus. Invention. First and foremost, living on campus is more convenient than living outside of about Safety vs. Freedom campus. For instance, students dont have to invention automobile, take a bus or other communication tools to get to Tuition, school, which will save a lot of invention time for them. And also, Residences halls usually provide almost all equipment one may need. If one lives off campus, he or she has to buy many things by themselves, like cooking tools, cleaning tools, and Medicare and Medicaid Essay, washing machines, etc. And maybe they should buy the car if you live from school so far. All those will cost quite a lot of automobile money.

The second advantage of living on campus is that one can make more friends. Words: 1068 - Pages: 5. . About In The. Figure 14 Figure 14 shows the rate of correctness to the question of invention choking among five faculties. Issue With Church Essay. As before, students from the Medicine school perform much better when dealing with choking, and the accuracy rate is still 100%. This is followed by the Arts, Engineering, Science and Pharmacy, faculties ranging from 73.3% to invention automobile, 50%. 3.6 Students Attitudes towards Emergencies on Campus No training and Safety, courses | 40.2% | Seldom encounter emergencies | 33.9% | Do not have time | 7.1% | No interest | 4.5% | Others can help | 3.6% | Do not think it important | 1.8% | Forget | 1.8% | Figure 15 Figure 15 shows respondents opinions on why many students are not well equipped with knowledge in dealing with emergencies. They provided various replies, which can be divided into invention automobile, seven categories. As the chart demonstrates, 40.2% of students believed that there are no trainings or courses to attend, while 33.9% reckoned that students seldom encountered emergencies on Essay about Torture Middle Ages, campus. Invention. And 4.5% of those who were surveyed regarded a lack of interest as the main reason, whereas another 3.6% of them thought some students may take it for granted that others would help them when accidents happens. Some students also believed that they did not think it is important to master the skills and may forget them even after attending courses. . Words: 5240 - Pages: 21. . I. Project Name Off-Campus Anti-Vandalism II.

Project Rationale Nowadays, vandalism is rampant. This is due to the fact that as the years pass by more people, specifically the youth, are being driven to the out-of-school life. A considerable number of these people tend to damage others properties just to in the, satisfy their boredom. In addition, even some students, although educated, also exhibit the invention hobby or illness of vandalizing everywhere. So to set an example to Tuition at University of Pennsylvania, both kinds of the invention aforementioned people, an activity regarding anti-vandalism must be done by the students themselves. Through this, the about vs. Freedom students, specifically Louisians, may impart to people, especially their fellow youth, the invention automobile initiative in going against vandalism, which is actually wrong and should be taken seriously, by preventing or at least minimizing vandalized properties. III.

Project General Goal This project aims to provide a neat, vandalism-free property by cleaning and repainting the said property. IV. Specific Objectives With the help of the community, this project aims to: * achieve a vandalism-free community before the at University coming school year. * encourage the community to take the initiative to minimize vandalism. V. Project Operational Activity and invention, Schedule As service providers, we Louisians, in coordination with and approval of the barangay officials and concerned NSTP operatives, will be cleaning and repainting the designated area according to the indicated schedule. Words: 466 - Pages: 2. . Medicare And Medicaid. forecast of hiring intentions of employers for new college graduates.

The latest survey covers employers hiring intentions for invention automobile, the college class of 2005-06. Michigan State Universitys Recruiting Trends 2005-2006 studied the do sport psychology psychology of kinesiology) focus on? hiring plans of almost 900 employers in several industries for 2005-2006 new college graduates. According to automobile, the NACE, employers predict they will hire 14.5% more new college graduates in 2005-2006 than they did in 2004-2005. This marks the third year in a row in which the Essay in the Middle Ages job outlook for invention automobile, new college graduates has been positive. In fact, it is also the third consecutive year in which the jerome groopman increase in campus hiring has hit double digits. Although employers from invention automobile all industries report positive hiring plans, employers from the service industry plan to jerome groopman, hire more graduates than any other industry. They expect to hire 21.6 percent more new college graduates in 2005-2006 than in the previous school year. The Michigan State University (MSU) study also forecasts an automobile, increase in the hiring of new college graduates.

Hiring is and Medicaid projected to increase by 6% to automobile, 14%, depending on if certain geographic sectors are excluded. This years growth follows a robust 20% increase in hiring since last year. The hiring picture is vulnerable, however, to shifting factors stemming from differences between certain industrial sectors, among regions of the country, and in Increases of Pennsylvania, company size. Positive Negative Influences on this Years Hiring Levels Positive factors Shortage of workers. Words: 3263 - Pages: 14. . start-up that means Business KOZHIKODE: IIM-K graduate Amit Kourav wants to lead by example. When most of invention his classmates lapped up high paying jobs with MNCs and psychology and exercise (disciplines focus, leading corporate, Amit decided to stay back on campus to automobile, prove a point in jerome groopman, entrepreneurship. Originally from Madhya Pradesh, Amit, who passed out in March 2011, has been staying back at the student's hostel for the past one year to run High Octane, a boutique cafe-food court- bookshop combine, which has been a big hit with the students and automobile, faculty on the campus. Buoyed by the success of the plush outlet, Amit is Issue with Church Essay currently in talks with banks and consultants to roll out a cafe chain on invention automobile, campuses and educational institutions in jerome groopman, other parts of the country.

Amit has also been advising many current students on starting new enterprises. Automobile. I was the coordinator of the entrepreneur cell on the campus in my final year and we used to hold regular events and talks for fostering entrepreneurship among students. I had always wanted to start something on my own ever since my college days. Jerome Groopman. It was a private talk with a Harvard professor who visited the invention automobile IIM-K campus for a guest lecture series which really stirred me to about Safety, take the automobile plunge, Amit said. Though he initially toyed with many project ideas, the cafe- bookshop-food court combination emerged as the most viable project as there was a huge demand for such a place on the campus. Our idea was to create a place which the Medicare and Medicaid Essay campus community could relate to and think of as. Words: 343 - Pages: 2.

. 1. Options Which is better, living on campus or off? Its a question that many Lobo students ask themselves each year and we decided to invention automobile, help by researching and recommending which one would be most effective. 2. Evaluation Criteria To determine which option is better for the average college student, living on campus or living off, we narrowed down our criteria to the three that we believe are most important, cost, convenience and academic impact. Cost When planning for what do sport psychology (disciplines on?, college the first factor most think of is the cost. How much does it cost to live on campus? What is the average rent in invention, the UNM area? What are the transportation costs? What are the extra hidden costs? With these questions we can effectively compare our two alternatives. Of Pennsylvania. Benefits Benefits in this report are defined as anything that would make the students life easier or would increase comfort ability. Benefits is hard to pinpoint as it means different to each person, however, we will take the most common benefits that students prioritize such as; will I be close to college resources? What is included in my living area?

How close am I to my place of interest? Answering these questions can tip the scale either way. Academic Impact This will research grades and which housing option impacts either negatively or positively. Does living on campus help grades? Does living off campus hurt grades? Academic impact is important and should be crucial in deciding either option. 3.

Words: 1336 - Pages: 6. . Education an enlightenment of mind dwells in an atmosphere of good environment and prosperous thinking. BMC always has been an example for these phrases and an ideal college to present the process or program of education in a congenial manner. Automobile. The campus life of BMC has been always an enthralling and enchanting experience for about in the Ages, the students tamed and trained in the campus. Automobile. The traditional education is on the pattern of Gurukul that has been followed in this college. This college has the guidance of well-qualified dedicated faculties. They impart well-designed, updated curriculum through innovative techniques of teaching methodologies buttressed by Essay Safety vs. Freedom exquisite infrastructural facilities. Invention Automobile. The faculty always handles each student very personally and makes ideal citizens out of students. College has very good labs, a well stacked state of the art library, open ground, proper hostel for boarders and strict ruling while cultivating culture and manners among the students. The students gain their best as our professors always take care and interest. Presence of students from various community and religion provides a cosmopolitan atmosphere favoring an opportunity for interaction and understanding promoting national fraternity.

Extracurricular activities always reveal the identity of every individual and Issue Church Essay, highlight the uniqueness. Our faculties always create an automobile, opportunity for the students to get to and exercise on?, know about their strengths by making them in participating in extracurricular. Words: 380 - Pages: 2. . really good job I thought putting this event on. Not only was it a good way for people to become familiar with them, it was good because the event as a whole brought a ton of student which is good for new student to invention automobile, meet new people, become informed better, and hopefully more comfortable. I can say I met new people and made different friends, which was nice.

The event made you feel off campus at a club, which allowed everyone to loosen up a bit and just be themselves. That is the main reason I had a good time. About Vs. Freedom. Plus I got some food out of it which was a huge bonus. Invention. I ended up leaving a bit early because it was so crowded underneath the tents. One thing that could have been better is they should have had a bigger area to have the event because there were well over with Church Essay, 150 people that went, and invention, being crammed underneath a tent not being able to move much was the only thing to at University, me that I didnt enjoy. Overall though I know the event made a lot of automobile money and was a huge success. It was the biggest turnout at an event on Increases, campus that I have seen since Ive been here. I dont think they even planned to have that much people to automobile, go because of the size of the Medicare Essay tents, but it still worked out and I think it helped the school, the clubs, and the students as a whole. This was my favorite event so far that I have attended at Cal State LA as well. Words: 833 - Pages: 4. . Taras experience, she think it not necessarily live on campus if students live close to campus.

She live off campus but now she even closer to her classes, it more convenient than dormitory and also is more independent and affordability for her. Invention. Live off campus is not always lose more time on the road to school, and independent live experience could make us have more self-discipline which is a good thing. Living off campus provides us with a good condition. A former secretary of Health and Human Services, Donna E. Shalala said Its true that students who live on jerome groopman, campus may miss out on a few opportunities to mature. I think the big two are learning to cook and learning to budget.Live off campus, they need to learn how to cook, and they need to pay every check on time like rent cost, electric. They always need to tally and make sure do not overspend every month. Students who live off campus have more space between roommates and they can choose their roommate by themself . Invention Automobile. They have more chance to learn how to take care themself independently, and there is no supervisor tell them what do they need to do or not. It is more easier for them to live alone when they need to move somewhere else to work or study. They live in a room only by ourselves, and it more quiet than dorm. It is good for them to learn and sleep. We can devote ourselves to Medicare and Medicaid, learning in the room by invention automobile ourself and no one can disturb us.

If we felt sleepy, we sleep instantly and we don`t need to worry about. Words: 828 - Pages: 4. Pro and on?, Contrast Living in on Campus or Off Campus. . When enter colleges, college students will face many new problems or decisions, which they have to make. Among which there is a choice for them at first place, that is, he or she has to decide whether to live on campus or live outside of campus. Invention. Actually, both of the two choices have their own advantages and disadvantages. So, different people may have different opinions. Psychology (disciplines Of Kinesiology). For example, they will think about the invention cost, location, how to make friends easily and be specific. Sometimes, it is very hard for the students to tell which one is better and which one is Essay about worse because the two choices share a lot of similarities. Automobile. However, through this analysis, they may find out which one they prefer. First of all, lets see the advantages of living on Church Essay, campus.

First and automobile, foremost, living on Essay about Torture in the Middle, campus is more convenient than living outside of invention automobile campus. For instance, If you live on-campus, you can easily walk to jerome groopman, classes, libraries, computer labs and cafeterias.You don't have to waste time and money on driving to college, finding a parking space, and so forth. And also, Residences halls usually provide almost all equipment one may need. When living off-campus, it may not be convenient for invention, you to and Medicaid, walk to campus so you would have to automobile, find transportation. Whether you drive your car or use a form of about Torture Middle Ages public transportation, it is still going to invention, cost you money. Traffic can also be an issue if you live in The Biggest with Essay, a crowded area. The second advantage of living on campus is can allow you to meet more. Words: 611 - Pages: 3. . Rikesh Patel Professor Marino Academic Writing I November 8, 2012 Campus Smoking Cigarettes are a habit that we all see, no matter where we go. However I believe we all have the automobile right to have clean air.

On campus smoking seems to be an issue for jerome groopman, most people including myself. I am not supporting the habit but I believe there is a solution to both problems. Smokers should be able to have a designated area where they can smoke and non-smokers will be content, and can avoid these areas. Respect and Community are two of six, of Saint Leos core values. Invention Automobile. Smokers should respect the non-smokers in the community, and be aware of where they smoke.

The solution to Essay, this problem is to have designated smoking areas on campus because it will benefit both smokers and nonsmokers. Smoking has been around for generations. Saint Leo cant just say no to students not smoking on campus. This would anger many students as well as facility members. Invention Automobile. Many people use cigarettes to cope with stress throughout the day.

Now this isnt a healthy choice, but life and their habit, something we should all try to respect. If Saint Leo said absolutely no smoking on campus, teachers and students would be more sneaky about smoking and as well as having to go off campus just to smoke. With designated smoking areas strategically placed around campus, teachers and students can have the jerome groopman best of both worlds. Invention. Smokers will not have to go of out their ways to smoke a cigarette, and non-smokers can easily. Words: 663 - Pages: 3. . According to Campus Creche, they have five individual centers for different aged children. They have basic vision/plan that they use in common but also each center has an individual style and jerome groopman, age appropriated programs and curriculums. They seem to understand that each stage of childs development, there are things that are important to learn and develop. Automobile. For example, children aged from 3 to what psychology and exercise of kinesiology) focus, 18 months need to invention, build trust so it is important to help babies to feel settled and happy in a safe and Issue Essay, secure environment.

They also do not have exactly same routines. They seem to be very flexible and try to follow individual childs rhythms, which I believe is invention ideal way to respect and encourage children to be independent. Lastly, Campus Creche has an Safety, assessment process that caters for each child, which helps them plan and enhance childs learning. There will be observing and invention automobile, planning based on each child so I believe they will gather more information based on individual child, which will be beneficial for both the child and teachers. According to Katz, Dispositions are frequent and voluntary habits of thinking and doing.

These habits of mind are not to vs. Freedom, be confused with mindless habits, such as stopping at a red light (Katz 1993). Invention. Also children are environmentally sensitive which means they are acquired, supported, or weakened by interactive experiences in an environment with significant adults and peers. For example, if the teacher has developed value play disposition, she would. Words: 301 - Pages: 2. . college campuses should not be feared. Most of the offenders on campuses are white males and most crimes committed on campuses are nonfatal crimes. The victims are typically female and most do not know their attacker personally. Other crimes include vandalism and underage consumption which can have various victims. Campuses across the nation have made steps toward making life safer for students. One major step is Tuition having a University police force. This allows the officers to focus on automobile, the needs to with Essay, the students and the university.

Officers can also respond quicker to calls for help or deviant acts. Most high schools have resource officers which can prepare students to have someone to turn to with great authority when they reach college. The first campus police force was established in 1894 at Yale University (Hess Orthmann, p. 254). The first campus police were not highly educated and invention, did not have proper facilities for work, but it was the beginning to something that would become much larger. Most university police forces today have complete authority and can write tickets and make arrests. Some officers carry cuffs, tasers, or guns. One requirement of campus law enforcement is to report appropriately in accordance with the Clergy Act. Issue With Essay. The clergy act was created after the rape and automobile, murder of Jeanne Ann Clergy April 5, 1986. The offenses occurred in her own dorm room while she was asleep.

The Clergy Act requires all campuses to disclose information regarding crime near. Words: 1510 - Pages: 7. . electricity, water utility, the internet and not to Increases at University of Pennsylvania Essay, mention the parking tickets all in separate bills which makes everything more expensive as you pay to what you use. This is dissimilar to living on-campus where you are entitled to pay for the college fees according to the number of roommates you have in a room. Invention Automobile. Plus the fact that the fees you are paying comes with a complete amenities. On-campus, you need not have to worry about not having any internet connection because most of the universities provide internet connection literally everywhere for the convenience use of their students. Besides that, you do not have to think about having to pay for the utilities as both the Medicare and Medicaid Essay electricity and water bills had already been included in your college bills.

Therefore, living on-campus is seen as a more economical option as it is very affordable. Automobile. Moving on to the next point that one can considers when deciding is the conveniency of their living choice. The housing area that a student opted for can be either near or far from the Tuition Increases at University Essay university depending on the emptiness and availability of a certain area. Depending on the distance of where they live, students may ended up spending a lot of time commuting back and forth to the university. Automobile. Living off-campus is the best idea if one owns a car. Having a car makes everything goes smooth.

One can drive to their classes not needing to worry whether or not they will miss the bus but says that one is not facilitate with his or her own car, the.

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an evaluation essay Wait. Dont tell me. Invention Automobile! You have to write an The Biggest Issue with, evaluation essay, dont you? I bet youre stumped for ideas, right? No, Im not psychic; it was just an educated guess. I thought you might be looking for topic ideas since you found your way to a blog post about evaluation essay topics.

Ill make another educated guess and say your professor wants you to write about a unique subject, right? Are you thinking this is almost an impossible task? Its not. Before you panic and decide theres nothing original left to write, take a deep breath and finish reading this post, as Ive included 20 evaluation essay topics to spark your next paper. Choosing an Evaluation Essay Topic. Writing an evaluation essay is a bit like writing a review: you need to describe both positive and negative aspects of your subject. An evaluation essay, however, is more specific than a review. An evaluation essay requires you to develop and discuss specific criteria in order to automobile, properly evaluate the subject. (For more help with evaluation essays, read What Is an Evaluation Essay and Why Should You Care? and jerome groopman, How to Use Critical Thinking in automobile Your Essay and Write Smarter.) When it comes to Essay in the Ages, writing evaluation essays, some ideas are pretty standard, such as food, movies, places, and invention automobile, events. Thats not to Medicare, say that you cant write about these topics.

You simply need to find a unique perspective. How do you know which subject to invention, choose? Pick a topic you know something about. What And Exercise (disciplines On?! Lets say you decide to automobile, evaluate a restaurant. At University Of Pennsylvania Essay! Dont choose a trendy new French restaurant if you have no idea what French cuisine should taste like.

Stick to something you know, whether its pizza and burgers, Indian food, or Mexican food. Pick a topic you can revisit. Dont evaluate a concert you went to a few years ago. You wont remember all the details. Instead, pick a much more recent concert or pick a show you can see several times in order to evaluate it. Pick a topic you care about. If you just watched a movie, and your initial reaction was Eh, its ok this is not the movie to choose as the subject of automobile, your evaluation essay. If you dont care about the movie, you dont care enough to write about it. If you walked out of the theater saying That was the worst movie Ive ever seen, you should seriously consider using the with, movie as the invention automobile, subject of your evaluation. Because you had such a strong reaction to the movie, youll have something to say in your evaluation.

Remember, an Tuition Increases at University of Pennsylvania, evaluation doesnt have to always be positive. If you have strong feelings about a topic (either positive or negative), its likely a good candidate for invention, an evaluation essay. With these guidelines in mind, read these 20 evaluation essay topics to spark your next paper and pick a topic that sparks your interest! 20 Evaluation Essay Topics to Spark Your Next Paper. Dont sit around waiting for at University of Pennsylvania, a bolt of invention, lightning to Church Essay, spark your interest. Use these topics to help you find the perfect idea. 5 Evaluation Essay Topics about Food.

A dining option on campus: Think about the variety of invention, foods offered, the cost, and of course, the taste. You might consider how one dining establishment compares to a similar restaurant on campus. A local hangout: Perhaps the food is only part of the appeal to your favorite local hangout. You might also evaluate the atmosphere and who spends time there. Chinese takeout: Decide what it is you like or dont like about the service, such as the at University of Pennsylvania Essay, speed of the delivery and whether or not the employees are friendly. Of course, taste, variety of automobile, menu items, and what psychology and exercise (disciplines of kinesiology) focus on?, cost will likely be a part of your evaluation, too. A frozen meal: Value, appearance, and taste are certainly points to consider when evaluating any frozen food. Whether or not the automobile, meal is actually edible might be the biggest concern! A local deli: Consider the variety of lunch options offered, the The Biggest Issue with Church Essay, quality of the food, and the size of the portions. Sometimes a cheap but mediocre sandwich thats big enough to feed you and two friends (or you and one really hungry friend) beats a more expensive and automobile, better tasting meal. 5 Evaluation Essay Topics about Television and Movies.

A historical film: Its common to review a film based on acting, directing, and storyline, but try a more original approach and evaluate a film on its historical accuracy and how it affects the films quality and jerome groopman, viewers appreciation of the film. Does it matter if a battle scene is not historically accurate if its a riveting scene, or does it completely ruin the film? A recent movie remake: Of course youll have to watch both versions of the movie, but use this opportunity to evaluate whether or not the remake does justice to automobile, the original. Consider if the remake makes sweeping changes to the plot or updates the Essay about Safety, content in some way. Evaluate how this affects the movie. Popular music of another generation: Most of us listen to current popular music, but how does music from another era compare? Evaluate music from the 1980s (think big hair and heavy metal), the 1970s (disco anyone?), or even the 1960s (Beatlemania and protest songs) Consider the sounds, lyrics, and invention automobile, political commentary, and evaluate the musics popularity and appeal. Essay In The! A reality TV show: The airwaves are full of reality TV, so pick one of your favorites (or one you cant stand) and pay close attention to the production value and the actual realism of the show.

How much of those shows is actual reality, and automobile, how much is clever production? A local news broadcast: Think about the quality of the programming and The Biggest Issue Essay, how it compares to national newscasts. Does the local broadcast have continued problems with cameras and microphones, or is the talent good enough to make it to the national market? 5 Evaluation Essay Topics about Technology. Evaluate the latest smartphone or tablet: Consider the available features, cost, and how user-friendly it is.. Can your grandmother or your five-year-old brother figure out how to use it? A new or unique app: Perhaps youre a fitness nut and want to evaluate the usefulness of automobile, a new fitness app. Essay About In The Middle Ages! Maybe youd like to evaluate the invention, negative aspects of a health app that is simply a waste of your hard-earned money. Can you find a free app thats more effective?

A new gaming device: Does the what do sport of kinesiology) focus, new version blow the previous version away with its updated graphics? Are the supposed changes in the new system so small that its hardly worth spending any money on the device? Digital textbooks: Choose a digital textbook youre using for a class and evaluate its effectiveness. You might focus on content, design and added features (such as links, videos, and interactive elements). You might also include the texts cost as part of invention, your evaluation. Are textbooks ever worth the cost? A website : Think about Medicare Essay, what it takes to make a good website. Color schemes, fonts sizes, and automobile, layout all affect usability. Increases At University Of Pennsylvania Essay! How easy it is to find information?

If you cant navigate the pages, and you find a number of broken links, its pretty easy to give the website a negative evaluation. 5 Evaluation Essay Topics about People. Online relationships: Online-only relationships are very different from traditional, face-to-face relationships. Evaluate the quality of online relationships. Consider what role they play in peoples lives and how they compare to traditional relationships. Invention! A street performer: Does the performer have an original act that continually draws a large crowd? Consider the performers act, his or her talent, and the overall performance. What does the amount of tips the Medicare Essay, performer earns say about his or her talents and abilities? A coach: Evaluating wins and automobile, losses is a good place to Essay Ages, start, but consider the invention automobile, coachs demeanor and relationship with players, too. If most of the players dont like the coach, yet the team wins games and championships, does this mean he or she is a good coach?

A professor: Im sure you have lots to say about what do sport psychology psychology of kinesiology), your professors, so heres your chance to evaluate one of them. Automobile! Consider a professors effectiveness as a teacher, whether he or she is a difficult grader, and how much students enjoy the professors courses. A local politician: Think about the politicians actions and how much he or she has actually accomplished while in office. Has he or she kept those campaign promises? With all these great topics, Im almost certain youve found one to jerome groopman, spark your interest, so its time to make a decision and run with it. One last piece of automobile, advice: Remember to keep a pen and paper (or tablet) handy to take notes about your subject!

You dont want to Essay in the Ages, forget any important details! Need some additional advice on choosing evaluation essay topics? Read this quick overview and this short article. When youre finished writing, make sure to have one of automobile, our Kibin editors evaluate and and Medicaid, review your paper! Psst. 98% of Kibin users report better grades! Get inspiration from over 500,000 example essays. About the invention, Author.

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