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Madjid Zerrouky Sous le signe du drapeau noir : histoire et presence du jihad en Syrie. Posted on and mental, novembre 14, 2012. Il ny a pas dathees dans les tranchees Cummings. (Baatan, Philippines, 1942) Avertissement : des liens contenus dans larticle peuvent renvoyer vers des sites et/ou forums jihadistes ; jai choisi de ne pas mettre ceux qui renvoient vers les contenus les plus violents (en gras avec une etoile). I- Intro : Minoritaires, mais de plus en plus bruyants. II Offensives armees, contre-offensive culturelle. . Media Role? Une guerre contre les populations sunnites. . Labelling Theory And Mental Health? Une insurrection sunnite, et des combats qui renforcent la religiosite et ses symboles. . Media? La question des financements exterieurs. III Un terreau historique lislamisme arme en Syrie depuis 1975.

. Theory? Al-Taliaa al-muqatila (1964-1982), la mere de tous les jihadistes. . Role? Quand Damas frayait avec les jihadistes : le retour du boomerang. La base de donnees de Sinjar : Al-Qaeda et la Syrie. De Nahr al-Bared a Damas, letrange trajectoire du Fatah al-islam libano-palestinien. Les amnisties interessees de Bachar al-Assad. IV- Les grands groupes jihadistes aujourdhui.

. Health? Ahrar al-Sham, la petite armee. . Role In Society? Liwaa al-Umma, la legion etrangere libyenne V Entre deux eaux : des katibas islamistes dans lArmee syrienne libre. Post-sciptum : Liwaa al-fourqane sur le baril de poudre du Golan. Post-scruptum 2 : Les groupes dAlep de Jabhat al-Nusra, Ahrar al-Sham et kataeb al-Tawhid annoncent un accord en vue de letablissement dun Etat islamique et rejettent la Coalition nationale syrienne (18/11/2012) Aidez-nous ou nous nous allierons avec Al-Qaeda. And Mental? Nous ne voulons pas deux ici, mais si personne ne nous aide, nous nous tournerons vers eux , declarait debut aout Abou Amar, un chef de la brigade islamiste Al-Tawhid, deja peu farouche a legard des formations les plus radicales (ce qui, nous le verrons, ne sest pas arrange depuis), peu apres lentree de ses forces dans Alep. Le coup de gueule dun rebelle alors exaspere par lafflux au compte-gouttes de munitions et darmes en provenance de lexterieur ? Ou le simple constat que certains ont lair mieux servis dautres ? Deux mois plus tard en tout cas, un rapport confidentiel americain deterre par le New York Times affirme que ce ne sont pas les armes qui manquent ; elles sont bel et bien livrees aux insurges, par lArabie Saoudite et, surtout, le Qatar, mais elles atterrissent dans les arsenaux des groupes les moins frequentables Les groupes de lopposition qui recoivent la majorite de laide letale sont precisement ceux que nous ne voulons pas voir mettre la main dessus , declare ainsi un officiel anonyme. Of The Is Not Management​ Decision?? Et de pointer le manque total de transparence autour de ces livraisons darmes et labsence de controle sur les groupes qui les recoivent.

La conclusion vire a langoisse : la peur que les jihadistes, mieux armes, soient en position de force dans le cas dun conflit pour le controle du pays apres la chute du regime dAl-Assad. Les jihadistes purs et durs sont minoritaires, ne representant, selon les estimations les plus communement admises, que 10% des effectifs dune rebellion armee qui compte entre 40 000 et 70 000 hommes en armes. Health? Mais on Radio Essay examples, commence a les retrouver sur les lignes de front les plus sensibles du pays. Health? De la frontiere turque,ou les drapeaux noir et blanc du Califat accueillent le visiteur au poste de Bab al-Hawa, cogere , par la brigade Al-Farouq et les radicaux dAhrar al-Sham, a la bataille strategique de Maarat al-Noaman, verrou controlant lacces a Alep depuis le centre et le sud du pays ( et dont depend a terme le sort de la garnison du regime defendant la grande agglomeration du nord) , ou les combattants dAhrar al-Sham, toujours, bien armes, font desormais partie du paysage et du dispositif rebelle comme a Salaqib, Al-Houla Dans, et autour dAlep, cest Jabhat al-Nusra une quasi-franchise dAl-Qaeda dont la marque de fabrique mediatique est lattentat-suicide a la voiture piegee, qui sincruste sur le champ de bataille. The Transformation Of Music: And Composition? Apres ceux de Deiz ez-Zor, du nord de Hama et de la region de Homs, son premier bastion.

Transprovinces aussi, la division Al-Haq, dirigee par un vieux routier de lislam radical syrien, Abderahmane Suways, issu du Hizb al-Tahrir On pourrait faire un inventaire a la Prevert de tous les groupes ou sous-groupes en activite sur le sol syrien (nous reviendrons dans le detail sur les principaux) et sur leur capacite deconcertante a sy mouvoir. Labelling Health? Il reste, que, bien que divises en maintes chapelles concurrentes meme sil leur arrive de cooperer -, les jihadistes semblent etre entres dans une dynamique ascendante, en tant que force militaire, mais aussi par leur impact culturel vis-a-vis du reste du mouvement rebelle dont de plus en plus de factions adoptent, si ce nest le discours, du moins les codes. Offensives du regime, contre-offensive culturelle. Nous sommes fin octobre a Homs, le general Issam Zahreddine, bras dessus, bars dessous avec ses sbires de la Garde republicaine, parade dans les rues du quartier de Qarabees et pousse la chansonnette : On legalise la mort des sunnites Un exemple derisoire, sil en faut, des moeurs de la tres nationale Armee arabe syrienne et du soi-disant regime laique dAl-Assad. Exemple derisoire mais effet miroir ; si les images de jihadistes circulent a foison, celles, non officielles, des troupes du regime, moins. Training Is Necessary Serious Essays? Sauf, quon ne peut bien voir les premieres en oubliant les secondes, qui les ont precedes dans le film des abimes syriennes. Flashback, printemps 2011. Labelling Theory And Mental? En ces temps-la, dans le sillage de la province de Deraa, des dizaines de milliers de manifestants bravaient les balles aux quatre coins du pays ; des Kurdes manifestaient en solidarite avec Hama, des Druzes organisaient des sit-in a Sweidiya pour que cesse la repression a Homs ; on The Automatic Millionaire Essay, defilait a Tartous, en pays alaouite, au nom des libertes publiques.

Il etait question dun pays uni ( Wahed, wahed, wahed, el chaab al-souri wahed un, un, un, le peuple syrien est un , scandait-on dans les rues), des revendications pas claires comme dit le Front al-Nusra aujourdhui) la clique de Bachar al-Assad etait denommee nidham regime et non taghiya , apostats, comme on and mental, entend aujourdhui; de drapeaux, il y avait lofficiel dalors, puis, sans doute par prisme libyen, lancien embleme de la Syrie pre-baasiste fut adopte, brandi aux cotes de ceux de lEgypte, Tunisie, Turquie. Why People Cannot Help? Mais pas, ou peu, de traces des emblemes blancs ou noirs sigles Il ny a de Dieu quAllah Il y a bien eu un printemps syrien, essentiellement citadin (hormis Deraa), quand il ny avait pas encore 30 0000 victimes, avant que Bachar al-Assad nacheve de faire sortir le djin confessionnel de sa theiere et que le pays ne soit dechire par un conflit militaire proteiforme. La revolte syrienne, nee de revendications democratiques et sociopolitiques, sest ainsi aussi muee en guerre civile, par bien des aspects confessionnelle, en raison du comportement, depuis bientot deux ans, de la dictature assadiste ; mais aussi de lenvironnement international, car la guerre civile syrienne est aussi une guerre sous influence. Lultramajorite des victimes sont tombees dans des regions sunnites : Au 5 novembre 2012, 32 894 personnes avaient trouve la mort dans le pays, dont 28 300 civils. Labelling Theory Health? Et force de constater que lon nest pas egaux devant la mort selon ou lon habite et donc, sa confession : la premiere des dynamiques confessionnelles du conflit est celle des enterrements : 6 921 personnes ont par exemple ete tuees dans le gouvernorat de Homs, a majorite sunnite, contre 51 dans celui voisin de Tartous, alaouite ; 1972 personnes ont ete tuees dans le gouvernorat de Damas, 6305 dans celui de la campagne de Damas (Rif Dimashq), 3 053 dans celui de Deraa, le gouvernorat a majorite de druze de Sweida, qui leur est frontalier, na connu que 25 victimes. The Automatic? Plus au nord, 4 599 personnes ont ete tuees dans le gouvernorat dIdlib, 3 800 dans celui dAlep, 2696 dans celui de Hama, quand celui de Lattaquie (mixte alaouite, chretien et sunnite) qui les borde a louest, na a deplorer que 614 morts. Linsurrection est devenue, de fait, sunnite, et les combats ont renforce la religiosite et ses symboles. Les figures de lopposition en exil issues de minorites religieuses souvent mise en avant les chretiens George Sabra (elu president du CNS), Michel Kilo -, tout comme les forces politiques traditionnelles dont les directions etaient aussi a lexterieur et les figures de la societe civile se sont retrouvees de fait marginalisees par la militarisation de la crise. Theory And Mental? La majorite des combattants armes sont sunnites, souvent issus des zones rurales, periurbaines ou banlieues des grandes villes les perdants de la Syrie des Al-Assad des gouvernorats ou se concentrent les violences. La rebellion qui, au depart, setait armee dans une perspective et dans une dynamique dautodefense face aux forces de securite comprend aujourdhui plusieurs dizaines de milliers de combattants repartis dans 250 a 350 groupes armes : des katibas , brigades , qui se sont constituees sur une base essentiellement territoriale et sans base ideologique particuliere ou definie.

Les noyaux jihadistes qui ont essaime, a part, etaient tres minoritaires. Media? Le vocabulaire employe etait meme, au depart (comme nous le verrons plus bas avec lexemple des brigades Al-Farouq de Homs), du ressort du registre nationaliste. Labelling Theory? Ce nest qua partir de lhiver 2011 que limagerie religieuse, voire islamiste, a commence a gagner en visibilite. Essay On United States Policy? Un marqueur identitaire, et donc sectaire, avant detre ideologique. And Mental Health? Comme un denominateur commun, culturel et historique des combattants et une source de reconfort spirituel en temps de guerre. Le journaliste libano-americain Nir Hosen, lun des premiers a couvrir linsurrection sur le terrain, avait meme percu, au debut de lannee, une certaine defiance des militants armes sur le terrain envers les Freres musulmans et les propositions daide interessee venant dautres pays arabes, craignant detre manipules, tout en relevant une montee de la pratique religieuse parmi ces hommes. Media In Society? Ce qui leur donnait foi, courage et des elements de discours . Labelling Theory Health? Dans cette region conservatrice, lirruption de la guerre na fait quencourager ce refuge dans la religion et ses eventuelles derives. Cannot Essay Examples? Et encore plus lidentite de lagresseur : le regime baasiste, issu de la minorite alaouite (et deja, a ce titre, honni par les sunnites rigoristes), et allie a lIran Un regime qui, pendant des mois, a pu massacrer en toute impunite des civils, et face a une opposition menant, au depart, un combat solitaire et sans armes. Des lors, tout militant extremiste pouvait legitimement esperer navoir qua se baisser pour ramasser quelques fruits. Labelling Theory And Mental Health? Dautant que Bachar al-Assad a opportunement lache dans la nature les plus dangereux dentre eux dans le cadre damnisties et douverture politique (sic) et surtout dans le souci de jouer la carte islamiste et deffrayer lOccident en deux temps, au printemps 2011, avec notamment Abderahmane Suways, qui, comme on Essay States Immigration, la vu plus haut ne sest pas contente de rentrer chez lui pour y cultiver son potager (aux dernieres nouvelles, il fait le coup de feu a Homs) et en fevrier 2012 en liberant des dizaines de jihadistes, dont Abu Mussaab al-Suri, le cerveau suppose des attentats de Londres en 2005. And Mental? (lire chapitre III).

La question des financements exterieurs : Hormis les Etats-Unis et la France, qui, officiellement, se contentait encore mi-novembre dapporter une aide financiere aux structures civiles des zones liberees dans lattente dune levee de lembargo sur les armes en faveur de la Coalition nationale syrienne, les pays qui offrent un soutien logistique, financier et militaire aux rebelles syriens sont sunnites : Qatar, Arabie Saoudite et, bien quetant un Etat dune nature differente : la Turquie. Is Necessary For The Serious Essays? Autres filieres non negligeables daide : celles des personnalites et organismes prives des pays du Golfe; ouvertement islamistes ceux-la, et qui, tout naturellement, atterrissent dans des mains islamistes. Theory And Mental Health? Un homme daffaires et financier syrien avertissait mi-aout dans The Guardian : Les commandants des Katibas font allegeance a qui les prend en charge [] les sources de financements de la diaspora syrienne netant pas unifiees ; largent va de main en main, se perd il ny a donc pas dunification sur le terrain . Une exception : les Etats, et surtout, lArabie Saoudite dans un affrontement par procuration avec lIran et le Qatar, emirat qui reve d incarner ainsi le wahhabisme du XXI e siecle , et dont largent va de facon disproportionnee dans les poches des jihadistes salafistes : Les systemes les plus organises sont geres par des groupes islamistes extremistes, ils ont le plus darmes et de munitions, et ils obtiennent leur argent a partir dune source unique [contrairement aux autres]. Help Essay Examples? Julien Barnes-Dacey, un expert au Conseil europeen des relations etrangeres, va plus loin : Si les Saoudiens et les Qataris perdent la main sur les groupes quils soutiennent, il y aura de grandes chances de retour de flamme. Labelling And Mental? Blowback , le terme est une reference au soutien americain aux groupes jihadistes luttant contre les Sovietiques en Afghanistan qui plus tard ont permis lemergence dAl-Qaeda. Entre les craintes americaines, lincapacite chronique dans lattente de voir concretement ce que donnera la Coalition nationale creee a Doha de lopposition politique et armee moderee a sunir et la multiplication des groupes et acteurs locaux sur le terrain, il nest pas dit que des moyens, meme plus consequents, mis a la disposition des combattants nationalistes , soient plus efficaces que ceux dont disposent les jihadistes sans une rationalisation des structures de commandement politiques et militaires.Un contraste, quant a la fluidite des financements, que resume bien un combattant dAhrar al-Sham de la province dIdlib dans une interview au Time Magazine : LASL a plus de moyens que nous sur le papier, mais ce quils percoivent reste en Turquie et narrive pas aux revolutionnaires ici. The Automatic? Nous, quand nos soutiens nous envoient 100 livres, on labelling, a 100 livres. Which Is Not Operations? la montee en puissance de lideologie salafiste est evidemment a situer dans ce contexte particulier de guerre civile, mais elle a aussi rencontre terreau historiquement fertile, car lislamisme politique comme sa composante armee ne sont pas un corps etranger venu se greffer a la revolution syrienne ces dix-huit derniers mois. Labelling Theory Health? Ils ont une histoire, presque un demi-siecle dopposition, daffrontements, dinsurrections avortees et de manipulations du regime syrien.

Lislamisme arme en Syrie depuis 1975 : Al-Taliaa al-mouqatila, la mere de tous les jihadistes. Il y a trente ans, une premiere insurrection islamiste : Longtemps symbole de la barbarie du regime, le martyr de la ville de Hama, en 1982, a marque par un massacre 10 000 a 20 000 morts la fin dun affrontement arme entre les Freres musulmans syriens, debordes par des structures plus radicales, et lEtat bassiste. Entre-temps, sous le coup de la repression, la confrerie est aussi la proie a de serieuses secousses internes. Essay? Qui conduisent en 1972 a un affrontement entre une aile moderee dite de Damas, donc, dirigee par Issam Attar, et celle, plus radicale, dite dAlep-Hamma, emmenee par Abdelfattah Abu Ghouda, partisane dun durcissement ideologique accru et dune confrontation avec le regime. Cette fracture au sein de la confrerie, il y a trente ans, na pas fini de modeler le paysage syrien. And Mental? Le nord et le nord-ouest du pays sont depuis cette epoque des bastions dun conservatisme sunnite culturellement attise par cette fameuse aile radicale des Freres musulmans, qui a su profiter dun terreau fertile : region rurales (hormis les agglomerations, a lepoque non dotees de lhinterland rurbain actuel dAlep, par exemple, fruit du developpement et de lexode rural), pauvres, delaissees et meprisees par le regime Apparait dailleurs au grand jour, debut 1975, lAvant-garde combattante (Al-Taliaa al-mouqatila), des cellules organisees sous la ferule dun Hamaoui, Marwan Hadid qui dirigea une tentative de soulevement a Hama, en 1964, qui sacheva par la destruction de la mosquee centrale et des dizaines de morts qui va rapidement agreger autour de lui des militants de laile de Hama-Alep presses den decoudre avec le regime, au point que son organisation sera rapidement consideree comme un courant des Freres musulmans et plus tard, et a tort, leur branche armee Meme si les deux organisations ont de fait tisser des liens naturels et que le groupe de Hadid a beneficie de linfrastructure de la confrerie. Al-Hadid, apres la repression de 1964, est persuade que les Freres musulmans ont failli et quil faut une avant-garde militante aux avant-postes du combat contre le regime et quil a la capacite de servir daiguillon et dentrainer la base de la confrerie avec lui. Essay On United States Policy Review? Il recontextualise a la sauce wahabite la nature du regime de Hafez al-Assad: le pouvoir de la clique alaouite ne serait quun heritier des Qarmates , une secte ismaeliste et ordre militaire millenariste qui avait combattu le califat abasside au Xe siecle et est responsable du sac et du pillage de La Mecque en 930, bref lalpha et lomega de la fitna, notion musulmane designant le desaccord et la sedition, et qui met a lindex depuis que lislam existe en tant quentite politique tous les schismes et par, extension, toutes les tendances non-sunnites. Theory And Mental? Bref, cette premiere opposition radicale au regime baasiste pose les facteurs religieux et confessionnel comme ligne de rupture.

Et elle se distingue des le debut par son refus de tout dialogue avec les forces politiques non-islamistes (lire plus bas). En tout etat de cause, la mort, dans les geoles dAl-Assad, du fondateur dAl-Taliaa, vers la fin 1975-debut 1976, ne fera que precipiter un passage a lacte Dautant que plus que le regime est enlise militairement a cette epoque au Liban, et que les islamistes syriens beneficient dun soutien des Moukhabarat de lIrak voisin et ennemi. Of Music: Radio And Composition Essay Examples? Suivent trois annees descarmouches qui vont deboucher une confrontation dampleur entre Al-Taliaa, Freres musulmans et le regime a partir de 1979. Le 16 juin, 83 cadets de lecole dartillerie dAlep sont massacres par Al-Taliaa, une operation dirigee par Adnan Aqla, qui deviendra plus tard le leader du groupe. And Mental? Un massacre qui ouvre une sequence de deux annees dattentats et de guerilla urbaine dans les villes du centre et du nord du pays.

A Alep, entre 1979 et 1981, 300 fonctionnaires, militaires, universitaires ou religieux alaouites sont tues par des groupes armes, qui innovent en ayant recours a des attentats a la voiture piegee. Le 8 mars 1980, a loccasion du 17e anniversaire du parti Baas, les grandes villes sont paralysees par une greve generale et des manifestations qui degenerent en affrontements. Is Not Management​? Le regime va alors reagir en envoyant des dizaines de milliers de soldats ecraser la revolte dans le nord. Labelling Theory? Avec, a la cle, une serie de massacres : Jisr al-Shoughour (9 mars, 200 morts), en reponse a un raid dislamistes contre un village alaouite, Souq al-Ahad a Alep (13 juillet, 192 morts), Al-Masharqah, a Alep, (11 aout, plus dune centaine de morts), et enfin le massacre dAqyol, toujours a Alep, avec lexecution de 2 000 jeunes Au mois de septembre, linsurrection est defaite dans la region dAlep. Role In Society? Entre-temps, le regime a execute 1 152 Freres musulmans detenus dans la prison de Palmyre, le 17 juin. Labelling And Mental Health? Des lors, larmee et les forces de securite vont se retourner vers le deuxieme bastion des Freres musulmans : Hama. Au niveau politique, Al-Taliaa al-mouqatila, durant lannee 1981, tente de reconcilier, si ce nest de refederer les deux ailes de la confrerie, Hama-Alep et Damas. Why People Cannot Ask For Examples? Cette derniere, semble un temps donner son accord au principe de la lutte armee et soutenir logistiquement ses freres du Nord par necessite dautodefense , dabord, et ensuite parce quelle pense, en cette annee 1981, que le regime est malgre tout aux abois et que son noyautage de larmee va porter ses fruits. Labelling Health? Sauf que rapidement, les deux tendances vont a nouveau diverger, les politiques travaillant en meme temps a la constitution dune coalition large avec les autres forces de lopposition, dont la gauche.

Les Freres musulmans (laile de Damas etait majoritaire) finissent par se dissocier dAl-Taliaa, qui multiplie alors les attentats a la bombe a Damas, au moment ou sapproche lepilogue de laffrontement entre islamistes et regime, a Hama. The Transformation? Les Freres estiment, apres le demantelement de leurs cellules dans lappareil securitaire et leloignement de la perspective dun putsch, que laffrontement arme perdu et denoncent laventurisme dAl-Taliaa. Labelling And Mental? Trente apres, le ressentiment de la confrerie a legard des militants les plus radicaux demeure, en temoigne linterview donnee par leur controleur general, Mohamad Farouk Tayfour, au quotidien Al-Hayat, le 18 janvier 2012, rappelant que nous avions condamne le massacre de lecole dartillerie, qui na pas ete commis par lun des notres , il revient sur Hama : Al-Taliaa setait preparee a une confrontation militaire, mais nous avons pense que cetait une erreur. And Composition? Cest Adnan Aqlah qui a entraine la ville dans la confrontation, qui [a suscite] une reponse a la violence du regime et de la colere. Theory And Mental Health? Mais je vous assure que la decision de la confrerie etait depargner a la ville un massacre. Essay States Immigration? Nous avons considere cette confrontation comme un echec [] . Theory Health? Le regime avait prevu le massacre, et Al-Taliaa ne voyait pas la situation telle quelle etait. The Automatic? Le 3 fevrier au matin, une patrouille de larmee tombe dans une embuscade dans Hama et; tres vite, cest lescalade, la ville, declare liberee par les islamistes (apres lexecution de 70 a 100 notables par un tribunal islamique), sera assiege et methodiquement pilonnee et detruite et nettoyee par plus de 12 000 soldats loyalistes pendant trois semaines. Labelling And Mental? Une tactique qui rappelle celle, plus pres de nous, utilisee contre certains quartiers de Homs en fevrier-mars 1982. Strength Training Is Necessary For The Serious Athlete Essays? Al-Taliaa al-mouqatila sera rayee de la carte. Labelling Theory And Mental Health? Quand aux Freres musulmans, toutes tendances confondues, ils vont etre poursuivis et methodiquement demanteles par les Moukhabarat dans les mois et annees qui suivent. Les Freres musulmans ne sont jamais remis de linsurrection de 1975-1982, ne parvenant plus a reconstituer une infrastructure politico-organisationnelle dans le pays comparable a celle quils avaient mis en place avant Hama, devenant de fait, une opposition en exil.

Ce qui explique en grande partie le fosse qui separe actuellement la confrerie des autres groupes politiques et militaires actifs sur le terrain. Le vide politique dans lespace islamiste cree par la faiblesse de ce courant sur le terrain a egalement sans doute faciliter et aider les autres courants islamistes a se developper et prosperer plus facilement dans le cadre du soulevement actuel, voire une revanche posthume dAl-Taliaa al-mouqatila dont les survivants, tout comme les ex-Freres musulmans quils avaient entraine dans leur sillage, nont sans doute jamais pardonne a la confrerie sa trahison lors du massacre de Hama. Training Is Necessary For The Serious Essays? On peut meme, a se sujet, oser voire dans les groupes jihadistes actuels une sorte dAl-Taliaa al-mouqatila-bis, dans leur radicalisme et refus de collaborer avec les forces politiques traditionnelles. La bataille pour un Etat democratique nest pas notre probleme, nous nous battons pour un Etat islamique. Theory Health? Nous sommes contre des elections, les hommes nont aucun droit a se gouverner, ils doivent se placer sous les ordres de Dieu [] Nous prefererions encore nous allier avec le regime quavec des partis politiques [sous-entendu democrates] , avec eux, nous naurons jamais dEtat islamique. Essay? Damas utilsant des jihadistes ou le retour du boomerang.

Si le regime sest toujours efforce de traquer et de combattre avec acharnement ses islamistes, il nen a pas toujours ete autant quand il sagissait des autres, qui lui ont souvent servi darme de politique etrangere. Theory And Mental? Mettons de cote la longue saga des mouvements palestiniens pro-Damas, le Hezbollah qui aujourdhui ont dans lensemble mis leurs distances avec Damas pour retrancher deux cas precis ou linstrumentalisation de groupes jihadistes par Al-Assad a fini par se retourner contre lui. La base de donnees de Sinjar : quand Al-Qaeda en Irak cartographiait la Syrie grace aux volontaires arabes que Damas laissait transiter par son territoire Depuis les debuts de son occupation militaire de lIrak, en 2003, Washington na cesse daccuser Damas de soutenir linsurrection contre ses troupes en laissant transiter armes et volontaires sur son territoire, voire en organisant directement leur transfert dans le nord et louest de du pays. Strength For The Essays? Le departement dEtat et larmee americaine pointant regulierement des liens entre les services syriens et des reseaux al-qaedistes actifs dans les provinces sunnites irakiennes, longtemps (du moins jusquaux annees 2005-2010) bastions de jihadistes locaux et internationaux. Labelling Theory And Mental Health? Inutile de setendre plus sur le sujet. Essay On United Policy? Plus interessent, si lon ose dire, sont les effets pervers de cette politique a laune des evenements actuels : larrivee non negligeable sur le territoire syrien dhommes en provenance de lIrak voisin venus preter main-forte aux insurges : parmi eux, des Syriens, plusieurs dizaines (sur les quelques centaines) a avoir combattu les forces americaines, des Irakiens, Yemenites une nouvelle terre du jihad bienvenue alors que les islamistes armes sont en grande difficulte sur le terrain irakien. Et dautant plus bienvenue quils ont acquis certaines connaissances sur la Syrie en marge de leur combat en Irak.

Cest le deuxieme effet de larroseur arrose. Labelling Health? Car ce quignorait le regime de Damas (et il ne devait pas beaucoup sen preoccuper alors), cest que les jihadistes en transit chez lui tout comme ceux qui les receptionnaient de lautre cote en ont aussi profite directement ou par souci de securite, nous allons le voir pour parfaire leurs connaissances sur la Syrie. Which Of The Is Not A Strategic? Tres bonne illustration de ce phenomene : la singuliere affaire dite des fichiers Sinjar . La base dite de Sinjar est une base de donnee faite a partir de documents captures dans cette ville du Nord Irakien en 2007 et partiellement declassifiee et rendue publique par le Combating Terrorism Center de West Point Elle decrit sous un nouveau jour cette Syrie terre de passage des combattants dAllah . Labelling And Mental Health? Et eclaire bien cet effet boomerang a venir, lexpertise acquise par les reseaux jihadistes sur le pays dAl-Assad (a commencer par comment sy mouvoir). Prudents, le Conseil de la Shura des Mujahidin et lEtat islamique dIrak soumettaient en effet les volontaires arabes qui les rejoignait a de veritables interrogatoires et retracait leur parcours ; les chefs jihadistes ont pu ainsi se constituer une veritable petite base de donnees sur les reseaux, trafiquants et individus amis ou pas, de lautre cote de la frontiere. En 2006 et 2007, par exemple, ce ne sont pas moins de 600 profils de combattants etrangers venus en Irak qui sont etablis. Essay States Immigration Review? 42% ont cite un contact en Syrie ; beaucoup dautres au moins plusieurs . Labelling Theory And Mental Health? Les interrogateurs semblent particulierement curieux, ou mefiants, demandant aux volontaires de decrire physiquement leurs contacts, les tarifs demandes, limpression generale laissee au combattant L’ administration des katibas irakiennes a ainsi pu ainsi se faire une bonne idee des filieres, efficaces ou non, mises en place en Syrie.

Le tout ajoute aux liens et relations tribales et familiales entre grandes familles irakiennes et syriennes des deux cotes de la frontieres. Cinq ans plus tard, quand il sest agi daller preter main-forte aux freres syriens aux prises avec Bachar al-Assad, certains nont pas du avoir beaucoup de mal a franchir la frontiere. Role In Society? Nombre dinformations essentielles pour un voyage confortable devaient etre proprement consignees dans leurs petits carnets de notes De Nahr al-Bared a Damas, la curieuse saga du Fatah al-Islam libano-palestinien. Ce mouvement salafiste arme palestinien cree en novembre 2006 et rejoint par dautres volontaires arabes fut a lorigine de la bataille du camp palestinien de Nahr al-Bared, entre le 20 mai et le 7 septembre 2007 les combats internes les plus violents qua connus le pays du cedre depuis les annees de guerre civile (1975-1990). Labelling Theory? Issu dune scission du Fatah-Intifada dit groupe Abou Moussa.

Un groupe lui-meme deja issu dune scission du Fatah de Yasser Arafat, en 1983, a linstigation de la Syrie hormis chez Ariel Sharon, la haine obsessionnelle de Hafez al-Assad envers le dirigeant palestinien navait pas dequivalent -, Fatah al-Islam fut fonde et dirige par Shaker al-Abssi, une vieille connaissance de Damas. Which Of The A Strategic? Al-Abssi fut en effet emprisonne par les Syriens vers 2004 apres setre livre a du trafic darmes entre la Jordanie et la Syrie et avoir, semble-t-il, tente de lancer des operations armees contre les Israeliens sur le plateau du Golan. Labelling And Mental? Avant detre libere dune facon inexpliquee en 2005, date a laquelle il rejoint lIrak combattre les Americains, et ou il fraye avec Abou Moussab al-Zarqaoui, chef dAl-Qaeda au pays des deux fleuves. Which Of The Following Is Not A Strategic Operations Management​ Decision?? Et ce alors meme quil aurait ete implique dans lassassinat du diplomate americain Laurence Foley a Amman en 2002 et condamne a ce sujet a mort par contumace par la justice jordanienne. Labelling Theory Health? Il ne sera evidemment jamais extrade par Damas On retrouve donc Shaker al-Abssi comme par magie au Liban en 2007, ou on Millionaire, lui prete une double attaque a la voiture piegee a Al-Aqla, dans le nord de Beyrouth, le 13 fevrier, qui fera 3 morts. And Mental Health? Avant, quen mai 2007, il prenne le controle du camp palestinien de Nahr al-Bared pres de Tripoli Bilan : trois mois de combat, 222 militants islamistes, 160 soldats libanais et 42 civils tues. Of The Is Not Management​? Nombre de jihadistes se seraient infiltres dans le camp via la Syrie ou lentremise de factions libanaises pro-syriennes, si lon en croit les soupcons des Forces de securite interieures libanaises, le seul corps de securite du pays ayant toujours echappe au controle des allies de Damas et dont le chef en 2012, Wissam al-Hassan, a ete tue le 20 octobre dans un attentat a la voiture piegee qui porterait la signature des Syriens. En 2007, son predecesseur a la tete des FSI, le general Ashraf Rifi, accuse ouvertement, dans un cable a lambassadeur americain a Beyrouth Jeffrey Feltman, le regime de Damas detre derriere le Fatah al-Islam en sappuyant sur des interrogatoires de prisonniers et des informateurs confirmant la connexion syrienne, entre autres

Les Syriens, selon les promoteurs de cette these, se seraient appuyes et auraient utilise sur Fatah a-Islam comme un moyen de chantage pour faire echouer lenquete sur lassassinat de Rafic Hariri, ou du moins pour clairement signifier, par lintimidation, au tribunal international quil navait pas interet a venir leur chercher des poux dans la tete. Toujours est-il que laffaire du Fatah al-Islam va connaitre un premier denouement assez mysterieux. Theory And Mental Health? Les dirigeants du groupe vont dabord, pour la plupart, reussir a sexfiltrer du camp palestinien peu de temps avant sa chute. Strength Training Serious Athlete? Sen suit un silence radio qui dure jusquau 27 septembre 2008 et lexplosion dune voiture piegee a Damas qui tue 17 personnes dans un quartier chiite. Theory And Mental? Au terme dune enquete express, les autorites syriennes mettent la main sur les poseurs de la bombe : 10 militants du Fatah al-Islam, dont la propre fille de Shaker al-Abssi, Waffa auteurs dune confession devant les cameras de la television syrienne (photo). Comment le groupe a-t-il pu organiser un tel attentat dans la capitale syrienne en 2008 ? Mystere. The Automatic Millionaire? Les membres du Fatah al-Islam se seraient-ils venges en se retournant contre leurs anciens allies , estimant avoir ete trahis au Liban a Nahr al-Bared ? Nombre de questions resteront sans reponse. Health? Quand a Shaker al-Abssi, il meurt opportunement ? en octobre lors dun accrochage avec les forces de securite syriennes.

Ses anciens camarades sauront en tout cas se rappeler au bon souvenir de Bachar al-Assad a partir du printemps de 2012 en apportant leur soutien a lun des groupes jihadistes en lutte avec le regime syrien : Jabhat al-Nusra. Les amnisties interessees de Bachar al-Assad. Le 15 janvier 2012, dix mois apres le debut la revolte syrienne, le regime annonce une amnistie : le decret legislatif 10/2012 stipule ainsi quelle est octroyee pour la totalite de la peine sagissant des crimes mentionnes par les articles 285, 286, 287, 291, 294, 307, 308, 327 et 328 du code penal de 1949?, la totalite de la peine concernant les crimes figurant dans le decret legislatif 54/2011 qui encadre le droit de manifester de maniere pacifique . The Transformation Of Music: Essay Examples? Leffet dannonce et le charabia juridico-repressif qui le suit vont masquer lun des coups fumeux dont Damas a le secret. Labelling Theory Health? Car l amnistie va concerner des gens fort eloignes des evenements : des dizaines de jihadistes. Cannot Essay? A commencer par le plus symbolique dentre eux, Abu Moussaab al-Souri, sorti des geoles a la meme periode. Labelling? Il avait ete arrete au Pakistan en novembre 2006, avant detre livre par la CIA aux autorites syriennes. Media Role In Society? Ancien dAl-Taliaa al-mouquatila de 1976 a 1982. Labelling Theory And Mental Health? Il rejoint apres lAfghanistan, ou il sert meme de sorte dattache de presse a Oussama ben Laden avant le 11 Septembre, permettant a des reporters occidentaux dacceder au chef. Millionaire? Soupconne davoir eu lidee des attentats londoniens et davoir conseille Al-Zarqawi, chef dAl-Qaeda en Irak, il est surtout lun des theoriciens du self-jihadisme, le passage a lacte individuel, eu Europe notamment. Theory And Mental Health? Une theorie quil exposa longuement dans un manifeste publie en ligne peu avant son arrestation : Appel a une resistance islamique globale.

Pour Yasser al-Siri, directeur de lIslamic Observation Center, cite alors par TheArabDigest.com , le regime [cherchait] peut-etre a islamiser la revolution, pour lecraser de linterieur. Why People Ask For Essay Examples? Ou a clairement signifier aux Occidentaux quil etait pret a relacher dans la nature tous ceux qui seraient susceptibles de les combattre, sur lair dapres moi le deluge. Labelling? Si lon na pas de nouvelles, depuis, dAbu Moussab al-Souri, il est peu probable que ses condisciples aient regagne leur penates a limage du chef de Liwaa al-Haq (lire plus haut). Essay On United Immigration Policy Review? Combien sont-ils a se battre aujourdhui sur les differents fronts du conflit syrien ? Les groupes jihadistes sur le terrain. Jabhat al-Nusra : lombre portee dAl-Qaeda. Pour lamour de la revolution, il faut detruire ce groupe [] ou ils vont faire ce quon fait les bolcheviks en Russie : exterminer les autres revolutionnaires. Health? Le site Yalla Souriya. Cest sans doute lun des deux groupes les plus dangereux pour la stabilite dune Syrie post-Al-Assad. Le Front al-Nusra proclame sa naissance, via une video postee sur un forum jihadiste le 24 janvier 2012. Of The Following A Strategic Operations? Une Declaration au peuple de Syrie de la part des mujahidin de Syrie sur les champs de bataille du jihad . Labelling And Mental Health? Son chef autoproclame, Al-Fatih Abou Mohamed al-Golani une reference claire au plateau du Golan, dont une partie est occupee par Israel depuis 1967 y annonce la constitution du Front dal-Nusra, membre de linsurrection musulmane , dont les combattants affluent des fronts du jihad . Which Of The Is Not A Strategic Decision?? Un vocabulaire qui le place clairement dans le champ du jihadisme internationaliste . Au debut, beaucoup, dans les milieux de lopposition, doutent de lexistence meme du groupe, y voyant une manipulation, une creature des Moukhabarat du regime.

Assez rapidement, pourtant, le nouveau venu jouit dune certaine popularite dans la communaute jihadiste mondiale, avec, notamment, lentree dans la boucle, du cheikh Ousama al-Shihabi (photo), alias Abou Zahra al-Zoubaidi, chef du Fatah al-Islam palestino-libanaisgim -qui, pour le coup connaissaient bien le regime (lire plus haut) qui lui donne son onction et appelle les jihadistes a le rejoindre. Health? Le chef jihadiste libanais donnait par ailleurs regulierement de la voix depuis lautomne 2011 sur des forums tels Hanein*, Ansar al-Mujahideen* ou Al-Massada*, appelant salafistes et jihadistes a prendre les armes, se coordonner et commencer a etablir la charia en Syrie. Les cellules dAl-Nusra lancent des operations a travers le pays, avec une signature : lattentat suicide. Of Music: And Composition? Deux voitures sont lances contre un immeuble des forces de securite a Alep le 10 fevrier ; le 17 fevrier, ce sont les renseignements de larmee de lair a Damas qui sont vises Le groupe va aussi recevoir le soutien dideologues jihadistes influents et populaires, dont cheikh Abou al-Mundir al-Shinqiti. La presence du groupe va aussi se faire sur le terrain, plus conventionnel, du harcelement et des operations de guerilla contre les forces du regime avec le recours de plus en plus intensif, a partir du printemps, aux mines artisanales telecommandees (IED) visant les convois de larmee. Labelling And Mental Health? Il semblerait dailleurs que la montee en puissance et en professionnalisme du mouvement sur laxe Al-Qusair-Homs-Maarat al-Noaman est allee de pair avec une jonction entre le noyau initial, stricto sensu syrien, regroupe autour dAl-Golani, et des cadres jihadistes experimentes, palestiniens et libanais, issus du Fatah al-Islam apres lappel dAl-Shihabi. En avril, les forces de securite syriennes, annoncent la mort dAbdelghani Ali Jowhar, militant du Fatah al-Islam recherche au Liban, a Al-Qusair, quil avait rallie avec une trentaine dhommes. Essay? Une mort confirmee par Al-Shihabi.

A la meme epoque, des sources militaires libanaises annoncent quun cadre dAl-Qaeda, Tawfiq Taha commandant des brigades Abdullah Azzam, et 6 autres membres du Fatah al-Islam, ont quitte le camp palestinien de Ain al-Hilwe, pres de Sidon, et se sont infiltres en Syrie. La montee en puissance militaire du groupe sur ce theatre doperations depuis le printemps peut etre chronologiquement verifiee a travers la profusion de videos quil poste. Labelling Theory And Mental Health? De lIED, on Essay States Policy Review, passe a lembuscade et au siege de positions de larmee ; des quelques militants masques du debut, on theory and mental, passe au deploiement de plusieurs dizaines de combattants sur des operations complexes, coordonnees par talkies-walkies et telephones satellites. Depuis, bien dautres etrangers ont rallie la region. Which Of The Following Is Not Operations? Le 26 octobre a Binnish (une dizaine de kilometres dIdlib), Jabhat al-Nusra organise un meeting populaire pour feter lAid. Labelling Theory Health? A la tribune, ces deux combattants saoudiens, dont lintervention filmee mise en ligne par Al-Nusra a ete supprimee depuis. On United States Policy Review? Lors de ce meme rassemblement, un enfant chante des louanges a Ben Laden Autre lien, celui a avec lEtat islamique dIrak (ISI), confederation jihadiste neo-al-qaediste, a lautre bout du pays: la region de Deiz-Ezzour.

Grace a laquelle Al-Nusra (qui sest signale des juin en mediatisant lexecution sommaire de 13 chiens ) a non seulement beneficie de lexperience au combat de cadres dAl-Qaeda venus du pays voisin, mais en a surtout fait une carte de visite lui permettant dattirer des decus dautres factions qui agissaient jusque-la sous lappellation dArmee syrienne libre. Labelling And Mental Health? Le journaliste Ghaith Abdul-Ahad a pu constater de visu cette attractivite a loccasion dun reportage pour le quotidien britannique The Guardian en juillet en passant quelque temps avec un bataillon commande par un ancien officier ayant quitte lASL, Abu Khudr, et ses troupes, qui occupent plusieurs villages de la province et qui dit tout le bien qui pense de ses nouveaux allies. Radio Essay? Un autre responsable de lASL les decrit dailleurs comme de tres bons combattants , t out theory en etant effraye par leur propension aux executions sommaires Aujourdhui, avec ses quelques centaines de combattants dans la province de Deir Ez-Ezzour, Al-Nosra serait lun des groupes les plus actifs militairement, selon un militant de la ville, ancien commandant de deux brigades de lASL, Hadj Abou Bakr, joint par la journaliste Mona Mahmoud le 11 octobre. On United Immigration Review? Les 80 unites de lASL, dont 18 sont reellement actives, passent leur temps a publier des communiques ou a stocker des munitions, les vrais combattants sur le terrain sont les islamistes [] les gens commencent a soutenir les organisations jihadistes, plus que lASL . Health? Laffirmation est peut-etre exageree (les sources video recentes montrent demontrent lactivite dautres groupes, dont Liwaa al-Umma lire plus loin), mais elle reflete linquietude ambiante. Le Front Nord : Al-Nusra dans la bataille dAlep. Autre front militaire et mediatique pour Al-Nusra, la bataille pour le controle de la grande agglomeration du Nord, debutee fin aout par une offensive des rebelles. Strength For The? La aussi, les combattants lookes de Moujahid sont sortis de lombre pour les premieres lignes. Labelling? Lors dune rare rencontre avec un journaliste dAl Sharq al-Awsat, leur commandant, Abou Ibrahim, qui disait fin aout avoir plus de 300 hommes sous ses ordres, reconnaissait beneficier dun certain soutien venu de lexterieur ; et sil assurait ne pas avoir jusque-la recouru a des attentats-suicides, il nen ecartait pas la possibilite, ce qui sera chose faite le 3 octobre avec une double attaque, place Al-Jabari, en secteur gouvernemental, qui fait pres de 50 morts. Autre fait darmes , la revendication de lexecution sommaire de soldats gouvernementaux apres la prise de la caserne de Hanano, publiee sur Al Manara Al Baida*, le canal mediatique du groupe.

Lactivisme dAl-Nusra et ses exactions nont pas lair de perturber plus que cela les brigades Al-Tawhid, principale force combattante rebelle dans lagglomeration et son arriere-pays, qui court jusqua la frontiere turque. Of Music: And Composition Essay Examples? Mais pourrait-il en etre autrement ? Al-Tawhid renvoyant directement au concept dunicite dAllah, un b.a-b.a salafiste rabache depuis la naissance de ce courant. Pis, dans une interview accordee a Al-Jezira, leur commandant qualifie les combattants de lorganisation de freres et souhaite la bienvenue a tous ceux qui combattent le regime sur le terrain Cette collaboration entre Al-Nusra et les autres brigades de lASL ne se limite pas a la ville dAlep : le 1er novembre, plusieurs unites de larmee libre se sont alliees aux jihadistes dAl-Nusra et dAhrar al-Sham pour attaquer la base aerienne de Taftanaz (dans le gouvernorat dIdlib), une position gouvernementale strategique puisquelle abrite les 253e et 255e escadrons, soit la quarantaine dhelicopteres Mi-8 qui ravitaillent les garnisons assiegees du regime dans le nord du pays. And Mental Health? Sa chute, conjuguee a une autoroute Damas-Alep devenue quasi impraticable pour les convois de larmee syrienne, isolerait encore un peu plus les positions de cette derniere dans la region. Role? Cette operation montre encore a quel point les Mujahidin , loin detre isoles, participent a des combats decisifs. Theory Health? Ici : les preparatifs de lassaut contre la compagnie de defense aerienne de Doueyla, tombee le 2 novembre.

Difficile de rater lautre grand groupe independant dont la dynamique semble elle aussi ascendante et qui opere dans le nord du pays : les Kataeb Ahrar al-Sham. Which Of The Following A Strategic Management​ Decision?? A premiere vue la plus puissante faction jihadiste, leur profil semble dans lattente de plus amples precisions de leur part egalement plus traditionnel , une sorte de salafisme et jihadisme national ce qui, en soi, peut deja etre considere comme une difference doctrinaire avec Al-Nusra, meme si elles accueillent elles aussi des combattants etrangers . Labelling And Mental Health? Autre specificite curieuse, si lon ose dire, ces brigades sont probablement les premieres a deployer sur le terrain les fameux missiles sol-air reclames a cor et a cris par lopposition (un Strela. Radio And Composition Essay? apparait a 105 sur la video qui suit), en plus de mortiers, vehicules blindes et chars recuperes lors de combats avec les forces gouvernementales. Labelling And Mental? Les katibas dAhrar al-Sham ne seraient dailleurs pas completement etrangeres aux recents deboires de laviation du regime, de moins en moins souveraine a basse altitude (au moins 5L39 abattus les trois dernieres semaines doctobre, selon un decompte source de lAir Combat Information Group) et qui recourt de plus en plus a des raids effectues a haute altitude. Bien que ne communiquant pas officiellement sur le sujet, elles multiplient sur le terrain les operations communes avec Al-Nusra, et font preuve, comme ces derniers, dune farouche independance envers les autres structures politco-militaires tels les conseils militaires regionaux mises en place par les groupes armes et militants se reclamant de lArmee syrienne libre. Strength Training Is Necessary? Ils sont extremement professionnels et discrets, ils collaborent avec nous lors de combats contre les forces du regime, mais ils nacceptent aucun ordre. Labelling And Mental? Leurs armes [] sont meilleures que les notres , reconnaissait un rebelle dAlep en aout. Of The A Strategic Decision?? Le groupe admet dailleurs des financements exterieurs et nhesite pas a evoquer publiquement ses bienfaiteurs des pays du Golfe, dont des fonds koweitiens, par exemple, rassembles par le cheikh Hajjaj : 400 000 dollars en mai ; 400 000 euros en juin pour le Front des revolutionnaires (voire plus bas) Cest a partir du printemps 2012 que les brigades commencent a reellement apparaitre publiquement , bien que leur activisme sur le terrain semble remonter aux quasi premieres heures de la revolte, elles pretendent dailleurs etre la premiere organisation a setre armee dans le pays, nayant jamais eu dillusions par rapport aux manifestations et sit-in pacifiques face a un regime sectaire menant une guerre a la communaute des croyants Il semblerait en tout cas quelles sont issues de premiers noyaux jihadistes sorganisant des le debut 2011, voire de cellules dormantes plus anciennes. And Mental Health? A linverse dAl-Nusra qui, jusqua il y a peu, se contentait de communiquer via des forums jihadistes. The Transformation Radio And Composition? les Ahrar al-Sham mediatisent a outrance leurs operations via un site internet, un compte Twitter, etc. And Mental? Les Ahrar al-Sham restent un brin sibyllins quant a leur projet politique, se bornant a affirmer leur volonte detablir un regime islamique en Syrie ; tout en pretendant vouloir respecter les droits des minorites On ne peut quen douter.

Car outre une profusion de videos postees et repostees sur YouTube vantant ses operations militaires, le groupe intervient et est surtout regulierement cite sur les forums jihadistes internationaux, dont Hanein (cotoyant les groupes radicaux les plus durs, dont Al-Nusra et les multiples franchises dAl-Qaeda) , ou il est suivi attentivement et respecte par la communaute jihadiste), ou en celui de Jhuf, en urdou, qui donne plus habituellement dans le taliban. Adoubees, les Ahrar al-Sham le sont aussi par le Cheikh wahabite Adnan al-Aroor, un sunnite syrien ne Hama et qui vit en Arabie Saoudite. Of The Is Not Operations Decision?? Et auteur dune profession takfiriste qui en dit long sur sa vision pacifiee dun futur post-Bachar : Je jure par Allah que nous jetterons les cadavres des Alaouites qui se sont dresses contre nous aux chiens. Theory Health? Une de plus. Which Of The Is Not Operations Management​? Sachant que Ahrar al-Sham dispose de trois katibas actives en pays alaouite ou a ses frontieres (Noussour Al Sahel, Obada ibn al-Samet, Nassrat al-Madhloum dans la region de Lattaquie), ou zones de peuplement alaouite et sunnite sont souvent a portee de kalashnikov Le Conseil national syrien (CNS) sest rapidement dissocie formellement du nouveau venu sur lair, qui ne mange pas de pain, du bien sur que nous sommes au courant et en reaffirmant sa preeminence politique sur toute initiative dans le pays. Theory And Mental? Tout en se gardant bien de se positionner politiquement sur le fond. Of Music: Essay? Grace en soit donc rendue a lun de ses membres, Frere musulman de son etat, Mohamed Sarmini, pour avoir caracterise la chose : Le principal objectif de ce Front est dorganiser un soutien militaire et financier aux islamistes combattant sur le terrain , ajoutant que le Front en question agirait en coordination avec le CNS et les forces de lASL. Labelling And Mental? Une declaration plutot troublante alors que le CNS ne cesse de clamer son intention dunifier la resistance armee dans le pays.

Mais qui donne du credit aux rumeurs persistantes qui font etat de tensions grandissantes au sein des Freres musulmans syriens, la force majoritaire du CNS, entre dun cote le groupe dit dAlep, au pouvoir dans la confrerie jusquen 2010, et celui de Hama, qui en a depuis pris la direction. Of Music: Essay Examples? Les uns et les autres donnant limpression de parier sur leur cheval militaire en prevision de la chute du regime. Labelling Theory? Lire a ce propos Divided They Stand, excellente etude sur lopposition syrienne du journaliste Aron Lund pour la Fondation europeenne detudes progressistes. Toujours est-il quAhrar al-Sham semble avoir mis en veilleuse a lautomne son Front, dont le site internet nest dailleurs mis a jour que rarement. Strength Training For The Serious Essays? Et il semblerait quen guise de fronts unitaires, nombre de groupes aient ete purement et simplement satellises, integres, voire avales par les brigades, ce qui, peut-etre, a ete in labelling theory and mental, fine le but de la manoeuvre. Issus dune matrice nationale, leurs dirigeants sont tres peu connus. Ask For Help Essay? A commencer par leur commandant, Abu Abadallah al-Hamaoui, qui ne sexprime que par communique. Labelling Theory And Mental? Au 5 novembre 2012, Ahrar al-Sham revendiquait 58 katibas en activite a travers le territoire.

Meme si les realites operationnelles de ses unites sont tres diverses (dune vingtaine de combattants a 200 pour les plus puissantes), il nest pas imprudent devaluer leur effectif total a, au moins, plusieurs milliers de membres, principalement actifs dans les regions de Homs, Idlib et Alep mais, a noter, une seule unite solitaire dans la region de Deir-Ez-Zor, bastion dAl-Nusra. The Automatic Essay? Une force militaire cela etant dit non negligeable dans lavenir. Labelling Theory? Lassaut, le 2 novembre, contre la base aerienne de Taftanaz, tout comme les combats de Maarat al-Noaman, avec utilisation de roquettes, de mortiers et meme des chars dont dispose aujourdhui le groupe en est une illustration. Dans les zones liberees, le groupe sattelle aussi a un autre travail, societal, celui-la. A Strategic Operations Management​ Decision?? Outre les cours de justice appliquant un droit plus ou moins inspire de la charia qui se multiplient dans les regions controlees par les revolutionnaires pas forcement jihadistes -, Ahrar al-Sham innove en investissant les champs de lhumanitaire, mais aussi de leducation avec louverture de Madrassas pour enfants ou elles professent leur breviaire salafiste. Theory And Mental? Comme ici dans la region dIdlib, ou les cours specialises du groupe ont pour but de remettre dans le droit chemin une generation sacrifiee La petite legion etrangere libyenne de Liwaa al-Umma. Il faut retourner a Tripoli, capitale de la Libye, et a lete 2011 pour remonter aux sources de la division de la communaute des croyants ou de la nation islamique. Media In Society? Voire meme avant, du cote de Nalut, dans les montagnes de lOuest libyen. Labelling Theory Health? En ces temps-la, donc, les forces speciales de Qatar entrainaient ce qui allait etre la premiere unite rebelle a entrer dans la capitale libyenne, alors toujours tenue par les forces de Kadhafi : la Brigade Tripoli. Essay Immigration? A sa tete, un telegenique citoyen irlandais dorigine libyenne, Mahdi al-Harati, jusque-la prof darabe a Dublin et dont le seul fait darmes connu fut sa participation a la flottille pour Gaza en 2010.

Apres la chute de la capitale libyenne, il est elu a son conseil militaire comme adjoint dAbdelkrim Belhadj un ancien chef du Groupe islamique combattant libyen et sous les yeux doux (les cameras pour le coup) dAl-Jezira. Mais a lautomne, ils perdent de leur influence suite a la crise securitaire et les affrontements entre katibas de Thuwar a Tripoli. And Mental Health? Il fait le voyage en Syrie en octobre-novembre, en compagnie dAbdelkrim Belhadj, toujours, officiellement en mission universitaire ; Liwaa al-Umma serait sa reponse a une demande pressente de combattants syriens : Ils mont demande si je pouvais les aider a sentrainer et a sorganiser. Media? Jai accepte. Theory Health? Mignon, mais un peu court. Cest en juin que le groupe proclame publiquement sa naissance, en video (ci-dessus) et par une proclamation de foi dans laquelle il declare, outre son attachement au jihad sur le chemin de Dieu pour elever la parole dAllah , a defendre la Umma contre les agressions , sa promesse de Cooperer avec tous pour letablissement dun pouvoir islamique juste elu par la communaute des croyants ainsi que travailler a sa renaissance (Ennahda). Un discours islamiste, mais assez vague, Harati declarant dailleurs a qui veut lentendre quil nest pas un jihadiste, mais un universitaire conscientise combattant par solidarite avec ses freres . Mais comme souvent, avec les groupes islamistes armes, a force de vouloir ratisser large, on role in society, finit toujours par croiser un lievre : celui-ci sappelle Abdallah Azzam, Palestinien, compagnon de Ben Laden et grand theoricien du jihad global devant lEternel (lunite dAl-Qaeda canal historique syrienne porte dailleurs son nom), dont Liwaa al-Umma a poste une video pour agrementer son appel (ci-dessous) aux jeunes musulmans a rejoindre les terres du jihad au pays dAl-Sham .

Entre-temps devenu cheikh , Harati est a la tete dune petite armee a leffectif revendique et exagere semble-t-il de 6 000 hommes, essentiellement dans le gouvernorat dIdlib, a 90% Syriens , dit-il. Labelling Theory And Mental Health? Lencadrement restant libyen et arabe. The Automatic Millionaire Essay? Et, au vu des videos postees et des reportages consacres au groupe (Al-Jezira toujours), il semble quand meme disposer de moyens consequents, aux regard des standards de la rebellion, qui tranchent avec limage de bon samaritain venu faire, au depart , de lhumanitaire : mitrailleuses 14,7, mortiers en sus des specialistes en communication, logistique Le tout mis en place en quelques mois. Liwaa al-Umma commence a operer au-dela de sa base dorigine dIdlib, avec la creation de franchises . Labelling Theory Health? Comme a Deir Ez-Zor, ou son groupe local entretient des relations tendues avec le conseil militaire de la ville, si lon en juge aux accusations mutuelles d abandon des premieres lignes et munitions livrees, ou pas, aux uns et aux autres. Of The? Petit apercu des echanges sur place, un bon exemple de la confusion qui regne dans certaines regions syriennes : Liwaa al-Umma, le 27 octobre : La ville souffre depuis quatre mois de toutes les injustices et oppressions possibles et imaginables, mais le conseil revolutionnaire de Deiz ez-Zor na pas apporte une balle ni soutenu financierement la cite. Labelling? Pas plus quil na soutenu les katibas qui tentent de forcer la route de la ville (la ligne Al-Jazira) Reponse dun dirigeant la katiba Al-Hamza : Avec tout le respect que je vous dois, je vous ai personnellement livre au nom des conseils 13500 balles dAKM, 2500 de PKS, 32 RPG, 400 obus de 14.7, 400 de Doushka, 12 500 balles de M16. Which Of The Following Is Not A Strategic Decision?? Sachant en plus que nous, la division Jaafar al-Tayar, rattachee au conseil revolutionnaire, navons jamais quitte les premieres lignes ; vous ne nous mentionnez jamais, et vous de nous avez jamais livre ne serait-ce quune balle recuperee sur le champ de bataille Ambiance.

Pour le reste, si le groupe assure beneficier du soutien de financiers prives, en particulier du Koweit, quil remercie regulierement sur sa page Facebook, on and mental health, ne peut sempecher de regarder du cote, la encore, du Qatar. The Transformation Examples? Question dhistoire et dADN de Liwaa al-Umma Al-Harati traine dailleurs et paradoxalement son histoire libyenne comme un boulet chez certains de ses detracteurs islamistes qui nhesitent pas a letiqueter agent de Doha , voire, supreme insulte de la CIA. Qua cela ne tienne, Liwaa al-Umma ne cache pas ses ambitions, y compris politiques : le groupe a lintention de se doter dune aile civile dans la perspective de lapres-Assad. Les freres libyens : petits coups de main et grandes ambitions, en somme. Theory? Du moins pour leurs protecteurs. Media In Society? Reste a voir comment ils parviendront a sinserer dans les recompositions a venir au sein des groupes armes et politiques sur le terrain. Les katibas islamistes de lArmee syrienne libre. Actif sous le nom-parapluie de lArmee syrienne libre, il ne semble pas que ce groupe obeisse pour autant a grand monde. Labelling Theory? Les faucons sont nes en septembre dans le jebel Zawiya, une region de moyenne montagne situee au nord-ouest de lautoroute Hama-Alep, et surtout lune des premieres enclaves liberees par la rebellion armee du fait des difficultes dacces pour les unites mecanisees de larmee ce qui a permis au groupe de beneficier assez rapidement dune safe zone . Cannot Ask For Help? Ils ont ete fondes a Sarja par le cheikh Ahmed Aissa al-Sheikh aka Abu Aissa, dont le pere est lun des disparus de lecrasement de la premiere insurrection islamistes au tournant des annees 80. Labelling Theory And Mental Health? Suivront Daoud (44 ans) et Abbas (33 ans), ses deux freres, tues les 4 juin et 14 aout 2011.

Un destin familial tragique qui rend Abu Aissa dautant plus respecte comme chef de guerre. Essay On United States Review? Nous aimons la mort autant que vous aimez la vie est dailleurs lun des grands leitmotivs de Souqour al-Sham. Aujourdhui dans le top 5 des unites rebelles en termes deffectifs : plus de 6 000 hommes revendiques en activite dans le jebel Al-Zawiya, dans les regions dIdlib, de Rif Hama, Alep, Ariha, Khan Shakhyoun, Maraat al-Noaman, Ariha, Saraquib et Saramin Soit un territoire strategique couvrant les voies de communications entre Homs et Alep ainsi que les routes remontant vers la Turquie. Le groupe qui, jusquici, acceptait un peu du bout des levres le Conseil national syrien comme un representant de la revolution, na jamais accepte de se placer sous son autorite, et encore moins sous celle de la faction de lArmee syrienne libre representee par le colonel Riad al-Assaad, longtemps cantonne en Turquie et rentre en octobre dans le pays. Labelling Theory And Mental Health? Il ne cache dailleurs pas son hostilite envers les Freres musulmans, quand bien meme il ne le dise quen termes diplomatiques et entre les lignes : dans une interview accordee au site du groupe, Abu Aissa exprime ainsi ses reserves envers les actions menees par certains membres du CNS. Management​? Dont les decisions ne [l]engagent pas. Labelling And Mental? Cest nous qui sommes sur le terrain et sommes donc les mieux places pour apprehender le contexte que nous vivons . In Society? Circulez Islamiste dans sa propagande generale (Abu Aissa est pour un Etat islmique) la rhetorique employee et le look de ses combattants Souqour al-Sham est egalement visiblement assez lie a la Commission islamique du Levant (a laquelle renvoie son site web), une ONG salafiste disposant de solides relais en Jordanie et ans le Golfe, le groupe emprunte les chemins jihadistes dans certains de ses modes daction. Labelling And Mental Health? Cest lun des rares (avec Jabhat al-Nusra) a recourir aux attentats-suicides, quil nhesite pas a mettre en scene et a filmer (comme ici a Idlib) : Debut novembre 2011, dans le quartier de Bab Amr, a Homs, apparaissent au grand jours des hommes qui, pendant plusieurs mois, vont devenir les visages de la resistance armee au regime, jusqua personnifier lArmee syrienne libre. The Automatic Millionaire? Dirigee par un jeune lieutenant, Abdelrezzak Tlass, deserteur de larmee et neveu de lancien et inamovible ministre de la Defense de Hafez al-Assad, la katiba al-Farouq va resister jusquen fevrier aux assauts des forces loyalistes contre ce quartier de la ville, qui en feront le symbole du martyr des zones civiles syriennes. Theory And Mental Health? La brigade Al-Farouq devenant, a cette epoque, lunite la plus mediatisee de la resistance armee.

Mais lhistoire, meme tragique, etait peut-etre un peu trop belle, car sitot Bab Amr tombe, des langues dautres commandants de lASL ont commence a se delier, certaines denoncant notamment la propension quavait eu le bataillon Al-Farouq a faire cavalier seul, son usage systematique de la violence a legard de ses adversaires ou concurrents politiques et a son refus de se coordonner avec les autres forces rebelles de Homs, a commencer par les 24 brigades unifiees de son conseil militaire. Why People Cannot Help Essay? Ainsi, dans un echange de mails entre un responsable rebelle de la ville et le president du CNS de lepoque, Borhane Ghalioun, revele dans le cadre des SNC leaks par le quotidien libanais Al-Akhbar, le premier fait le compte rendu au second dune reunion des commandants militaires de linsurrection a Homs. Theory And Mental? Ces derniers, dans un document en 9 points, vont jusqua accuser la brigade Al-Farouq du meurtre de combattants dune autre unite rebelle a Bab Sbaa. Which Of The Following Operations Decision?? Un exemple parmi dautres dans un requisitoire qui accuse le groupe dAbdelrezzak Tlas, qualifie de corps etranger a la ville aux financements exterieurs ????? ?? ?????? ?? ?? ?? ????? ??? ???????? (???? ????? ????? ??????? ??? ??????? ????????? ?????? ???????) ???? ??? (???? ????) ???? ?? ???? ????????? ?? ???. ?? ????? ?????? ?? ????? ??? ???? ????????? ???? ??? ???? ?? ??? ?????? ????? ??????? ??? ???? ??????? ????????? ????? ?? ?????? ??????? ??? ???? ?????? ????? ????? ??? ?????? ????? ?? ???? ?? ??????? ??????? ?????? ?? ????? ???? ?? ??? ??????? ??? ????? ???????? ????? ????????.

????? ?????? ??????? ????? ??? ?????? ?????? ???????? ????? ???????? ???? ????? ?????? (24) ?? ??????? ????? ?? ??????? ???? ????? ??? ???? ????? ???????? ?? ????? ?????? ?????? ??????? ????? ?? ?????. Labelling? ????? ???? ??????? ?????? ????? ?????? ???? ?????? ???????? ??????? ?? ?? ????? ??? ???? ?? ??? ???? ??????? ???? ???? ??? ????? ??????? ??????????? ?? ?????? ????? ??????? ??????? ?? ???????? ?????? ??? ????? ?? ?? ???? ?????? ??? ??????? ??????? ?? ????? ????? ????? ??????? ?? ??????? ?? ?????? ?? ???????? ???????? ????? ??? ??????? ??????? ?????? ??? ??????? ???? ????? ????? ????????? ??????? ?? ???? ??? ?????? ???? ?? ????? ?? ???? ??????? ?? ???????? ???? ?????? ??????? ??????? ???? (5 ????? ?? ??? ?????? ?? ???? ??? ?? ??????? ?????? ???? ?????). La cohabitation entre les Al-Farouq qui se sont depuis developpes dans le Nord (faruq al-shamal) et les autres forces dont des groupes nationalistes na pas lair detre plus fraternelle ailleurs, notamment dans la region de Raqqa, ou ils ont provoque lire des autres groupes en prenant le controle (avec Ahrar al-Sham) du poste frontieres de Bab al-Hawa. The Transformation And Composition Examples? Et certains, activistes civils comme militaires, disaient debut octobre a un reporter du Time tout le mal quils avaient lair de penser de leurs nouveaux voisins au look salafiste, venus dailleurs . Quand a Abdelrazzaq Tlass, il a ecarte vers fin septembre-debut octobre, apres une improbable histoire dadultere par telephone (.) qui en dit long sur le conservatisme ambiant chez les Al-Farouq. Labelling And Mental Health? Il a depuis cree son propre groupe arme (encore un) : le Ier corps.

Car le bataillon Al-Farouq, devenu brigades, est egalement symptomatique du glissement progressif, visuel et rhetorique, dun mouvement arme debute par des transfuges de larmee allies a des civils qui maniaient au depart un phrase militaire, non-religieux et nationaliste a un groupe a lapparence et au vocabulaire desormais islamiste. Is Necessary For The Serious? Meme si, des le depart, a limage dune majorite de groupes armes syriens, il a choisi une signature aux referents exclusivement sunnites. Aujourdhui, les barbes ont pousse, certains combattants se disent salafistes et expriment leur depit a legard de lOccident, le logo du groupe, un drapeau revolutionnaire syrien, et le lisere Armee syrienne libre , se sont vu adjoindre des epees croisees sur fond noir rappelant les logotypes jihadistes. Labelling Theory Health? Meme sils ont lire plus bas toujours entretenu de bonnes relations avec le Conseil national syrien, contrairement a nombre de groupes qui nont cesse de la brocarder. Fortes aujourdhui de plusieurs milliers dhommes certains avancent le chiffre de 10 000 les brigades Al-Farouq, ont reagi fraichement a la naissance de la Coalition nationale syrienne a linitiative de la France et des Etats-Unis Pourquoi ses deux puissances nont-elles pas reconnu le Conseil national quand celui-ci refletait les aspirations des forces revolutionnaires, alors meme quelles avaient encourage sa creation ? Font-elles mine de sinterroger. Help Essay Examples? Quont fait ces deux puissances pour aider reellement la revolution syrienne ? La suite vaut avertissement : Ce qui se passe aujourdhui en Syrie ne doit pas etre un combat dinfluence entre puissances etrangeres, regionales et arabes visant a dominer notre pays, cest le combat engage par les Nouveaux Syriens, porteurs du message La mort plutot que la soumission contre toutes ces parties reunies. Theory And Mental? Le groupe semble decide a monnayer cherement ses acquis sur le terrain. Is Necessary Serious Athlete Essays? Il ne sera pas le seul. Post-scriptum : Liwaa al-Fourqane, sur le baril de poudre du Golan. Ce relatif nouvel arrivant dans la galaxie des groupes armes ne meriterait sans doute pas que lon sattarde plus que cela sur son cas si ce netait la zone tres sensible ou il opere : le Golan, ou les obus de mortier ont tendance a se perdre au-dela de la ligne de demarcation entre la Syrie et Israel et ou les incidents entre les Israeliens et elements armes commencent et pourraient se multiplier. Liwaa al-Fourqane, qui mene des operations sur une zone qui setend de Damas a Quneitra, nest pas tres bavard et nest pas, a lheure quil est, un adepte de la plume aucune profession de foi programmatique na ete rendue publique pour linstant.

Difficile, donc, de le cerner. Labelling Theory? A part via la profusion de videos rendant hommage a ses operations militaires de la simple escarmouche a lassaut dun poste de larmee en passant par la collecte de prisonniers du regime, ce quil semble affectionner particulierement. Which Operations Decision?? Reste que beaucoup dans lattitude generale de ses membres et la rhetorique employee ninvite pas mais on labelling theory and mental health, peut se tromper a lui decerner la palme de la moderation. Au niveau organisationnel, Liwaa al-Fourqane sinscrit dans la coordination armee dAnsar Al-Islam (les partisans de lislam), chargee de coordonner les operation rebelles dans la capitale sur le meme modele que les brigades Al-Tawhid a Alep. And Composition? Et, exercice oblige ? Il dit sappuyer sur des financiers venus du Koweit quil ne manque pas de remercier chaleureusement (video).

A suivre. Post-scriptum 2 : A Alep, lunion vers un Etat islamique (18/11/2012) Les principaux groupes jihadistes nont pas tarde a reagir, du moins a Alep et de concert, a la naissance de la Coalition nationale syrienne, reconnue comme seul representant legitime du peuple syrien par la France, lItalie, le Royaume-Uni, la Turquie et les monarchies du Golfe. Theory And Mental? Le 18 novembre, dans un communique commun, les unites dAlep de Jabhat al-Nusra, Ahrar al-Sham dementies mollement par leur site national -, et Liwaa al-Tawhid (le principal groupe combattant dans lagglomeration) ont annonce leur rejet de la nouvelle structure de lopposition syrienne et de tout projet etranger qui nous serait imposee par quelque parties que ce soit ainsi que leur accord pour letablissement dun Etat islamique juste .

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The 25 Most Powerful TV Shows of the Last 25 Years. TV doesnt get much respect. It rots your brain and grows couch potatoes. But the so-called idiot box also swings elections, rewires brains, snares criminals, and labelling and mental health even sways the Supreme Court. The following may not be the best shows of the last 25 yearsin fact, some are among the worstbut their impact reaches far beyond the living room. 1. Tropikanka: The Show That Won a Presidential Election. As Russians were gearing up to go to media role, the polls in July 1996, Boris Yeltsin was nervous about his job. The weather gave him additional reason to panic. With the labelling and mental, sun shining and the temperatures pleasant, Yeltsin fretted that his city-dwelling supporters would decamp to their dachas, or country cottages, instead of staying home and voting. Russias president needed a way to keep his base from traveling.

His solution: a cunning use of soap opera. No show was more popular in Russia than the Brazilian morality soap Tropikanka , which regularly drew 25 million viewers to the state-owned network ORT. Which Of The Following Operations Management​! With the election looming, ORT made a surprise announcement: The shows finale would air as a special triple episode on election day between 8 a.m. and 11 a.m. More amazing was the fact that the scheme actually worked. Because most dachas didnt have televisions, viewers stayed in the city, glued to their sets.

When the episode ended, it was too late to trek out of town, but voters still had time to get to the polling station. Yeltsins soap opera strategy helped him prevail by more than 10 million votes. Labelling Theory And Mental! Meanwhile, The Young and the Restless cant even sway a lousy Senate race. 2. Melrose Place: The Show That Turned Prime Time Into an Help examples, Art Gallery. You probably remember Melrose Place as a vapid, if enjoyable, look at a Los Angeles apartment complex. But the show had more depth than anyone realized.

Starting in theory and mental health, 1996, the program served as a highly visible billboard for up-and-coming artists. Melrose s foray into the art world was masterminded by The Automatic, conceptual artist Mel Chin. As Chin told the Los Angeles Times in 1997, Everyone criticizes television, but nobody tries to intervene to give it the meaning it lacks. Chin founded the GALA Committee to do just that. When Chin approached Melrose set decorator Deborah Siegel with the idea of dressing the show in avant-garde works, she immediately approved. Together the GALA Committee and Siegel collected pieces from artists around the country and worked them into the show. Health! Each time viewers tuned in for a little trashy fun, they got a hidden dose of culture. Some of the art was surprisingly subversive. Most famously, when Courtney Thorne-Smiths character was struggling with an unplanned pregnancy, she spent two episodes hunkered down in a comfy quilt. For The Serious! A closer look revealed it wasnt just a pretty patternit was also the molecular structure of the abortion drug RU-486. The art world, for its part, embraced the exposure, and in 1997, the Melrose Place pieces were displayed in their own show at the Museum of Contemporary Art in Los Angeles. 3. Labelling Health! The Simpsons: The Show That Changed How We Talk.

You dont need to turn on the TV to hear The Simpsons . Just chat with pretty much anyone. As University of media Pennsylvania linguistics professor Mark Liberman wrote in 2005, The Simpsons has apparently taken over from Shakespeare and and mental the Bible as our cultures greatest source of is Necessary Serious idioms, catchphrases, and sundry other textual allusions. Libermans assertion sounds crazyat least until you remember theres a Milhouse quote for theory and mental health every occasion. Even the hulking gatekeeper of the of Music: Radio, language, the Oxford English Dictionary, has found a spot for Homer Simpsons trademark Doh! Mmmm linguistic acceptance. 4. Americas Most Wanted: The Show That Cleaned Up Americas Streets.

America's Most Wanted has helped capture over 1,100 fugitives since its debut in 1988. 5. The Theorists: The Show That Made Us Respect Belaruss Actors. Its no secret that television hits get licensed and and mental remade around the The Automatic Millionaire, globe. So when audiences in labelling and mental health, Belarus got their own knockoff of The Big Bang Theory in 2010, nothing seemed out of place. Like its American counterpart, The Theorists depicted the adventures of four lovably geeky scientists living next door to a beautiful waitress. There was just one problem. Although the show was basically a shot-for-shot remake of the American original, Belaruss version was unlicensed. When Big Bang Theory co-creator Chuck Lorre discovered the The Transformation of Music: and Composition examples, theft, he learned he couldnt sue because Belaruss government owned the production company. With no other recourse, Lorre chided the plagiarists in a title card, joking that he hoped Belarus would at least break down and send us some felt hats. As it turned out, Lorre didnt need to barter. When news broke that the show had never been licensed, the actors were mortifiedtheyd been told it was a legitimate production.

Rather than continue to star in a rip-off, they protected their integrity by walking off the set. Labelling Theory! Left without a cast, the producers had no choice but to cancel The Theorists . The next time we need a scrupulous Eastern European actor, we know where to look. 6. Glee: The Show That Boosted the Record Industry. FOX scored a sleeper hit with the musical series Glee in 2009. But the shows real impact came between airings. Essay On United States Policy! As the rest of the record industry flailed, the Glee recordings found staggering success on iTunes. By the end of 2011, the cast had sold more than 11 million albums and health another 36 million single tracks. Meanwhile, the casts 2011 concert tour grossed more than $40 million. Forget garage bandsaspiring stars should be shooting garage teen dramas! 7. De Grote Donorshow: The Show That Became an Organ Donor. This 2007 reality shows horrifying premise: Three patients in need of a kidney compete for the organs of a terminally ill woman, with the dying woman picking the winner, using input from viewer text messages.

The show drew an avalanche of criticism before it aired. What could be more twisted than making sick people duke it out for vital organs as TV entertainment? Worse still, who thought that letting the same TV audiences that can barely be trusted to pick the next American Idol make such a harrowing decision? Dutch health officials vehemently condemned the show and attempted to block its airing to no avail. Like many reality shows, De Grote Donorshow had a twist ending. Near the end of the The Transformation Radio and Composition Essay examples, program, presenters revealed that the show was a hoax to draw attention to labelling health, Netherlandss shortage of organ donors. The terminally ill woman was a healthy actress.

And while the three contestants really did need kidneys, they were in on in society, the stunt to help publicize the problem. BNNs chairman admitted the gimmick was tasteless but said, [W]e think the health, reality is even more shocking and tasteless. Crass or not, the effort worked: A day after the in society, airing, 43,000 viewers requested forms to become organ donors. 8. SpongeBob SquarePants: The Show That Rewired Kids Brains. In 2011, Nickelodeons favorite anthropomorphic sponge came under fire when a University of Virginia study showed that SpongeBob was hurting kids ability to perform basic tasks. The research involved a group of 60 4-year-olds who were asked to spend nine minutes watching an educational cartoon, watching SpongeBob, or coloring. Kids who watched SpongeBob scored significantly worse in tests involving solving puzzles, delaying gratification, and following instructions. And Mental! The conclusion: rapidly paced TV with quick scene changes had a clear cognitive effect on children. When the Radio Essay examples, mainstream media picked up on the research, it decried the shows mind-melting powers.

Nickelodeon fired back that SpongeBob was intended for and mental health older kids, not preschoolers. One of the The Automatic Millionaire Essay, studys authors even attempted to defend SpongeBob, pointing out that it was just one of many fast-paced cartoons. Her other line of defense was less helpful: She speculated that the program was particularly taxing for kids brains because it contained unfamiliar situations, like a talking sponge wearing square trousers. Whats worse, if you ask us, is how it deludes children into labelling and mental, thinking they could someday live in a pineapple under the sea. 9. Star Trek: The Next Generation: The Show That Saved a Genre. In the 1980s, hour-long action shows were designed to lose money in their early seasons. Many lost as much as $600,000 per and Composition Essay examples, episode before recouping the shortfall with nine-figure syndication deals. Health! But by 1987, action reruns had stopped matching the Millionaire, ratings of their comedic counterparts.

As rich syndication contracts dried up, so did networks enthusiasm for dropping big money on explosions and gunfire. Given that climate, even surefire hits like Paramounts Star Trek spin-off couldnt generate interest from the theory and mental, major channels. Ask For Help Essay Examples! Undeterred, Paramount produced the labelling and mental, series anyway and cobbled together its own group of local affiliates who agreed to broadcast the Millionaire, show. When Star Trek: The Next Generation debuted in October 1987, more than 50 ABC, NBC, and CBS affiliates preempted their networks programming to theory and mental health, air the two-hour premiere. Cash motivated this unprecedented defection. When local affiliates preempt their networks programming, they get to The Automatic Millionaire Essay, keep all of the ad revenue from the show rather than share it with the labelling theory and mental health, network. Cannot Help Essay! Paramount gave episodes of labelling theory The Next Generation to the affiliates for which is not a strategic operations management​ decision? free, but with a catch. Health! Each hour-long show included 12 minutes of ads. Stations could sell five of those minutes and keep the of Music: Radio and Composition Essay, loot; the remaining seven belonged to Paramount.

The deal was incredibly profitable for everyone involved. Labelling And Mental! At a time when most 30-second commercials sold for $30,000, The Next Generation s strong ratings let Paramount and its affiliates command $115,000. The studio responded by investing more heavily in Why People Cannot Ask For Help Essay examples, the show to keep it at the top of the pile. By 1992, each episode had a $2 million budgetnearly double that of a normal network dramayet it was still one of TVs most lucrative shows, pulling in $90 million a year in ad revenue for Paramount alone. Other studios noticed Paramounts 40 percent return on investment from its network-bypassing model and quickly jumped into the fray with shows like Renegade and Xena: Warrior Princess . Theory And Mental Health! By boldly going where no show had gone before, Star Trek: The Next Generation made TV safe for action again. 10. Curb Your Enthusiasm: The Show That Improvised Justice. In 2003, 24-year-old machinist Juan Catalan faced the death penalty for allegedly shooting a key witness in a murder case.

Catalan told police that he couldnt have committed the crimehe was at a Los Angeles Dodgers game at the time. He had the ticket stubs and everything! When police didnt buy his alibi, Catalan contacted the Dodgers, who pointed him to an unlikely hero: misanthropic comedian Larry David. On the day in question, David had been filming an episode of The Automatic Millionaire Curb Your Enthusiasm in Dodger Stadium. It was a long shot, but maybe Catalan could be seen in the background. When his attorney watched the outtakes, it took just 20 minutes to find shots of labelling theory and mental Catalan and his daughter chowing down on ballpark dogs while watching from the stands. Thanks to the footage, Catalan walked free after five months behind bars.

And Larry David found one more thing to be self-deprecating about. I tell people that Ive done one decent thing in my life, albeit inadvertently, joked David. 11. Buffy the Vampire Slayer: The Show That Spawned An Academic Discipline. The TV sets in the ivory towers only have bunny ears for one show: Joss Whedons Buffy the Vampire Slayer . The series has been so endlessly dissected and Essay deconstructed by scholars that its formed its own loose academic discipline, Buffy Studies. It even has its own peer-reviewed academic journal, Slayage, giving new meaning to theory health, the phrase publish or perish. Our favorite scholarship from Slayage: Buffy the Vampire Disciplinarian: Institutional Excess and of Music: and Composition Essay examples the New Economy of Power

I Hear Its Best to Play Along: The Poststructuralist Turn in Buffy the Vampire Slayer Its Bloody Brilliant: The Undermining of Metanarrative Feminism in the Season Seven Arc Narrative of Buffy Someone to labelling theory and mental, Sink Your Teeth Into: Gendered Biting Patterns on Buffy the Vampire SlayerA Quantitative Analysis 12. The Automatic! Friends: The Show That Launched a One-Hit Wonder. Before Friends hit the air in 1994, Natalie Merchant and R.E.M. both turned down the chance to record a theme song written by labelling, the shows musical director. Strength For The Athlete! The Rembrandts, however, jumped at the opportunity. As Danny Wilde, front man for and mental the California band, said, We thought, Why not? Nobody will even know it was us, anyway. To the bands surprise, when Friends aired, fans inundated radio stations with requests for Ill Be There for You. But the The Automatic Millionaire, track was never a proper songit was just a 45-second slice of infectious pop. A Nashville radio station solved the problem by looping the jingle for three minutes.

The stitched-together tune shot up the charts. When the Rembrandts record label pressured them to theory and mental, cut an extended version of the song, they grudgingly obeyed. It was a smart move. Essay Policy! The rerecorded single spent 11 straight weeks at the top of the charts and labelling theory helped move more than two million copies of their album. The group admits that its frustrating being known for a song it didnt write, but theres an upside to being a well-televised one-hit wonder: The Rembrandts receive performance royalties every time a Friends rerun airs.

13. CSI: The Show That Gave D.A.s Headaches. By 2006, 70 million Americans were tuning into CSI or one of its two spin-offs each week. That became a real problem for prosecutors. The Transformation Of Music: Radio And Composition Essay! As the shows popularity grew, jurors started expecting the full CSI treatment in every trial. But in the vast majority of cases, police dont need CSI-type technology to collar the perpetrator. The tests are expensive and can take weeks, and they tax already overworked crime labs. Circumstantial evidence and eyewitness accounts, on the other hand, can be just as damning for far less money. Most of the evidence is anecdotal, but prosecutors insist that the CSI effect has raised jurors interest in high-tech forensic methods and led to undeserved acquittals. Labelling Theory Health! A study by Michigan judge Donald E. Shelton even discovered that investigators were doing unnecessary tests just to The Automatic, make it look like they were giving crime scenes a CSI-level scouring.

Real or not, prosecutors fear the effect could cost them an important verdict. Some attorneys now ask potential jurors whether theyre fans of the show as theyre determining who to weed out labelling theory and mental, during jury selection. 14. In Society! How I Met Your Mother: The Show That Revolutionized Product Placement. In July 2011, something strange happened on and mental, a rerun of Cannot Ask For Help Essay examples How I Met Your Mother . Although the episode airing in syndication had been shot in 2006, a poster in one of the scenes was eerily modern: It was pushing Bad Teacher , a movie that had been in theaters only a few weeks. Did Neil Patrick Harris have a time machine? The bizarrely prescient ad was the and mental, work of SeamBI, a company that has craftily elevated the practice of product placement by digitally inserting new ads into Strength is Necessary for the Serious Athlete, old scenes of theory health syndicated shows. Currently, the company tends to insert posters and billboards as set dressing, but its vision doesnt end there.

SeamBI plans to slice and dice markets so that your television does what the Web has been doing for yearshelp advertisers target very specific geographic areas. Viewers in New York, for instance, might see a Manhattan-based billboard on The Automatic Essay, an old sitcom, while Delaware viewers could see a completely different one while watching the exact same show. As Entertainment Weekly pointed out, the health, scheme makes syndicated shows even more profitable, with How I Met Your Mother opening the floodgates to a whole new world. While the idea of seeing June Cleaver opening up a fridge full of Coke Zero or the The Automatic Millionaire, Fonz leaning up against labelling theory health, a poster for The Hangover 3 still seems laughable, SeamBI knows its just around the corner. 15. Sex and the City: The Show That Boosted the Pregnancy Rate. In 2008, a RAND Institute study reported that girls between 12 and Essay 17 who watched Sex and and mental health the City and other shows with high sexual content were more than twice as likely to Why People Cannot Help examples, become pregnanta ringing endorsement for enforcing the Mature Audience rating. Of course, all that risque chatter did some good too. A 2011 Ohio State University study found that undergraduates who viewed an episode of Sex and the City were more than twice as likely to labelling and mental health, talk to their partners about sexual-health issues.

16. The Mongolian Cow Sour Yogurt Super Girl Contest: The Show That Gave China the Vote. No show has captured Chinas heart the way the Super Girl Contest has. When it debuted in 2004, few would have predicted that the all-female American Idol knockoff would draw 400 million viewers. But while the Chinese people couldnt get enough of the show, the Chinese government viewed it as a threat. Of Music: Essay Examples! The most popular contestants wore Western-style clothes and labelling and mental health gave emotional performances that flew in The Transformation of Music: Essay examples, the face of Chinas usual stoicism. What really scared the government, however, was how viewers chose the winner by text message. Labelling Health! In a nation where citizens have no say in who will lead them, that sort of which of the a strategic operations management​ decision? exposure to the democratic process seemed dangerous. Government mandarins led by culture minister Liu Zhongde blasted the theory and mental health, show as poison for our youth. And even after regulators stripped the Essays, program of its text voting, the venom continued. Labelling! We cant have working people reveling all day in low culture, Liu said.

This being China, you can probably guess how the story ends. Government censors gave the role, show the ax following the health, 2011 season finale. Still, Super Girl managed to give China a real taste of democracy. Role! Not even Simon Cowell could find fault there. 17. Venice: The Show That Won the Web. As Guiding Light sputtered toward cancellation in 2009, fans were distraught. The show was disappearing just as an unlikely super couple was emerging. Single mom characters Olivia Spencer (Crystal Chappell) and Natalia Rivera (Jessica Leccia) were doomed to labelling theory and mental health, go off the air without sharing their first kiss.

Luckily, actress Chappell saved the couple by launching the Web series Venice to explore the The Transformation of Music:, relationship of two women similar to Olivia and Natalia (dubbed Otalia). Actors and crew were so hell-bent on theory and mental, seeing Otalias romance that they worked for free. More radically, Chappell defrayed her costs by selling online subscriptions. After spending chaste months on Immigration, the air, Olivia and health Natalias Web counterparts locked lips in the first minute of Venice, and Training is Necessary for the Serious Athlete the Daytime Emmywinning series is now in theory, its third season, proving that love can conquer anything, including viewers reluctance to pay for TV. 18. Chuck: The Show That Sold a Lot of Sandwiches. When NBCs nerd-spy comedy Chuck looked doomed in following is not a strategic operations management​, 2009, fans embraced commercialism to keep the show afloat.

Rather than launch a letter-writing campaign at the end of the labelling and mental health, second season, die-hard viewers appealed to a higher power: one of the shows advertisers. Under operation Finale Footlong, Chuck s nerd herd flooded Subway shops to buy sandwiches. Even the of Music: examples, shows star Zachary Levi got into the action, leading 600 fans to a shop in Birmingham, England. Amazingly, the and mental, ploy worked. Why People Cannot Ask For! Subway liked the business so much that it struck a deal with NBC to sponsor Chuck s third season, complete with increased product placement. Did fans love seeing the and mental, show saturated with sandwiches? Maybe not, but watching Chuck down a foot-long was better than not watching Chuck at all. 19. Designing Women: The Show That Transcended Politics.

Dixie Carters character on Strength is Necessary Serious Athlete Essays, Designing Women , Julia Sugarbaker, was known for labelling theory health her frequent monologues praising liberal causes. On United Immigration! Offscreen, however, Carter was a staunch Republican and found the health, diatribes repulsive. When the actress finally put her foot down, refusing to The Automatic, extol Democratic values, the shows producers crafted a bizarre agreement. Labelling Theory And Mental! Each time Carter gave one of her characters trademark rants, she got to sing a song in a future episode. If only Why People Essay examples Congress would learn to make such compromises. 20. And Mental! Fei Cheng Wu Rao: TV Killed the Energy Star. Chinas Fei Cheng Wu Rao (If You Are the One) is a pretty standard dating show. Essay States Immigration! It wont find any love with Beijings air-quality monitors, though. On a 2010 episode, a suitor asked 22-year-old Ma Nuo whether she would ride a bike with him on labelling theory health, a date.

Mas withering response: Id rather cry in a BMW than laugh on a bicycle. The catchphrase went viral, and it cemented the bikes reputation as Beijings ultimate no-status symbol. And with air pollution and auto gridlock both up, theres a lot to cry about in your BMW. 21. ER: The Show That Made Us Healthier. ER did more than make George Clooney a superstar. It also changed the way America ate. In three 2004 episodes, the show explored a minor plot arc about Essay Policy, a teenager who learns he has high blood pressure. The shows physician characters advise the young man to exercise and eat more fruits and vegetables. While the plot sounds humdrum, it scared viewers straight. In 2007, researchers from the University of Southern Californias medical school published a paper in the Journal of labelling theory Health Communication that found that viewers who caught these episodes of ER had started walking or exercising more, eating more fruits and vegetables, or getting their blood pressure checked.

How can anyone say watching TV is bad for Essay Policy you? 22. Days of Our Lives: The Show That Slowed Down the Supreme Court. For years before his 1991 retirement, Supreme Court Justice Thurgood Marshall slipped away from labelling theory health, deliberations each day to watch Days of Our Lives . The show wasnt just a guilty pleasure; it helped shape the justices understanding of the world. Essay Immigration Policy! As Marshall once told Justice William Brennan, soaps teach viewers valuable lessons about life.

23. Baywatch: The Show That Proved David Hasselhoff Is a Genius. When NBC put Baywatch on its fall prime-time schedule in 1989, the network thought it had a hit. How could a showcase for labelling and mental health attractive women in swimsuits ever fail? But after the show scuffled in the ratings and took a critical pounding, NBC pulled the Strength Training Athlete, plug after just one season. Nobody knew better than star and executive producer David Hasselhoff that mockery in the States doesnt preclude success abroad. (Remember, this was a man who had topped Germanys pop charts.) Hasselhoff and his co-producers bought Baywatch from the health, studio and re-launched it in first-run syndication. It didnt take long for Baywatch to conquer the world. By 1995, the show was being translated into 15 languages and entertaining citizens in 144 countries including Iran! In fact, the globe-spanning appeal of slow-motion running and Why People Cannot Ask For Help Essay scantily clad ladies helped Baywatch surpass Dallas as the most-watched TV show of all time.

Not a bad legacy for a critical dud. 24. The 1988 Eurovision Song Contest: The Show That Unleashed Celine Dion on the World. Over 200 million records sold later, her heart is still going on. 25. Labelling And Mental! The Colbert Report: The Show That Won 10 Olympic Medals. In October 2009, U.S.

Speedskating was in Training Serious Athlete Essays, dire straits. Its primary sponsor, the Dutch bank DSB, had gone bankrupt just months before the 2010 Winter Games. Labelling And Mental Health! Worse still, the Millionaire, company hadnt paid a cent of its pledged $300,000. Luckily for and mental health the squad, a savior was about to glide onto the rink. On November 2, 2009, comedian Stephen Colbert made a surprise announcement that his show was becoming the teams primary sponsor. But instead of forking over the cash himself, he asked viewers to make small donations. The money poured in: The team received more than $300,000 from in society, a pool of labelling theory and mental 9,000 donors, and it made for a solid investment, as the of the is not a strategic decision?, squad racked up 10 medals at labelling theory and mental the games. What prompted Colberts sudden compassion for Cannot Ask For a sport hed often lampooned?

He identified with the teams ambitious dreams and dwindling bank account. As Colbert told The New York Times , Believe me, I spent 20 years racking up huge debts pursuing comedy. This article originally appeared in mental_floss magazine. Want to read the whole issue? Download our iPad edition now and get it free, courtesy of labelling health Boeing. Also available for Android and Kindle Fire! On an unseasonably warm day in April 1954, hundreds of role women in cowboy hats gathered outside Tupperwares Florida headquarters to dig for theory buried treasure. There, in a nearby swampy area dubbed the Forest of Spades, 600 shovels stood at the ready. The excitement was palpable.

At the appointed signal, the women raced for the roped-off soil, grabbed shovels, and began to hunt frantically for loot. It was the pinnacle of the inaugural Tupperware Jubilee, a five-day, gold-rush-themed affair celebrating all things Tupperware. Of The Following Management​ Decision?! No expense was spared: To give the event a Western feel, frontier-style buildings with false fronts had been erected and bulls and horses were trucked in. The women, and labelling and mental a smattering of men, had traveled from all across the country to participate. A collection of Tupperware dealers, distributors, and Training for the Essays sales managers, they made the labelling theory, pilgrimage for the motivational speeches, sales instruction, and especially for the bizarre bonding rituals. For five hours that day, they prospected for mink stoles and freezer units, gold watches and diamond rings. One of them, Fay Maccalupo of Buffalo, New York, dug up a toy car. When she saw the real Ford it represented, she planted her face against the hood and began to weep, repeating, I love everybody. Four women fainted and had to media, be revived with smelling salts.

It was understandable, considering that the total cash value of all the prizes buried in theory and mental, the Florida dirt was $75,000. Presiding over the treasure hunt was the general sales manager of the Training for the Serious Essays, Tupperware Home Parties division, a 40-year-old woman named Brownie Wise. For hours, she cheered on the ladies from labelling theory and mental, a loudspeaker with an air of royalty. As she watched them hop on shovels and unearth the rewards of their labors, she couldnt help but feel proud. Wise took satisfaction in seeing her hard work pay offonce again. The jubilee, which she had organized, had all the Help, pizzazz and spirit expected of an official Tupperware event. The media agreed: Network news was there to cover it, and labelling Life magazine ran a photo essay highlighting the excitement and glamour. Clearly, theres more to Cannot Ask For Help Essay, Tupperware than leftovers. The story of the labelling theory, ubiquitous plastic container is a story of following is not a strategic operations innovation and labelling reinvention: how a new kind of plastic, made from an Strength for the Essays, industrial waste material, ended up a symbol of female empowerment. And Mental Health! The product ushered women into the workforce, encouraging them to make their own money, better their families, and win accolades and prizes without fear of being branded that 1950s anathema, the career woman.

Digging in the dirt for The Automatic a gold watch may not mesh with todays concept of a successful working woman, but at the time, the near-religious fervor seen at the jubilees and other Tupperware gatherings demonstrated just how ground-breaking the companys sales plan wasthe product became a multimillion dollar success not by labelling and mental, exploiting women, but by embracing and boosting them. All of Cannot Help Essay this was because of Brownie Wise. The story of labelling Tupperware is her story. Brownie Wise, named for her big, brown eyes, was born in Strength Training for the Serious Athlete, rural Georgia. Her parents divorced when she was young, and as a teen she traveled with her mother, who organized union rallies. Labelling Health! While touring the Deep South, Brownie started giving speeches at Why People Cannot Ask For her mothers rallies and soon proved to be a gifted and motivating orator. She awed people, writes Bob Kealing in theory health, his biography Tupperware Unsealed. [They] were surprised that someone so young could deliver a speech like a pastor. Wise was married briefly, but by 27, she was a divorced single mom in suburban Detroit. During World War II, she worked as a secretary at Bendix Aviation, a company that made parts for navy torpedo planes. It was a decent but unfulfilling job.

On the side, Wise penned an advice column for which of the a strategic operations decision? the Detroit News, writing under the alter ego Hibiscus. A housewife who led an idyllic life with her child and husband in a home called Lovehaven, Hibiscus had everything Wise did not. But what Wise did possess was an and mental, endless fountain of determination. As she wrote in a journal at that time, I wanted to be a successful human being. It all started with a bad door-to-door salesman. When a Stanley Home Products salesman knocked on her door and proceeded to deliver a terrible sales pitch for cleaning supplies, Wise scoffed that she could do better. At the Why People Cannot Ask For Help, time, Stanley was experimenting with a peculiar sales model: home parties. A New Hampshire mop salesman had watched his numbers fly through the labelling and mental, roof after he invited a bunch of women over for Millionaire a party that included a mop demonstration. The company encouraged other salesmen to try the strategy, but many of them delegated the party-hosting to their wives. Thinking itd be a fun job on the side, Wise started selling Stanley products at parties too.

Before long, she was making enough money to quit her job at Bendix. Wise was blessed with the gift of gab, and her special blend of folksy real talk and motherly encouragement helped her rise through Stanleys ranks. Soon she was in theory and mental health, management and hoping to ascend even higher. But those illusions were quashed at The Automatic Millionaire a meeting with Stanley head Frank Beveridge, who told Wise shed never become an executive. Its halls were no place for a woman, he said. Wise returned home furious. The rejection lit a fire in hershe vowed that someday, somehow, she would prove Beveridge wrong. She didnt know that the key to health, fulfilling this dream would be in plastic food-storage containers. Wise first glimpsed Tupperware at a sales meeting.

One of her coworkers had seen the products gathering dust in media role, a department store and decided to bring them in. At first, Wise didnt think they were anything special. But when she accidentally knocked a Tupperware bowl off the health, table, she realized its full potential: Instead of is Necessary for the breaking, it bounced. It seemed like magic. Tupperware was unlike any home product shed seen before.

It was attractive, coming in pastel colors and flexible shapes, almost like art. Theory! More importantly, it was functionalno other competing product even came close. Convinced of its potential, Wise traded in her Stanley brooms in 1949 and started throwing parties to sell Tupperware. What she didnt intend, exactly, was to of Music: and Composition examples, kindle a revolution. The most amazing thing about Tupperware wasnt that it extended the theory and mental, life of leftovers and a familys budget, although it did both remarkably well. It was, above all, a career maker. When women came to one of Wises parties, they were more than just convinced to buy the product Wise was such a charming host that she persuaded many buyers to Strength Training is Necessary for the Serious Athlete, also become Tupperware salespeople. The more parties Wise hosted, the more tricks she learned to labelling theory and mental, convert women into Tupperware faithful.

Putting people on waiting lists, for instance, made them more eager to buy, so she signed them up regardless of whether the product was available. She also discovered that throwing containers full of liquid across the room made customers reach straight for their checkbooks. Role In Society! Amassing more and more saleswomen, Wise encouraged her followers to do the same. Theory! By October 1949, she had 19 recruits, enough to move her supplies out of The Automatic Essay her house and into a larger warehouse. Driven by the idea of making money simply by throwing parties for friends and labelling neighbors, the women in Wises workforce ballooned in Why People Help, number. Theory And Mental Health! Soon, other Tupperware parties were taking place across the role, country. Wises team in Detroit was selling more Tupperware than most department stores. This soon attracted the attention of the no-nonsense founder of the theory health, Tupperware Corporation, Earl Silas Tupper. Tupperware, true to of the is not a strategic management​ decision?, its name, was Tuppers masterpiece, and he was counting on it to make his dreams come true. Having grown up in and mental, a poor Massachusetts farm family, he had vowed to make a million dollars by the time he was 30.

He hadnt. He did have a host of esoteric inventionsamong them, a fish-powered boat and role in society no-drip ice cream coneunder his belt. But with a wife and family to labelling and mental, support, hed concentrated on a practical career in plastics, first at DuPont and then at a company of his own, which made parts for Essay States Immigration Jeeps and gas masks during World War II. Theory And Mental! When the war ended, Tupper decided to buy cheap surpluses left over from wartime manufacturing. He figured hed be able to do something with them. Thats how he ended up with a glob of greasy black polyethylene, a smelly waste product left behind when metal is created from ore. Tupper took it and, after months of trial and Why People error, wrangled the labelling health, slag into submission, creating a light-weight plastic that refused to break. Tupper dubbed it Poly-T, and, taking inspiration from the way paint cans sealed, created a flexible container with a noiseless lid that snapped on. He called the The Automatic Essay, box Tupperware. He patented the health, seal in 1949 and Why People Cannot Ask For Help Essay rolled out theory and mental, 14 products he called the Millionaire Line. The only problem?

He couldnt get anyone to Training is Necessary Serious, buy it. At least not until Wise came along. Her sales record was remarkablein 1949, shed rung up $150,000 in orders and theory health was offered a promotion: distribution rights to the entire state of Strength Serious Athlete Essays Florida. Theory Health! In the spring of 1950, she moved south with her son, Jerry, and her mother. Training For The Athlete! She found a store space, and by labelling theory, May shed opened her business and was scouting for new salespeople. Still, not everything was going smoothly. Along with disputes over turf with other distributors, she was constantly contending with botched orders, shipping delays, and product shortages. Essay On United Policy! In March of 1951, Wise had had enough. She called Tupper in a fury. It was the first time theyd spoken, but she was too livid for niceties; she ripped into him immediately.

This was hurting not just her bottom line, but also his. Theory And Mental! Did he not understand how crucial it was that the problems be fixed immediately? Tupper assured her that hed fix any issues and then asked a favor: He wanted to hear her sales secrets. The next month, the two met at The Transformation of Music: Radio and Composition examples a conference on labelling and mental, Long Island and Wise explained her selling technique. It was pointless, she explained, to think that people would see Tupperware on store shelves or in catalogs and want to buy it. Essay On United Immigration! Instead, people had to touch it, squeeze it, drop it, seal it. They had to experience Tupperware from a trusted friend or neighbor. She gave a bold prescription for saving Tuppers business: Ditch department stores altogether and focus entirely on throwing home parties. Tupper took the advice to labelling theory health, heart.

So much, in which of the following is not operations decision?, fact, that the theory health, day after their meeting, he created a new division just for home parties and asked Wise to be the general manager. Strength Is Necessary For The Serious Essays! Wise had reached her goal: She had become an executive. Labelling Theory And Mental Health! It was a perfect fit, too. She had a stellar track recordshe was selling more Tupperware than anyone anywhereand Tupper was bowled over by media in society, her charm. You talk a lot and theory everybody listens, he said. She was the yin to Tuppers yang, Kealing writes. Of The A Strategic Management​! Where he was fussy and reclusive, Wise lived to mingle with and labelling health inspire the dealer workforce. They were a match made in sales heaven. Or so it seemed. In 1952, the first full year of Wises watch, Tupperware sales rocketed. Wholesale orders exceeded $2 million. During the last half of the year, sales tripled. Tupperware parties did exactly what Wise promised they would, and she became the companys shining star. That year, Tupper gave her a salary of $20,933.33, more than she had ever made.

For her birthday in 1953, he presented her with a gold-dyed palomino horse. Even more remarkably, he gave her the freedom to The Transformation of Music: and Composition Essay, do practically whatever she wanted. So Wise traveled the country recruiting, presiding over sales conferences, and announcing contests and doling out prizes for labelling theory health incentiveincluding, sometimes, her own clothes. By the looks of it, most of Wises Tupperware recruits fit neatly into role, the stereotypical role of theory and mental a proper housewife. But, in reality, they surreptitiously represented a new kind of female empowerment. During World War II, many women had no choice but to enter the workforce. At its end, many of them had no choice but to leave it. Why People Cannot Help Essay Examples! Suddenly, selling Tupperware at labelling and mental health parties allowed women to straddle both worlds. They were employed, yet they didnt appear to Ask For examples, challenge their husbands' authority or the status quo. Labelling Theory! This pioneering entrepreneurial model allowed them to which of the is not management​ decision?, inhabit a workforce outside of the one the hustling salesman inhabited, and, in many cases, to do even better than he did. And that power relied specifically on a network of female friends and neighbors.

The parties werent just a way for women to keep occupiedit was a way they could contribute to their familys bottom line. Labelling Health! Most women who worked outside the home had low-paying jobs in fields like light manufacturing, retail, clerical work, and health and education. The moneycommitted dealers could bring in $100 or more per weekwas a revelation. The opportunity for success was so great that the is Necessary Serious Athlete, husbands of some Tupperware ladies left their own jobs to theory health, work with their wives. Wise was something of an early Oprah, giving away fantastic prizes, operating in a grass-roots, word-of-mouth fashion and showing rather than telling other women how to Training is Necessary, succeed in the comfort of their own homes. The fact that she made many women understand the benefits of becoming salespeople, building the brand further, simply made her a fantastic executive. Wise embraced the spirit of health female entrepreneurship wholeheartedly. In her prime, she wrote a morale-boosting newsletter called Tupperware Sparks , published a primer called Tupperware Know-How , and had a 52-minute film, A Tupperware Home Party , made as a training tool.

She even convinced Tupper to move the company headquarters to Why People Cannot Essay, Florida. When Tupper bought property in Kissimmee, Wise turned it into a Mecca-like pilgrimage site for Tupperware devotees. Part of the power of Wises sales technique, which at times seemed more faith than business, was that it gave the impression that the labelling theory, sky was the Training Serious, limit, and theory and mental it relied on collective power. This wasnt just the traditional salespersons dog-eat-dog world: Instead, the group was a family that helped one another climb to the top. Why People Help Essay! Women who had previously only had their names in print upon birth or marriage were being recognized for their success, with their names, photographs, and theory and mental health accomplishments appearing in Wises newsletters.

Along with making their own money, they received rewardstop distributors got carsand the chance to collaborate with other women in a friendly but competitive environment. Wise increased the fervor with her annual jubilees, which had their own rituals, like candlelit graduation ceremonies and group sing-alongs featuring choruses of Ive got that Tupper feeling deep in my heart. No woman got praised for scrubbing floors, Elsie Mortland, who became Tupperwares Home Kitchen Demonstrator, told Kealing in an interview in 2005. But when they got praised for selling Tupperware, they had something to be proud of. Wise was the head of the household, and the Tupperware ladies all wanted to be a part of her extended family. Success was limited only by how hard a person was willing to work, a belief that Wise preached passionately. Of The Following Is Not Management​ Decision?! Unfortunately, she had been duped into thinking her boss shared that opinion. As Wise became the face of Tupperware, sales and theory health press continued to of the following a strategic operations management​ decision?, skyrocket. In 1954, she was the first woman to and mental, appear on Essay on United States Policy, the cover of labelling Business Week. But as glowing as the magazines profile was, it contained warning signs about the media role, future of labelling theory her partnership with Tupper. The piece credited Wise and her sales technique with Tupperwares estimated $25 million in retail sales and of the is not operations seemed to downplay Tuppers role as president of the company he had created. Tupper had never craved the spotlight; in fact, he was known to health, use the following management​ decision?, back door of his office to labelling, avoid attracting attention.

But he was keen to Radio and Composition examples, ensure that his product, not an employee, received the lions share of any attention. And somewhere along the way, Wise had started to labelling and mental, upstage the plastic containers she helped make famous. After the Business Week article, Tupper wrote a note to Wise that contained a glimmer of the storm that was to come: However, good executive as you are, I still like best the a strategic operations decision?, pictures . with TUPPERWARE! The good press continued but, in 1955, after several powerful distributors left the company, sales began to lag. Hard times strained Wise and Tuppers relationship. By 1956, angry letters were flying back and forth between them, and at one point, Tupper stopped taking Wises calls. Her complaints and frank criticisms, previously helpful, had become jabs he couldnt endure.

He also started to believe that she was costing him money, irked that she had her own side business selling self-help books at labelling health company events. More to the point, he started to Essay, suspect that if he tried selling the companywhich he was planning to dohaving a female executive would get in the way. Finally, in 1958, Tupper flew to Florida and fired Wise. After a heated legal battle, she received only labelling and mental health $30,000 as a settlement. She didnt own her house and was ordered to vacate. She had no stocks in the company; she didnt even own many of the The Automatic, clothes she wore. The man shed helped make a millionaire didnt seem to care: Tupper ordered her name expunged from the company history and labelling theory and mental health buried the 600 remaining copies of her book in Strength Training is Necessary Athlete Essays, an unmarked pit behind Tupperwares Florida headquarters. Later that year, he sold the company to Rexall Drug for $16 million, divorced his wife, and bought an island in and mental health, Central America. He died in Costa Rica in 1983. Wise, on the other hand, tried starting new companies but never achieved the same success she had with Tupperware.

She led a quiet life with her horses, pottery, and her son until she died at her home in Kissimmee in 1992. Her influence, however, has not waned. Today, according to the PBS American Experience documentary Tupperware! , the Essay, product is sold in about 100 countries, while every 2.5 seconds, a Tupperware party is held somewhere in the world. In this respect, the Golden Age of theory Tupperware hasnt ended so much as it has solidified. When was the media in society, last time you stored food in and mental, a plastic container with a sealing mechanism? Tupperware is so much a part of our food culture that we dont even think about its continuing influence, and yet we still rely on it daily. This story is one of reinvention too: a useless plastic reimagined into Essay on United Immigration, something needed, of food being stored in wholly new ways, of health women emerging from their kitchens to showcase their worth and proclaim their identities, of sales techniques evolving to embrace the The Automatic Millionaire Essay, customer, and of the singular character of Brownie Wise, who changed what it meant to be a woman in the workforce. Theory And Mental Health! Because of Strength is Necessary Essays that, as Houston Post writer Napoleon Hill wrote in 1956, It has been estimated that Brownie Wise has helped more women to labelling health, financial success than any other single living person.

Early in Wises tenure at of Music: Radio Essay the company, Tupper presented her with a piece of the raw polyethylene hed used to make Tupperware. She saw it as poetic proof of his vision: He had created something beautiful from this unappealing glob of plastic, using nothing but imagination and labelling theory and mental persistence. It was the best sales story I have ever heard in all my life, she wrote. She considered Poly, as Tupper called it, a prized possession and Strength for the Serious would have her women touch it for good luck, telling them, Just get your fingers on it, wish for what you want. Know its going to labelling and mental, come true, and then get out and role in society work like everything . and it will! In the years leading up to the Civil War, many Northerners and theory and mental Southerners alike wanted the federal government to take a more aggressive approach toward acquiring new territory. In fact, some private citizens, known as filibusters, took matters into their own hands. They raised small armies illegally; ventured into Mexico, Cuba, and South America; and attempted to seize control of the lands. Media In Society! One particularly successful filibuster, William Walker, actually made himself president of Nicaragua and ruled from 1856 to 1857. For the most part, these filibusters were just men in search of adventure.

Others, however, were Southern imperialists who wanted to conquer new territories in theory and mental health, the tropics. Abolitionist factions in the North greatly opposed their efforts, and the debate over Southern expansion only increased tensions in a divided nation. As the country drifted into war, U.S. Vice President John Breckinridge of Kentucky warned that the Southern states cannot afford to be shut off from all possibility of expansion towards the tropics by the hostile action of the federal government.? But Abraham Lincoln's election in November 1860 put an end to the argument. The anti-slavery president refused to Training for the Serious Athlete Essays, compromise on the issue, and war broke out in labelling, April 1861. CONFEDERATE COLONIES, SOUTH OF THE BORDER. Winning the is Necessary Athlete, war was clearly a higher priority for the Confederacy than conquering Latin America, but growth was certainly on the post-war agenda.

The Confederate constitution included the right to expand, and Confederacy president Jefferson Davis filled his cabinet with men who thought similarly. And Mental! He even hinted that the slave trade could be revived in new acquisitions to be made south of the Rio Grande.? During the of the a strategic decision?, Civil War, Confederate agents attempted to labelling and mental health, destabilize Mexico so that its territories would be easy to Radio and Composition examples, snatch up after the war. One rebel emissary to labelling theory health, Mexico City, John T. The Transformation Of Music: Radio Essay! Pickett, secretly fomented rebellion in several Mexican provinces with an eye to the permanent possession of that beautiful country.? Pickett's mission ended in failure in labelling theory, 1861, but fate dealt the South a better hand in 1863. French Emperor Napoleon III seized Mexico, and Strength Training is Necessary for the Serious Athlete Essays the move provided the South with a perfect excuse to labelling, liberate? the country after the Civil War. Of course, Mexico was just part of the pie that the South hoped to inherit. Confederate leaders also had their eyes squarely on Brazila country of on United Immigration 3 million square miles and more than 8 million people. Prior to the outbreak of the war, Matthew Maury, one of the labelling and mental health, forces behind the U.S. The Automatic Millionaire! Naval Academy, dispatched two Navy officers to the Amazon basin, ostensibly to map the river for labelling theory and mental health shipping. Instead, they were secretly plotting domination and collecting data about separatist movements in the region.

When the South lost the war, Maury refused to abandon his plans. He helped up to 20,000 ex-rebels flee to The Automatic Millionaire, Brazil, where they established the Confederate colonies of New Texas and health Americana. To this day, hundreds of descendants of the Confederados still gather outside Americana to celebrate their shared heritage of rocking chairs and sweet potato pie. Immigration! In a strange way, a part of the labelling theory and mental, Old South still survivesthousands of miles below the Cannot Ask For Help examples, U.S. border. LIVE SMARTER BIG QUESTIONS WEATHER WATCH BE THE CHANGE JOB SECRETS QUIZZES WORLD WAR 1 SMART SHOPPING STONES, BONES, WRECKS #TBT THE PRESIDENTS WORDS RETROBITUARIES. With Help From Photoshop and and mental health AI, No One Will Know You Blinked in That Photo.

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50 Inspiring Resume Designs: And What You Can Learn From Them. Your resume or CV may be one of the labelling theory and mental, most important projects you ever design. It can make or break job applications, open doors to new careers, make a great (or dismal) first impression. When you send out your resume, youre really sending out a piece of of the decision?, yourself. So make sure its representing you to your best advantage. Just like how you dress your best for and mental, an interview, its important to give your resume the same treatment to make sure its polished and presentable. The 50 resume designs below span a wide range of styles, from Cannot Help examples strictly businesslike to ultra creative browse through them to get some ideas for updating your own resume. Designing your own is easy with our wide collection of beautiful resume templates. Click the image to see more resume templates. Starting off your resume strong with a bold header, like in this design by Shed Labs for Loft Resumes, draws attention to your name and and mental health makes it more memorable.

You can also include a few keywords or descriptors under your name that sum up who you are as a candidate. This chessboard-style layout is certainly striking, giving each category its own distinct space. But Mikha Makhouls resume is still somewhat subdued thanks to the simple black-and-white color scheme; it doesnt sacrifice professionalism for visual interest. Some well-placed shadows can make your resume pop, literally giving it a 3D appearance and Radio and Composition Essay creating the illusion of depth. Errol Veloso explains how he chose the and mental health, colors of of the is not a strategic operations, his design purposefully: blue to symbolize his creative side and theory health red to symbolize his analytic side. Try using shapes and frames for emphasis. You can experiment with geometric shapes (circles, squares, rectangles), ribbons, or solid or dashed lines. Strength Is Necessary Essays? Here, Michael Long frames his name and labelling his role to help them stand out. A cohesive color scheme of cool blues and The Automatic Millionaire minty hues gives this information-packed, infographic-style resume by Joseph Acena a visual theme and and mental an orderly, coordinated look. Using a horizontal orientation (instead of the traditional vertical format) immediately gives your resume an Radio and Composition Essay examples edge in terms of labelling theory and mental, attracting attention. Other strong points of this design by Justin Schueler include a balanced, un-crowded layout and plenty of negative space.

There seems to be a trend, at role in society least in labelling, industries where you can take some risks with your resume, to following is not a strategic management​ decision?, forget the theory and mental health, stuffy business lingo and show that theres a human behind the role, piece of paper. Using a more conversational tone, as David Elgena has done with his Hello, nice to meet you. Heres a little about me header at the top of and mental, this resume, may help you create rapport with the person whos reviewing your application before you even meet them. This resume by Kyle Robertson features a custom crest with Kyles name and a catchy tagline. Which Operations Management​? Creating a distinctive personal brand or style for and mental health, yourself (such as a personal logo, a color scheme, a nice selection of fonts, etc.) gives your work an Why People Essay examples extra sheen of professionalism (and an opportunity to show off your abilities). Labelling And Mental? Plus, once you put the work in, this brand is something you can use over and over again on letterhead, business cards, social media profiles, you name it. For a unique take on traditional resume colors, try light text on is Necessary Athlete, a dark background, as Abdullah Al Mamun has done here.

Just make sure that your font is weighty enough to be easily readable and not get lost against the background. This clean resume by Patrick Rogan uses a bright splash of color and labelling health whittles down the which is not operations management​ decision?, information to labelling and mental, only the basics (skills and past positions). Icons in the skills section provide a visual reference that still complements the simplistic style. Printing your resume on textured paper can give an media role in society impression of quality, craftsmanship, or luxury. If a color other than white seems inappropriate for labelling theory, your industry, try a white or cream-colored paper with a slight texture for an ultra-professional, upscale look. This example by S.N.

Carter, printed on a recycled or kraft-style paper, gives the resume a custom, hand-printed feel. When applying for Essay on United Policy Review, a position where a more creative approach isnt appropriate, its always a safe bet to opt for and mental, a simple, text-based resume with clean fonts. Here, Frank Schamhart has embellished his resume slightly with minimal use of an accent color and a small personal portrait. If youre after a job in the arts or some other highly visual industry, make your resume a mini portfolio like illustrator Rianti Hidayat has done here. Bradley Brooks keeps his resume businesslike with a classic black-and-white color scheme, but livens things up with a modular layout and a personal logo. Infographic-style resumes have become popular, and they can be effective when done well. Media? But they should be more than a collection of labelling and mental health, pretty pictures; the images should, at a glance, tell something about The Automatic Essay you and complement or enhance the text, like in and mental health, this resume design by Rachel Winter. If youre seeking work in The Transformation of Music: and Composition examples, an industry where appearance is important, or the job has asked you to include a portrait, try integrating it into your resume. It doesnt have to be the center of attention, though you can make it a bit more subtle by using a small picture or placing it behind a colored screen, like in Egotypes resume template. Mailing out some resumes?

Make opening yours up a memorable experience, like Amber Van Mieghem has done with this clever folding resume. And Mental? Wishing you could infuse a little creativity into Essay examples your plain, corporate resume? Try a monogram with your initials, like Bill Mawhinney has done for this resume template. It adds a little style while still keeping the overall presentation very businesslike. You can use the same graphic on your cover letter to give your application a polished, pulled-together look.

If you have some creative leeway in creating your resume, using a non-rectangular shape will be sure to attract attention, like John Mujicas round resume does here. If you do format your resume in any unusual shape, just make sure all the and mental, text is media role readable. Youve only got one name. Make it memorable. If its unique, highlight it. Make it big and bold, like Fredrik Andresen did on his resume. Give the hiring manager something to zero in on. Your font choices can change the whole character of your resume. For instance, the rounded fonts with soft edges that Louis Omari has used for his resume have a more casual, friendly feel than sharper, serif fonts might have. Need to show your qualifications on the run?

Post your resume online and make it mobile-friendly, like Julien Renvoye has done. You can include your resume on your personal website or even post it to labelling health, networking platforms like LinkedIn. Use blocks of color and/or lines to which following is not decision?, separate different sections of your resume, give it structure, and make it easy to navigate visually. This template from labelling theory health Beautiful Resumes features vibrant colors, but you could just as easily get the same effect with a more subtle color scheme. If youre going the infographic route, think of effective ways that you can use different types of graphs to represent your skills, experience, or background, like Martin Suster did here. Organizing your resume with columns, like this three-column layout Anton Yermolov used, keeps the information tidy, creates clear divisions between sections, and media role in society helps you keep everything sharply aligned. Use a sidebar in your resume to call attention to health, extra (or extra important) information that you want to highlight. Here, Ola Hamdy used a colored sidebar to separate her personal and contact information from her educational and is Necessary for the Serious Essays professional details. Although this resume design is text-heavy, Gershom Charig mixes things up with a two-color scheme and a word cloud to creatively represent the breadth of health, his skills and States Immigration Review experience. Similar in theory health, function to the word cloud above, various sizes of circles represent Silviu Schiaus proficiency in various areas, such as management and media role design.

The size of the circles corresponds with his amount of experience a fresh way to illustrate core competencies. Labelling Health? Give the person looking at your resume an excuse to find out more about you. Including a link to your website or portfolio (or even a QR code, as Krysten Newby has done here) acts as a good prompt. Training Is Necessary Essays? If your job history includes working for big companies with recognizable logos, feature them on your resume. Theory And Mental Health? Tamas Leb has included space to do so on this resume template, and it makes an on United Immigration Review impressive statement, even at a glance.

For creative resumes, a theme can give you a starting point to build a one-of-a-kind design and labelling and mental think about innovative ways to present your information. Here, Peter Kistemans laboratory theme makes a strong visual statement and Why People Cannot examples gives his artistic background a scientific, experimental dimension. Putting your resume in a folder or other kind of labelling, holder gives you more space to Why People Cannot Ask For Help Essay, showcase your experience and accomplishments, plus the and mental health, extra tactile feature makes it memorable, as with this design from S1M. The vertical timeline on the outside offers an immediate visual representation of the candidates career history. This traditional black, white, and gray design by Strength Essays, Brice Seraphin brightens up quite nicely with some turquoise as an accent.

This can be done with any color (and you may want to tone it down depending on your industry), but vibrant hues have particular impact. Labelling Health? Besides being another nice example of using an accent color, this design by Adam Rozmus keeps things clean and simple, showing that resumes dont have to Essay Policy, be fancy to make a good impression. If competition is labelling and mental health stiff, try standing out Essay States Immigration Policy Review, with a resume package that gives you some space to demonstrate your abilities, develop a personal brand, and include more information than the limited area of labelling, a one-page resume allows for. The Automatic? Here, Sabrae Precure uses a distinct color scheme and labelling theory custom illustrations to Strength for the Essays, stand out from the crowd. This resume by Gabriel Valdivia combines a traditional format (the typical positions, dates, and short descriptions) with pictorial elements that provide a more personal touch.

As if to labelling, say that a normal paper resume just wont cut it, Alison Root got clever with her resume presentation, which demonstrates that she thinks outside the role, box. This sample resume from Rahul Chakraborty features bold typography and bright colors for a high-impact look that will make people take notice. Labelling? There may be times when its ok to let your sense of Essay examples, humor shine through in your resume; it makes you more relatable, more likable. For instance, check out the pronunciation guide Nick Iannuccilli provided for theory and mental health, his difficult last name. Using a border is a good way to The Automatic Millionaire Essay, add a little bit of color to labelling theory, your resume, as Evelien Callens has done here, without worrying about looking unprofessional. Media Role In Society? Stylistically, this design is a good compromise between customary and more creative resumes. The two-color, mostly traditional layout uses graphic elements sparingly but purposefully. And Mental Health? As a nice touch, Dan Hernandez has branded his cover letter with the Training for the Serious Athlete Essays, same style, which is labelling and mental a smart idea if your job application involves submitting multiple documents. Sometimes you have to do what you can to get noticed. For an illustrator like Lucia Paul, hand-drawing her resume is both appropriate for on United States Policy, her industry and gives her a standout way to display her skills.

Big, bold typography, a high-contrast color scheme, and a well-organized presentation all combine to make sure Joao Andrades resume gets looked at. No long-winded explanations of job roles here. Labelling Health? Just the essentials enough to get someone interested in wanting to role in society, know more about labelling theory and mental health Gianina Santiago and her background. Clean, sans-serif fonts, relatively little text, and lots of white space give Maxat Malbekovs resume a sleek look thats easy to achieve if you condense your resume down to Millionaire, only the most relevant information. If you have a lot of information you need to fit on one page, take a tip from labelling theory and mental health this design by Halle Rasco and use easy-to-read fonts and clear headings for each section. Need to keep your resume fairly conservative? A two-column layout with a businesslike blue-gray accent color gives this otherwise traditional resume from ResumeBaker some extra interest. Syril Bobadillas illustrations are whimsical and kid-friendly, and her resume reflects that style. Notice how she also created matching business cards for a cohesive personal brand.

Even if your industry doesnt allow as much creative expression as someone in Why People Cannot Help Essay examples, the arts, you can express your personality in more subtle ways, like through font choices or an accent color. Resumes dont always have to read from left to right, top to bottom. You can play with the layout of your resume to labelling theory, make the best and most visually interesting use of the space you have available, like Milena Filipova has done here. You can use a grid structure to organize your resume and make it easier to Cannot Ask For, navigate, similarly to how Orlando Silva designed this template. If applicable, you might also try including some pieces from your portfolio right on the resume (so your abilities are on display at first glance). As you can see from the examples above, there are many approaches you can take to labelling theory and mental, designing your resume. But no matter what style or format you choose, there are a few things you want to make sure to get right: Readable text Industry-appropriate style (if unsure, play it safe with a conservative design.) Updated and in society accurate information No spelling/grammar errors. Now it#8217;s your turn.

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conrad racist essay Achebe, Chinua. An Image of Africa: Racism in Conrad's 'Heart of Darkness' Massachusetts Review. 18. Labelling Theory And Mental Health! 1977. Rpt. in Heart of Darkness, An Authoritative Text, background and in society, Sources Criticism. Theory And Mental Health! 1961. 3rd ed. Ed.

Robert Kimbrough, London: W. W Norton and Co., 1988, pp.251-261. In the fall of a strategic 1974 I was walking one day from the labelling and mental, English Department at the University of Cannot Ask For Massachusetts to a parking lot. It was a fine autumn morning such as encouraged friendliness to passing strangers. Brisk youngsters were hurrying in theory all directions, many of them obviously freshmen in their first flush of media enthusiasm. An older man going the labelling theory and mental health, same way as I turned and remarked to me how very young they came these days. I agreed. Then he asked me if I was a student too. I said no, I was a teacher. What did I teach? African literature.

Now that was funny, he said, because he knew a fellow who taught the media role, same thing, or perhaps it was African history, in a certain Community College not far from here. It always surprised him, he went on to say, because he never had thought of Africa as having that kind of stuff, you know. By this time I was walking much faster. Oh well, I heard him say finally, behind me: I guess I have to take your course to find out. A few weeks later I received two very touching letters from labelling high school children in Yonkers, New York, who -- bless their teacher -- had just read Things Fall Apart . One of them was particularly happy to learn about the customs and superstitions of an African tribe.

I propose to draw from these rather trivial encounters rather heavy conclusions which at first sight might seem somewhat out of proportion to them. But only, I hope, at first sight. The young fellow from Yonkers, perhaps partly on account of his age but I believe also for The Transformation Radio and Composition Essay examples, much deeper and more serious reasons, is obviously unaware that the life of his own tribesmen in labelling theory and mental health Yonkers, New York, is Training is Necessary for the Athlete Essays, full of odd customs and labelling theory health, superstitions and, like everybody else in which of the following is not decision? his culture, imagines that he needs a trip to labelling theory and mental health Africa to Essay encounter those things. The other person being fully my own age could not be excused on the grounds of his years. Ignorance might be a more likely reason; but here again I believe that something more willful than a mere lack of information was at theory and mental work.

For did not that erudite British historian and Regius Professor at Why People Ask For Essay examples Oxford, Hugh Trevor Roper, also pronounce that African history did not exist? If there is something in these utterances more than youthful inexperience, more than a lack of factual knowledge, what is it? Quite simply it is the desire -- one might indeed say the need -- in Western psychology to set Africa up as a foil to Europe, as a place of labelling negations at once remote and vaguely familiar, in comparison with which Europe's own state of spiritual grace will be manifest. This need is not new; which should relieve us all of considerable responsibility and perhaps make us even willing to look at this phenomenon dispassionately. I have neither the wish nor the Radio and Composition Essay, competence to embark on the exercise with the tools of the social and biological sciences but more simply in the manner of a novelist responding to one famous book of European fiction: Joseph Conrad's Heart of Darkness , which better than any other work that I know displays that Western desire and need which I have just referred to. Of course there are whole libraries of theory and mental books devoted to the same purpose but most of them are so obvious and so crude that few people worry about them today.

Conrad, on the other hand, is undoubtedly one of the great stylists of modern fiction and a good storyteller into the bargain. His contribution therefore falls automatically into Why People Ask For Help Essay a different class -- permanent literature -- read and taught and constantly evaluated by serious academics. Heart of Darkness is indeed so secure today that a leading Conrad scholar has numbered it among the half-dozen greatest short novels in labelling theory health the English language. Which Is Not A Strategic Decision?! I will return to this critical opinion in due course because it may seriously modify my earlier suppositions about who may or may not be guilty in some of the matters I will now raise. Heart of Darkness projects the image of Africa as the other world, the antithesis of labelling theory and mental health Europe and therefore of civilization, a place where man's vaunted intelligence and refinement are finally mocked by triumphant beastiality. The book opens on the River Thames, tranquil, resting, peacefully at the decline of day after ages of good service done to the race that peopled its banks. Strength Training For The Athlete Essays! But the actual story will take place on the River Congo, the very antithesis of the Thames. The River Congo is quite decidedly not a River Emeritus. It has rendered no service and enjoys no old-age pension. We are told that Going up that river was like traveling back to the earliest beginnings of the world. Is Conrad saying then that these two rivers are very different, one good, the other bad?

Yes, but that is labelling theory and mental, not the real point. It is not the differentness that worries Conrad but the lurking hint of kinship, of common ancestry. Training For The Serious Athlete Essays! For the Thames too has been one of the dark places of the earth. It conquered its darkness, of course, and is now in daylight and at peace. But if it were to visit its primordial relative, the Congo, it would run the terrible risk of hearing grotesque echoes of its own forgotten darkness, and falling victim to an avenging recrudescence of the mindless frenzy of the first beginnings. These suggestive echoes comprise Conrad's famed evocation of the African atmosphere in Heart of Darkness . Labelling Theory And Mental Health! In the final consideration his method amounts to no more than a steady, ponderous, fake-ritualistic repetition of two antithetical sentences, one about silence and the other about frenzy. We can inspect samples of role in society this on pages 36 and 37 of the present edition: a) it was the stillness of an implacable force brooding over labelling theory and mental health an inscrutable intention and b) The steamer toiled along slowly on the edge of a black and incomprehensible frenzy. Of course there is a judicious change of adjective from time to time, so that instead of inscrutable, for example, you might have unspeakable, even plain mysterious, etc., etc. The eagle-eyed English critic F. R. Leavis drew attention long ago to Conrad's adjectival insistence upon inexpressible and incomprehensible mystery.

That insistence must not be dismissed lightly, as many Conrad critics have tended to do, as a mere stylistic flaw; for it raises serious questions of artistic good faith. When a writer while pretending to record scenes, incidents and their impact is in reality engaged in which following a strategic operations management​ inducing hypnotic stupor in labelling his readers through a bombardment of emotive words and other forms of trickery much more has to be at stake than stylistic felicity. Generally normal readers are well armed to detect and resist such under-hand activity. But Conrad chose his subject well -- one which was guaranteed not to put him in conflict with the Why People Cannot Help, psychological predisposition of his readers or raise the need for him to labelling health contend with their resistance. Ask For! He chose the role of purveyor of comforting myths. The most interesting and health, revealing passages in Heart of Darkness are, however, about people. I must crave the indulgence of on United States Immigration Policy my reader to quote almost a whole page from about the middle of the stop/when representatives of Europe in a steamer going down the Congo encounter the denizens of Africa. We were wanderers on a prehistoric earth, on labelling, an earth that wore the aspect of an unknown planet. We could have fancied ourselves the first of men taking possession of an accursed inheritance, to be subdued at the cost of profound anguish and of excessive toil. But suddenly as we struggled round a bend there would be a glimpse of rush walls, of peaked grass-roofs, a burst of yells, a whirl of black limbs, a mass of Essay on United States hands clapping, of feet stamping, of bodies swaying, of eyes rolling under the droop of heavy and motionless foliage.

The steamer toiled along slowly on the edge of a black and incomprehensible frenzy. The prehistoric man was cursing us, praying to theory us, welcoming us -- who could tell? We were cut off from the comprehension of our surroundings; we glided past like phantoms, wondering and secretly appalled, as sane men would be before an enthusiastic outbreak in a madhouse. We could not understand because we were too far and could not remember, because we were traveling in following operations management​ the night of first ages, of those ages that are gone, leaving hardly a sign -- and theory, no memories. The earth seemed unearthly. We are accustomed to look upon the shackled form of of Music: and Composition Essay examples a conquered monster, but there -- there you could look at a thing monstrous and free. It was unearthly and the men were . No they were not inhuman. Well, you know that was the labelling and mental health, worst of it -- this suspicion of their not being inhuman.

It would come slowly to one. They howled and leaped and spun and made horrid faces, but what thrilled you, was just the thought of their humanity -- like yours -- the thought of your remote kinship with this wild and passionate uproar. Which Of The Following Is Not A Strategic Operations Decision?! Ugly. Yes, it was ugly enough, but if you were man enough you would admit to yourself that there was in you just the and mental health, faintest trace of a response to the terrible frankness of that noise, a dim suspicion of there being a meaning in it which you -- you so remote from the night of first ages -- could comprehend. Herein lies the meaning of Heart of Darkness and the fascination it holds over Training Serious Essays the Western mind: What thrilled you was just the thought of their humanity -- like yours . Ugly. Having shown us Africa in the mass, Conrad then zeros in, half a page later, on a specific example, giving us one of labelling his rare descriptions of an The Automatic Essay African who is not just limbs or rolling eyes:

And between whiles I had to look after the savage who was fireman. He was an improved specimen; he could fire up a vertical boiler. He was there below me and, upon my word, to look at him was as edifying as seeing a dog in a parody of breeches and theory and mental, a feather hat walking on his hind legs. A few months of training had done for Essays, that really fine chap. He squinted at labelling theory health the steam-gauge and at the water-gauge with an media role evident effort of intrepidity -- and he had filed his teeth too, the poor devil, and the wool of his pate shaved into queer patterns, and three ornamental scars on and mental, each of his cheeks. He ought to have been clapping his hands and is not operations, stamping his feet on the bank, instead of which he was hard at work, a thrall to strange witchcraft, full of improving knowledge. As everybody knows, Conrad is a romantic on the side. He might not exactly admire savages clapping their hands and and mental, stamping their feet but they have at least the merit of being in their place, unlike this dog in a parody of which of the is not a strategic operations breeches. For Conrad things being in their place is of the utmost importance. Fine fellows -- cannibals --in their place, he tells us pointedly.

Tragedy begins when things leave their accustomed place, like Europe leaving its safe stronghold between the policeman and the baker to like a peep into the heart of darkness. Before the story likes us into the Congo basin proper we are given this nice little vignette as an example of things in their place: Now and then a boat from the shore gave one a momentary contact with reality. It was paddled by black fellows. Theory And Mental Health! You could see from Strength Training for the Serious Athlete afar the white of their eyeballs glistening.

They shouted, sang; their bodies streamed with perspiration; they had faces like grotesque masks -- these chaps; but they had bone, muscle, a wild vitality, an intense energy of movement that was as natural and hue as the surf along their coast. They wanted no excuse for being there. They were a great comfort to labelling theory and mental health look at. Towards the end of the story Conrad lavishes a whole page quite unexpectedly on an African woman who has obviously been some kind of role in society mistress to Mr. Kurtz and now presides (if I may be permitted a little liberty) like a formidable mystery over labelling theory the inexorable imminence of his departure: She was savage and superb, wild-eyed and magnificent . She stood looking at us without a stir and like the wilderness itself, with an air of brooding over an inscrutable purpose. This Amazon is drawn in considerable detail, albeit of Training is Necessary Essays a predictable nature, for two reasons. First, she is in her place and theory, so can win Conrad's special brand of approval and second, she fulfills a structural requirement of the story: a savage counterpart to which of the a strategic the refined, European woman who will step forth to end the story: She came forward all in black with a pale head, floating toward me in the dusk.

She was in mourning . Theory! She took both my hands in hers and murmured, I had heard you were coming.. Which Of The Is Not Decision?! She had a mature capacity for fidelity, for labelling, belief, for suffering. The difference in the attitude of the novelist to Strength Training Athlete Essays these two women is conveyed in too many direct and subfile ways to need elaboration. Health! But perhaps the most significant difference is the one implied in the author's bestowal of human expression to the one and the withholding of it from the other. It is clearly not part of Conrad's purpose to Radio confer language on the rudimentary souls of Africa. In place of speech they made a violent babble of uncouth sounds. They exchanged short grunting phrases even among themselves.

But most of the time they were too busy with their frenzy. There are two occasions in the book, however, when Conrad departs somewhat from his practice and confers speech, even English speech, on labelling theory, the savages. For The Serious Athlete Essays! The first occurs when cannibalism gets the better of and mental them: Catch 'im, he snapped with a bloodshot widening of which of the is not a strategic operations management​ decision? his eyes and a flash of sharp teeth -- catch 'im. Give 'im to us.

To you, eh? I asked; what would you do with them? Eat 'im! he said curtly. . . . The other occasion was the health, famous announcement:Mistah Kurtz -- he dead. At first sight these instances might be mistaken for unexpected acts of generosity from Conrad. In reality they constitute some of his best assaults. In the case of the cannibals the incomprehensible grunts that had thus far served them for speech suddenly proved inadequate for which of the following operations management​ decision?, Conrad's purpose of letting the European glimpse the unspeakable craving in their hearts. Labelling! Weighing the necessity for consistency in the portrayal of the dumb brutes against Essay States Review, the sensational advantages of securing their conviction by labelling and mental health, clear, unambiguous evidence issuing out of their own mouth Conrad chose the latter. As for the announcement of Mr. Kurtz's death by the insolent black head in the doorway what better or more appropriate finis could be written to the horror story of that wayward child of civilization who willfully had given his soul to of the following a strategic operations the powers of darkness and taken a high seat amongst the labelling theory health, devils of the land than the in society, proclamation of his physical death by the forces he had joined?

It might be contended, of course, that the attitude to the African in and mental Heart of Darkness is Strength is Necessary for the Athlete Essays, not Conrad's but that of his fictional narrator, Marlow, and that far from endorsing it Conrad might indeed be holding it up to irony and criticism. Certainly Conrad appears to go to considerable pains to set up layers of and mental insulation between himself and the moral universe of his history. He has, for example, a narrator behind a narrator. The primary narrator is Marlow but his account is given to us through the filter of a second, shadowy person. But if Conrad's intention is to draw a cordon sanitaire between himself and the moral and Strength is Necessary Athlete, psychological malaise of his narrator his care seems to me totally wasted because he neglects to theory hint however subtly or tentatively at an alternative frame of Cannot Essay examples reference by which we may judge the labelling and mental health, actions and opinions of his characters. It would not have been beyond Conrad's power to make that provision if he had thought it necessary. Marlow seems to Training is Necessary for the Serious me to enjoy Conrad's complete confidence -- a feeling reinforced by the close similarities between their two careers. Marlow comes through to us not only as a witness of truth, but one holding those advanced and humane views appropriate to the English liberal tradition which required all Englishmen of and mental health decency to be deeply shocked by atrocities in Bulgaria or the of the following is not operations decision?, Congo of King Leopold of the Belgians or wherever. Thus Marlow is able to toss out such bleeding-heart sentiments as these: They were dying slowly -- it was very clear. Labelling Theory! They were not enemies, they were not criminals, they were nothing earthly now, nothing but black shadows of role in society disease and starvation lying confusedly in the greenish gloom.

Brought from all the recesses of the coast in all the legality of time contracts, lost in uncongenial surroundings, fed on unfamiliar food, they sickened, became inefficient, and were then allowed to crawl away and rest. The kind of liberalism espoused here by Marlow/Conrad touched all the best minds of the age in England, Europe and labelling and mental health, America. It took different forms in the minds of different people but almost always managed to sidestep the ultimate question of equality between white people and Essay on United Policy, black people. Theory Health! That extraordinary missionary, Albert Schweitzer, who sacrificed brilliant careers in music and theology in Europe for a life of service to Africans in much the same area as Conrad writes about, epitomizes the is not operations, ambivalence. In a comment which has often been quoted Schweitzer says: The African is indeed my brother but my junior brother. And so he proceeded to build a hospital appropriate to the needs of junior brothers with standards of hygiene reminiscent of medical practice in the days before the germ theory of disease came into being. Naturally he became a sensation in Europe and America. Pilgrims flocked, and health, I believe still flock even after he has passed on, to witness the prodigious miracle in Lamberene, on the edge of the primeval forest.

Conrad's liberalism would not take him quite as far as Schweitzer's, though. He would not use the word brother however qualified; the farthest he would go was kinship. When Marlow's African helmsman falls down with a spear in his heart he gives his white master one final disquieting look. And the intimate profundity of that look he gave me when he received his hurt remains to this day in my memory -- like a claim of distant kinship affirmed in a supreme moment. It is important to note that Conrad, careful as ever with his words, is which of the is not operations decision?, concerned not so much about distant kinship as about someone laying a claim on it. Labelling Theory And Mental Health! The black man lays a claim on the white man which is well-nigh intolerable. It is the laying of this claim which frightens and at the same time fascinates Conrad, . the The Automatic Millionaire, thought of their humanity -- like yours . Ugly. The point of my observations should be quite clear by now, namely that Joseph Conrad was a thoroughgoing racist. That this simple truth is and mental, glossed over in criticisms of his work is due to the fact that white racism against Essay, Africa is such a normal way of thinking that its manifestations go completely unremarked.

Students of Heart of Darkness will often tell you that Conrad is concerned not so much with Africa as with the deterioration of one European mind caused by solitude and health, sickness. They will point out to you that Conrad is, if anything, less charitable to the Europeans in the story than he is to the natives, that the point of the story is to ridicule Europe's civilizing mission in Africa. A Conrad student informed me in in society Scotland that Africa is merely a setting for the disintegration of the mind of Mr. Kurtz. Which is and mental health, partly the point. Africa as setting and Millionaire, backdrop which eliminates the African as human factor. Africa as a metaphysical battlefield devoid of all recognizable humanity, into which the wandering European enters at his peril. Can nobody see the labelling health, preposterous and perverse arrogance in thus reducing Africa to role the role of props for the break-up of one petty European mind? But that is not even the point. The real question is the dehumanization of Africa and Africans which this age-long attitude has fostered and health, continues to The Automatic Essay foster in the world. And the question is whether a novel which celebrates this dehumanization, which depersonalizes a portion of the human race, can be called a great work of art.

My answer is: No, it cannot. I do not doubt Conrad's great talents. Labelling Theory And Mental! Even Heart of Darkness has its memorably good passages and moments: The reaches opened before us and Why People Cannot Essay, closed behind, as if the forest had stepped leisurely across tile water to bar the way for our return. Its exploration of the minds of the European characters is often penetrating and full of insight. But all that has been more than fully discussed in the last fifty years. His obvious racism has, however, not been addressed. And it is high time it was! Conrad was born in 1857, the very year in which the first Anglican missionaries were arriving among my own people in Nigeria. It was certainly not his fault that he lived his life at a time when the labelling theory, reputation of the black man was at a particularly low level.

But even after due allowances have been made for The Automatic Essay, all the influences of contemporary prejudice on theory health, his sensibility there remains still in Conrad's attitude a residue of antipathy to black people which his peculiar psychology alone can explain. His own account of his first encounter with a black man is The Automatic Millionaire Essay, very revealing: A certain enormous buck nigger encountered in labelling and mental health Haiti fixed my conception of blind, furious, unreasoning rage, as manifested in the human animal to the end of my days. Of the nigger I used to dream for years afterwards. Certainly Conrad had a problem with niggers. His inordinate love of that word itself should be of interest to psychoanalysts. Following Is Not Operations Management​ Decision?! Sometimes his fixation on blackness is equally interesting as when he gives us this brief description: A black figure stood up, strode on long black legs, waving long black arms. . . . as though we might expect a black figure striding along on black legs to wave white arms! But so unrelenting is Conrad's obsession. As a matter of theory interest Conrad gives us in A Personal Record what amounts to a companion piece to the buck nigger of Haiti. At the age of sixteen Conrad encountered his first Englishman in Europe.

He calls him my unforgettable Englishman and describes him in the following manner: (his) calves exposed to the public gaze . . . dazzled the beholder by the splendor of their marble-like condition and their rich tone of young ivory. . . . The light of role a headlong, exalted satisfaction with the world of men. . . illumined his face. . Labelling And Mental! . and triumphant eyes. In passing he cast a glance of kindly curiosity and a friendly gleam of big, sound, shiny teeth. . . his white calves twinkled sturdily. Irrational love and irrational hate jostling together in the heart of that talented, tormented man. But whereas irrational love may at worst engender foolish acts of indiscretion, irrational hate can endanger the life of the Essay, community. Theory Health! Naturally Conrad is a dream for psychoanalytic critics. Perhaps the most detailed study of him in media role this direction is by Bernard C. Meyer, M.D.

In his lengthy book Dr. Meyer follows every conceivable lead (and sometimes inconceivable ones) to explain Conrad. As an health example he gives us long disquisitions on the significance of hair and hair-cutting in Conrad. And yet not even one word is spared for Strength Training for the Serious Athlete Essays, his attitude to theory black people. Not even the discussion of Conrad's antisemitism was enough to spark off in Millionaire Dr. Meyer's mind those other dark and explosive thoughts. Which only leads one to surmise that Western psychoanalysts must regard the kind of racism displayed by and mental health, Conrad absolutely normal despite the profoundly important work done by Frantz Fanon in the psychiatric hospitals of French Algeria. Whatever Conrad's problems were, you might say he is now safely dead.

Quite true. Unfortunately his heart of darkness plagues us still. Which Following A Strategic! Which is why an offensive and theory and mental, deplorable book can be described by a serious scholar as among the half dozen greatest short novels in the English language. And why it is today the most commonly prescribed novel in twentieth-century literature courses in English Departments of American universities. There are two probable grounds on which what I have aid so far may be contested. The first is Radio and Composition Essay, that it is no concern of fiction to please people about whom it is written. And Mental Health! I will go along with that. But I am not talking about pleasing people. I am talking about a book which parades in the most vulgar fashion prejudices and insults from which a section of mankind has suffered untold agonies and atrocities in the past and continues to do so in many ways and many places today. I am talking about The Transformation Radio and Composition Essay examples a story in which the very humanity of black people is called in theory question. Secondly, I may be challenged on the grounds of actuality.

Conrad, after all, did sail down the Congo in 1890 when my own father was still a babe in arms. How could I stand up more than fifty years after his death and purport to contradict him? My answer is that as a sensible man I will not accept just any traveler's tales solely on the grounds that I have not made the and Composition Essay, journey myself. I will not trust the evidence even off man's very eyes when I suspect them to be as jaundiced as Conrad's. And we also happen to know that Conrad was, in the words of his biographer, Bernard C. Meyer, notoriously inaccurate in the rendering of his own history. But more important by health, far is the abundant testimony about Conrad's savages which we could gather if we were so inclined from other sources and which might lead us to think that these people must have had other occupations besides merging into the evil forest or materializing out of it simply to plague Marlow and his dispirited band. Of The Is Not Operations Management​ Decision?! For as it happened, soon after Conrad had written his book an event of far greater consequence was taking place in the art world of Europe. This is how Frank Willett, a British art historian, describes it:

Gaugin had gone to labelling health Tahiti, the most extravagant individual act of turning to a non-European culture in the decades immediately before and after 1900, when European artists were avid for new artistic experiences, but it was only about 1904-5 that African art began to make its distinctive impact. One piece is still identifiable; it is a mask that had been given to Maurice Vlaminck in 1905. He records that Derain was 'speechless' and 'stunned' when he saw it, bought it from Vlaminck and in turn showed it to Picasso and Matisse, who were also greatly affected by role, it. Labelling Theory Health! Ambroise Vollard then borrowed it and had it cast in Why People Cannot Essay examples bronze. . . The revolution of twentieth century art was under way! The mask in question was made by other savages living just north of Conrad's River Congo. They have a name too: the labelling, Fang people, and are without a doubt among the is Necessary for the Serious Athlete Essays, world's greatest masters of the and mental, sculptured form. The event Frank Willett is referring to marks the beginning of cubism and the infusion of new life into European art, which had run completely out of strength. The point of all this is to suggest that Conrad's picture of the The Transformation Radio and Composition Essay examples, people of the Congo seems grossly inadequate even at the height of their subjection to theory and mental the ravages of King Leopold's lnternational Association for the Civilization of Central Africa.

Travelers with closed minds can tell us little except about Millionaire Essay themselves. But even those not blinkered, like Conrad with xenophobia, can be astonishing blind. Let me digress a little here. One of the labelling and mental health, greatest and The Automatic, most intrepid travelers of all time, Marco Polo, journeyed to labelling theory and mental health the Far East from the Mediterranean in the thirteenth century and spent twenty years in the court of Kublai Khan in China. On his return to Venice he set down in his book entitled Description of the World his impressions of the peoples and Millionaire Essay, places and customs he had seen. But there were at least two extraordinary omissions in his account. He said nothing about the art of labelling theory and mental health printing, unknown as yet in Europe but in full flower in China. He either did not notice it at all or if he did, failed to see what use Europe could possibly have for it. Whatever the reason, Europe had to of Music: wait another hundred years for Gutenberg. But even more spectacular was Marco Polo's omission of labelling theory and mental health any reference to the Great Wall of Help China nearly 4,000 miles long and labelling health, already more than 1,000 years old at the time of his visit. On United States Immigration Review! Again, he may not have seen it; but the Great Wall of labelling and mental health China is the only structure built by man which is visible from the moon!

Indeed travelers can be blind. As I said earlier Conrad did not originate the image of States Policy Africa which we find in his book. It was and is the dominant image of theory Africa in the Western imagination and Conrad merely brought the role in society, peculiar gifts of his own mind to bear on it. For reasons which can certainly use close psychological inquiry the West seems to suffer deep anxieties about the precariousness of its civilization and to labelling theory and mental have a need for constant reassurance by comparison with Africa. If Europe, advancing in civilization, could cast a backward glance periodically at Africa trapped in primordial barbarity it could say with faith and feeling: There go I but for the grace of God. Africa is to Europe as the role in society, picture is to theory and mental Dorian Gray -- a carrier onto whom the master unloads his physical and moral deformities so that he may go forward, erect and immaculate. Consequently Africa is is not operations management​, something to be avoided just as the labelling theory and mental health, picture has to be hidden away to safeguard the man's jeopardous integrity. Keep away from Africa, or else!

Mr. Kurtz of Heart of Darkness should have heeded that warning and the prowling horror in Millionaire his heart would have kept its place, chained to its lair. But he foolishly exposed himself to the wild irresistible allure of the jungle and lo! the darkness found him out. In my original conception of this essay I had thought to conclude it nicely on an appropriately positive note in which I would suggest from my privileged position in African and Western cultures some advantages the West might derive from Africa once it rid its mind of old prejudices and began to look at Africa not through a haze of distortions and cheap mystifications but quite simply as a continent of people -- not angels, but not rudimentary souls either -- just people, often highly gifted people and often strikingly successful in their enterprise with life and society. But as I thought more about the stereotype image, about its grip and pervasiveness, about the willful tenacity with which the West holds it to its heart; when I thought of the West's television and cinema and newspapers, about and mental health books read in Training for the its schools and out of school, of churches preaching to empty pews about the need to and mental send help to media role the heathen in Africa, I realized that no easy optimism was possible. And there was, in and mental health any case, something totally wrong in offering bribes to the West in return for its good opinion of Africa.

Ultimately the abandonment of unwholesome thoughts must be its own and only reward. Although I have used the Training for the Essays, word willful a few times here to characterize the West's view of Africa, it may well be that what is and mental, happening at Essay Policy this stage is more akin to reflex action than calculated malice. Which does not make the situation more but less hopeful. The Christian Science Monitor, a paper more enlightened than most, once carried an interesting article written by its Education Editor on the serious psychological and learning problems faced by little children who speak one language at home and then go to school where something else is theory and mental health, spoken. It was a wide-ranging article taking in Policy Spanish-speaking children in America, the children of migrant Italian workers in health Germany, the quadrilingual phenomenon in Malaysia, and so on.

And all this while the article speaks unequivocally about language. But then out of the blue sky comes this: In London there is an enormous immigration of children who speak Indian or Nigerian dialects, or some other native language. I believe that the introduction of dialects which is technically erroneous in Strength Training is Necessary Athlete the context is labelling theory and mental, almost a reflex action caused by an instinctive desire of the writer to downgrade the discussion to the level of Africa and India. And this is quite comparable to Conrad's withholding of language from his rudimentary souls.

Language is too grand for The Automatic, these chaps; let's give them dialects! In all this business a lot of violence is inevitably done not only to labelling theory and mental the image of despised peoples but even to words, the very tools of possible redress. Media In Society! Look at the phrase native language in the Science Monitor excerpt. Surely the labelling health, only native language possible in The Automatic Millionaire London is Cockney English. But our writer means something else -- something appropriate to the sounds Indians and Africans make! Although the work of redressing which needs to be done may appear too daunting, I believe it is not one day too soon to begin. Conrad saw and and mental health, condemned the evil of imperial exploitation but was strangely unaware of the media in society, racism on which it sharpened its iron tooth.

But the victims of racist slander who for labelling theory and mental health, centuries have had to States Immigration Review live with the inhumanity it makes them heir to have always known better than any casual visitor even when he comes loaded with the gifts of a Conrad.

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