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PhD thesis University of Copenhagen. Exercise and Sports. PhD thesis published in english at effects steam engine the Department of free hunters Nutrition, Exercise and Sports. 15 September 2017, 13:00. Ursula Kehlet is defending her PhD thesis: Meat and appetite regulation - effects of fiber addition and cooking methods Read more. 13 September 2017, 13:00. Louise Kjølbæk is effects steam engine, defending her PhD thesis: Nutrition, the kano model gut and the microbiome.
Associations with obesity and metabolic markers of obesity-associated diseases Read more. 4 September 2017, 13:00. Peter Elsborg is defending his PhD thesis: Volition and motivation's influence on weight loss maintenance in the period following an of the engine, intensive lifestyle intervention Read more. 1 September 2017, 13:00. PhD defence - Ann-Sophie Iuel-Brockdorff. Ann-Sophie Iuel-Brockdorff is defending her PhD thesis: Acceptability of supplementary foods for children with moderate acute malnutrition and feeding behaviours during home-based treatment Read more. 1 August 2017, 13:00. PhD defence - Afton Marina Szasz Halloran.
Afton Marina Szasz Halloran is defending her PhD thesis: The impact of jerome groopman cricket farming on rural livelihoods, nutrition and the environment in effects steam, Thailand and Kenya Read more. 16 June 2017, 14:00. PhD defence - Annemarie Lundsgaard. Annemarie Lundsgaard is free hunters, defending her PhD thesis: Dietary fat - insulin sensitivity and molecular substrate metabolism Read more. 6 June 2017, 13:00.
PhD defence - Jacob Vorup Petersen. Jacob Vorup Petersen is effects steam engine, definding his PhD thesis: Health and free hunters, physiological adaptations of small-sided team sport games in untrained older adults aged 65-93 years Read more. 1 June 2017, 14:00. Bernardette Cichon is defending her PhD thesis: Morbidity, iron and effects steam engine, anaemia in children with moderate acute malnutrition Read more. 5 May 2017, 14:00. PhD defence - Annette Karen Lundbeck Serup. Annette Karen Lundbeck Serup is defending her PhD thesis: Lipolysis in normative, Skeletal Muscle - Regulation and Insulin Sensitiviy Read more. 26 April 2017, 14:00.
Casper Skovgaard is effects engine, defending his PhD thesis: Intense training as a means to improve running performance in trained runners and the adaption of muscle tissue. The intense exercise response as well as the dynasplint knee effect of effects steam 40 and 120 days of low-frequency intense training, 40 days of high-frequency intense training, tapering and repeated intense training interventions. Read more. 31 March 2017, 13:00. Christian Fabiansen is defending his PhD thesis: Nutritional supplementation of children with moderate acute malnutrition Read more. 15 March 2017, 13:00. Farinaz Raziani is dynasplint knee, defending her PhD thesis: Cheese consumption and risk factors for cardiovascular disease and the metabolic syndrome Read more. 10 March 2017, 13:00.
Trine Blædel is defending her PhD thesis: The Role of Angiopoietin-like protein 4 in Obesity and effects of the engine, Obesity-related diseases Read more. 7 March 2017, 13:00. PhD defence - Markos Tesfaye Woldeyohannes. Markos Tesfaye Woldeyohannes is defending his PhD thesis: Quality of life among people living with HIV in kano model, Jimma, Ethiopia: the role of mental health, food, and nutrition Read more. 3 February 2017, 14:00. PhD defence - Anna Kaufmann Lindqvist. Anna Kaufmann Lindqvist is defending her PhD thesis: Skeletal muscle angiogenesis and its relation to insulin sensitivity Read more. 25 January 2017, 14:45. Eleftheria Morela is defending her PhD thesis: Sport and migrants' acculturation Read more. 16 December 2016, 13:00.
Benedikte Grenov is defending her PhD thesis: The effect of probiotics on diarrhea in of the steam, children with severe acute malnutrition - an kano model, intervention study in Uganda Read more. 14 November 2016, 12:00. Verena Lenneis is defending her PhD thesis: The life, work and recreational physical activity of female cleaners Read more. 11 November 2016, 14:00. Malte Nejst Larsen is defending his PhD thesis: Fitness and Health Effects of Frequent Intense Training in 8-10-year-old Danish Children Read more. 21 October 2016, 13:00. Mads Vendelbo Lind is defending his PhD thesis: The role of of the engine diet in one-carbon metabolism and epigenetics - A metabolic syndrome perspective Read more. 13 October 2016, 14:00. Richard Thomas is defending his PhD thesis: Acute Exercise and Motor memory Consolidation Read more. 23 September 2016, 15:15.
Janne Rasmus Hingst is control, definding his PhD thesis: Glucose uptake and glycogen synthesis in effects engine, recovery from exercise - Molecular mechanisms regulating the dynasplint knee set-point for muscle glucose storage Read more. 30 June 2016, 15:00. PhD defence - Christian Ole Moller Madsen. Christian Ole Møller Madsen is defending his PhD thesis: Badminton specific testing and development of physical on-court exercise capacity in elite youth badminton players Read more. 23 June 2016, 13:00. PhD defence - Esther Babirekere-Iriso. Esther Babirekere-Iriso is effects engine, defending her PhD thesis: Polyunsaturated fatty acid status and physical activity level in children admitted with severe acute malnutrition Read more. 23 June 2016, 13:00. PhD defence - Jane Nygaard Eriksen. Jane Nygaard Eriksen is control, defending her PhD thesis: Metabolism and effects, potential health effects of carotenoids following digestion of dynasplint knee green-leafy vegetables - an effects engine, interdisciplinary approach Read more. 19 May 2016, 15:00.
Henrik Kirk is normative, defending his PhD thesis: Measurement and treatment of passive muscle stiffness Read more. 12 May 2016, 14:00. PhD defence - Andreas M?chel Fritzen. Andreas Mæchel Fritzen is defending his PhD thesis: Emerging roles of AMP-activated protein kinase Read more. 29 April 2016, 14:00. Rasmus Kjøbsted is effects engine, defending his PhD thesis: Role of AMPK in Regulating Muscle Insulin Sensitivity Read more. 25 January 2016, 13:00.
PhD defence - Thomas Rostgaard Andersen. Thomas Rostgaard Andersen is defending his PhD thesis: Recreational Football in dynasplint knee, Veteran Football Players, Untrained Old Men and effects of the steam engine, Men with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Activity Profile, Physiological Response, and Effects of kano model a Life-long Physically Active Lifestyle and Supervised Training Read more. 20 November 2015, 13:00. PhD defence - Tanja Kongerslev Thorning. Tanja Kongerslev Thorning is defending her PhD thesis: Cardiometabolic effects of cheese intake -does fat content and ripening duration matter? Read more. 6 November 2015, 14:00. Lasse Christiansen is effects of the engine, defending his PhD thesis: Motor skill learning and corticospinal excitability A critical appraisal Read more. 7 October 2015, 13:00.
PhD defence - Rasmus Baadsgaard M?rkedahl. Rasmus Baadsgaard Mærkedahl is defending his PhD thesis: Biomarkers of low-grade systemic inflammation: Association with metabolic syndrome and influence of whole grain intake Read more. 23 September 2015, 14:00. Joachim Fentz is dynasplint knee, defending his PhD thesis: AMPKα in exercise-induced substrate metabolism and exercise training-induced metabolic and mitochondrial adaptations Read more. 21 September 2015, 10:15. Mette Korshøj is effects engine, defending her PhD thesis: Physical work demands and fitness - Effects on risk factors for jerome groopman cardiovascular disease from a randomized controlled trial among cleaners Read more. 25 August 2015, 14:00. PhD defence - Morten Hostrup Nielsen. Morten Hostrup Nielsen is effects of the steam, defending his PhD thesis: Acute and chronic effects of ß2-adrenoceptor agonists in in the illiad, relation to exercise performance and doping with emphasis on effects steam, terbutaline Read more.
3 June 2015, 13:00. Line Quist Bendtsen is defending her PhD thesis: Dairy proteins and energy balance Read more. 11 May 2015, 13:00. Peter Erik Lotko Pontoppidan is defending his PhD thesis: Nutrition and gut mucositis in illiad, pediatric oncology Read more. 6 May 2015, 10:00. PhD defence - Thomas Christian Bonne. Thomas Christian Bonne is defending his PhD thesis: Effects of effects steam exercise training on haematology and in the illiad, maximal cardiac output Read more. 4 May 2015, 14:00. Svenja-Maria Mintert is effects steam engine, defending her PhD thesis: Football, Feminisation, Fans: Sociological Studies in a European Context Read more.
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19 February 2015, 14:00. Kasper Skriver is defending his PhD thesis: The Effect of cherokee facts Acute Exercise on Consolidation and Retention og Motor Memory Read more. 19 January 2015, 13:00. Anna Melin is defending her PhD thesis: Energy Availability and Reproductive Function in Female Endurance Athletes Read more. 13 January 2015, 13:00. Sabine Ibrügger is defending her PhD thesis: The effect of wholegrain on appetite. Short- and long-term effects and the potential role of colonic fermentation Read more. 19 December 2014, 13:30. Anne Toksvig Bjerg is defending her PhD thesis: Probiotics and Appetite Regulation Read more. 15 December 2014, 13:00.
PhD defence - Lone Brinkmann Sorensen. Lone Brinkmann Sørensen is defending her PhD thesis: Appetite and energy intake in humans: effect of effects of the engine substitution of food ingredients and foods Read more. 13 November 2014, 14:00. PhD defence - Lasse Gliemann Hybholt. Lasse Gliemann Hybholt is defending his PhD thesis: Vascular function and angiogenesis in kano model, aging and steam, essential hypertension - adaptive response to physical activity and resveratrol supplementation Read more. 7 November 2014, 14:00. Jakob Friis Schmidt is defending his PhD thesis: Cardiovascular adaptations to recreational football training in men with type 2 diabetes, untrained elderly men and in men with prostate cancer receiving androgen deprivation therapy Read more. 31 October 2014, 13:00. PhD defence - Louise Beltoft Borup Andersen.
Louise Beltoft Borup Andersen is kano model, defending her PhD thesis: Dietary patterns in Childhood - Relation to Growth, Obesity and Parental Characteristics Read more. 24 October 2014, 14:00. Monika Judyta Bak is defending her PhD thesis: Determination of glucagon-like peptide-1, glucagon and effects of the, oxyntomodulin in plasma Read more. 10 October 2014, 15:30. Svein Barene is defending his PhD thesis: Soccer and Zumba as health promotion among female hospital employees Read more. 9 October 2014, 13:00. PhD defence - Tsinuel Girma Nigatu.
Tsinuel Girma Nigatu is defending his PhD thesis: Bioimpedance in dynasplint knee, severely malnourished children An emerging method for of the monitoring hydration of children with severe acute malnutrition Read more. 14 August 2014, 14:00. Jørgen Ingebrigtsen is free hunters, defending his PhD thesis: Intermittent interval testing and training for high-level football players Read more. 20 June 2014, 14:00. Peter Hjorth Albers is defending his PhD thesis: Regulation of metabolic signalling in human skeletal muscle - Impact of gastric bypass, insulin and exercise in a muscle fiber type perspective Read more. 20 June 2014, 13:00.
PhD defence - Louise Bergmann Sorensen. Louise Bergmann Sørensen is defending her PhD thesis: The influence of diet on effects of the, children's cognition and performance in school - investigating the effects of healthy school meals in 8-11-year-old Danish children Read more. 12 June 2014, 14:00. Kim Anker Sjøberg is defending his PhD thesis: Microvascular recruitment in insulin resistance Read more. 4 June 2014, 13:00. Lena Kirchner Brahe is defending her PhD thesis: Obesity-related diseases - Dietary modulation of the dynasplint knee gut microbiota Read more. 2 May 2014, 14:00. PhD defence - Maria Willerslev-Olsen.
Maria Willerslev-Olsen is defending her PhD thesis: Spasticity in of the engine, Children with Cerebral Palsy Read more. 2 May 2014, 13:00. Rikke A. Petersen is defending her PhD thesis: Vitamin D status in Danish children - Determinants, effects of school meals, and associations with cardio-metabolic markers Read more. 30 April 2014, 13:00. PhD defence - Sanne Kellebjerg Poulsen. Sanne Kellebjerg Poulsen is defending her PhD thesis: The health effects of the dynasplint knee New Nordic Diet Read more.
31 March 2014, 13:00. Mads Fiil Hjorth is defending his PhD thesis: Movement behaviors in children and indicators of adverse health Read more. 27 March 2014, 14:30. Lykke Sylow Hansen is of the steam, defending her PhD thesis: Involvement of kano model Rac1 and the actin cytoskeleton in insulin- and contraction-stimulated intracellular signaling and glucose uptake in mature skeletal muscle Read more. 21 March 2014, 13:00.
PhD defence - Line Brinch Christensen. Line Brinch Christensen is defending her PhD thesis: Physical activity and health in preschool children - The SKOT cohort study Read more. 20 March 2014, 13:00. Laurine B.S. Harsløf is steam engine, defending her PhD thesis: Determinants of free hunters DHA status and effects of the, functional effects on metabolic markers and immune modulation in early life. Use of jerome groopman single nucleotide polymorphisms to support effects of n-3 LCPUFA Read more. 21 February 2014, 13:00. Jan Stanstrup is defending his PhD thesis: Metabolomics investigation of whey intake: Discovery of markers and biological effects supported by a computer-assisted compound identification pipeline Read more.
17 February 2014, 13:00. Yanqi Li is defending her PhD thesis: Bioactive Milk for effects of the steam Intestinal Maturation in free hunters, Preterm Neonates Read more. 24 January 2014, 13:00. PhD defence - Maj-Britt Schmidt Andersen. Maj-Britt Schmidt Andersen is defending her PhD thesis: Discovery of effects steam engine food exposure markers in urine and evaluation of dietary compliance by untargeted LC-MS metabolomics Read more. 13 January 2014, 13:00. PhD defence - Jutta Kloppenborg Heick Skau. Jutta Kloppenborg Heick Skau is defending her PhD thesis: Preventing undernutrition in jerome groopman, Cambodia - Assessing the effects of improved local complementary food on of the engine, growth Read more.
10 January 2014, 14:00. PhD defence - Peter Moller Christensen. Peter Møller Christensen is defending his PhD thesis: Effects of oxygen delivery, dietary nitrate, intensified training and free hunters, prior exercise on oxygen uptake kinetics and performance in humans Read more. 10 January 2014, 13:00. PhD defence - Katrine Tschentscher Ejlerskov. Katrine Tschentscher Ejlerskov is effects of the, defending her PhD thesis: Body composition at 3-years of indian facts age - The influence of steam early growth, infant feeding and kano model, IGF-I Read more. 20 December 2013, 13:00.
PhD defence - Carl Frederik Hansen. Carl Frederik Hansen is engine, defending his PhD thesis: Bariatric surgery, gut morphology and jerome groopman, enteroendocrine cells - A study on the morphological adaptations after surgery Read more. 18 December 2013, 13:00. PhD defence - Julie Bousgaard Hjerpsted. Julie Bousgaard Hjerpsted is defending her PhD thesis: Cheese and Cardiovascular Health - Evidence from observational, intervention and explorative studies Read more. 29 November 2013, 13:00. Daniela Rago is effects of the steam, defending her PhD thesis: Biomarker identification in cherokee indian, metabolomics of dietary studies on apple and apple products Read more. 22 November 2013, 13:00. PhD defence - Michael Ladegaard Jensen. Michael Ladegaard Jensen is defending his PhD thesis: Antimicrobial and nutritional interventions in of the, early life Read more.
21 November 2013, 13:00. Louise Bruun Werner is dynasplint knee, defending her PhD thesis: Does green feed result in effects engine, healthier dairy products? How can dairy products contribute to a healty and sustainable diet? Read more. 1 November 2013, 10:00. Karina Arnberg is defending her PhD thesis: The effects of milk and milk proteins on risk factors of metabolic syndrome in overweight adolescents Read more. 17 October 2013, 13:00. Kia Halschou Jensen is defending her PhD thesis: Inhibition of intestinal disaccharidase activity by pentoses -with special reference to the uptake of glucose from starch and sucrose and the insulin secretion in humans Read more.
9 October 2013, 13:00. Charlotte Mithril is defending her PhD thesis: Development of a healthy New Nordic Diet Read more. 4 October 2013, 13:00. Mette Frahm Olsen is facts, defending her PhD thesis: Nutritional supplementation of HIV patients. Effects and feasibility of engine a lipid-based nutrient supplement among patients initiating ART in jerome groopman, Jimma, Ethiopia Read more. 12 September 2013, 11:00. Julie Berg Schmidt is defending her PhD thesis: Effects of Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass on effects of the, Energy Expenditure and kano model, Appetite Read more. 6 September 2013, 13:00. Malene Wibe Poulsen is defending her PhD thesis: Dietary Advanced Glycation Endproducts Effects on effects steam engine, risk markers for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease Read more. 27 August 2013, 13:00. Martin Høyer Rose is defending his PhD thesis: Rehabilitation in Parkinson's Disease Read more.
21 August 2013, 13:00. PhD defence - Nina Rica Wium Geiker. Nina Rica Wium Geiker is defending her PhD thesis: Optimizing patient nutrition Read more. 8 July 2013, 14:00. PhD defence - Michael Permin Nyberg. Michael Permin Nyberg is defending his PhD thesis: Vascular function and regulation of athena in the blood flow in resting and contracting skeletal muscle. Effects Of The Engine. Insight from essential hypertension, aging, and physical activity.
Read more. 25 June 2013, 13:00. Andreas Vegge is defending his PhD thesis: Treatment of neonatal short bowel syndrome. Lessons from animal models - development, treatment and facts, translation Read more. 21 June 2013, 13:00. PhD defence - Mette Viberg Ostergaard. Mette Viberg Østergaard is defending her PhD thesis: Amniotic fluid and development of the immature intestine.
Responses to postnatal intake of amniotic fluid in a preterm pig model of necrotizing enterocolitis Read more. 10 June 2013, 14:00. Mads Bendiksen is engine, defending his PhD thesis: Activity profile and jerome groopman, physical demands of ball games for children and adults of both genders - optimizing intermittent testing protocols Read more. 31 May 2013, 10:00. PhD defence - Anina Ritterband-Rosenbaum. Anina Ritterband-Rosenbaum is defending her PhD thesis: The sense of agency. Effects Of The Engine. Movement perception and behavior in jerome groopman, healthy individuals and individuals diagnosed with spastic hemiplegic cerebral palsy Read more. 22 May 2013, 14:00.
Louise Dalgas Høeg is defending her PhD thesis: Regulation of skeletal muscle insulin action in effects, relation to dietary fatty acids and gender Read more. 25 March 2013, 15:00. Birgitte Høier is normative, defending her PhD thesis: Regulation of effects of the steam angiogenesis in human skeletal muscle with specific focus on pro-angiogenic and angiostatic factors Read more. 26 February 2013, 13:00. Gözde Gürdeniz is defending her PhD thesis: Data Handling Strategies in Nutritional Metabolomics illustrated using metabolic states and trans -fat exposures Read more. 22 January 2013, 10:00.
PhD defence - Mahdi Mohammadi-nezhad. Mahdi Mohammadi-nezhad is defending his PhD thesis: Exercise impact on depressed patients’ self: The impact of exercise on physical self-perception and self-esteem of outpatients with depressive disorders in in the, Denmark Read more. 18 January 2013, 10:00. Nicole Thualagant is defending her PhD thesis: Fitness Doping and of the, Body Management. An Explorative Study of Body Investment Practices Read more.
26 November 2012, 14:00. Pia Christensen is defending her PhD thesis: Efficacy and Safety of Low Energy Diets in the Treatment of Older Obese Individuals Read more. 22 November 2012, 14:00. Thomas P. Jerome Groopman. Gunnarsson is defending his PhD thesis: Effects of intensified training on effects of the steam, muscle ion transport proteins and kinetics in relation to cherokee indian facts fatigue development and performance of endurance athletes and soccer players Read more. 12 October 2012, 14:00. Lars Klingenberg is defending his PhD thesis: Acute Effects of of the steam Insufficient Sleep on Energy Balance Read more. 20 September 2012, 14:30. PhD defence - Christian Kirkegaard Pehmoller. Christian Kirkegaard Pehmøller is defending his PhD thesis: Regulation of jerome groopman TBC1D1 and TBC1D4 in effects of the engine, skeletal muscle From mouse to man Read more. PhD defence - Sarah Fredsted Villadsen. Sarah Fredsted Villadsen is defending her PhD thesis: Strategic perspectives on antenatal care.
Development of a participatory antenatal care strengthening intervention in Jimma, Ethiopia Read more. PhD defence - Daniel Faurholt-Jepsen. Daniel Faurholt-Jepsen is defending his PhD thesis: The Double Burden. The role of diabetes for tuberculosis risk, manifestations, treatment outcomes and jerome groopman, survival Read more. 5 July 2012, 13:00. Brynjulf Mortensen is steam, defending her PhD thesis: The impact of the jerome groopman intrauterine environment, exercise and physical inactivity on the skeletal muscle AMPK system and downstream targets Read more. 25 June 2012, 14:30. Tue Hvass Petersen is defending his PhD-thesis - Development of Neural Control of effects steam engine Human Gait Read more. 3 May 2012, 13:00. PhD defence - Mette Landau Brab?k Christiansen. Mette Landau Brabæk Christiansen is defending her PhD thesis: Regulation of lipid metabolism in skeletal muscle - Insights from human cell culture and rodent models Read more.
16 March 2012, 12:30. PhD defence - Jonas Moller Kristensen. Jonas Møller Kristensen is defending his PhD-thesis - Role of free hunters metformin in regulation of AMPK activation, glucose uptake and effects engine, mitochondrial function in dynasplint knee, skeletal muscle and of the steam, adipose tissue Read more. Department of Nutrition, Exercise and Sports. PhD thesis published in Danish by Department of Nutrition, Exercise and Sports, University of Copenhagen.
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Nov 17, 2017 Effects of the steam engine,
Uniqueness and Importance of Medieval Music Essay. The musical component of the medieval period is noted to have been one of the most important musical experiences in history. Every aspects of medieval music that have survived left legacies that deeply impact both the sacred and secular musical structure of today. Nonetheless, the music that permeated at that period has tangibly contributed in the musical heritage and tradition of present day society, most especially those of the Catholic Church. In this regard, it is therefore an imperative to look back on the historical overview of medieval music and its importance in the field of music as a whole. Medieval Music Medieval music is identified as the steam, music that permeated in Europe during the middle or medieval ages. Jerome Groopman. The said era covered the steam, periods ranging from the Roman Empire’s fall and ascent of Gregory the free hunters, Great to papacy, until approximately the early fifteenth century. This form of of the steam engine music excludes that of the Byzantine Empire, which is noted to have a separate development. Basically, medieval music is cherokee indian divided into two principal categories: the effects of the, sacred and secular. As Christianity was a dominant force during the medieval era, entire musical style was developed in athena illiad order to support it. Therefore, sacred music was either inspired or set by the biblical text.
Sacred music was originally composed in effects engine order to pay homage to God. Unlike sacred music, secular music has not been observed early in the said period. Yet medieval secular music played a significant role during the medieval period as it was created for the purpose of its entertainment value such as for indian facts dance or expressing ones love, which deeply reflects the of the steam, lifestyle during that era (“Medieval music: Birth of polyphony”). Early Medieval Sacred Music Chant. The earliest body of song documented from the medieval period was the chant, which is sometimes referred to as plainchant or plainsong. Chant is a monophonic, or music with just one part, which has been the earliest form of music used by the Catholic church. Illiad. The account of the nun Egeria from her pilgrimage to Jerusalem from circa 400 AD was noted as the earliest evidence of plainchant practice. The account includes descriptions pertaining to psalms and singing (Cyrus). The evolution of chant was accounted to various regional liturgies like the Roman, Gallican, Celtic, Ambrosian, Mozarabic and the likes. Likewise, the traditions of the Byzantine Church as well as the Jewish synagogue’s psalm singing were pointed as strong influences in the emergence of effects steam chants (“Medieval music”). Over the next years, the practice of chant continued to normative develop until it became an important component in the mass and office that is familiar among the students of the medieval church (Cyrus).
It is effects of the engine noteworthy that the kano model, adaptation of engine chant in jerome groopman the liturgical practice was a result of the religious reforms spearheaded by Charlemagne, who perceived the church as an effects of the important body that would enable him to unify his empire. He then replaced the regional varieties of plainsong with a single unified version. According to biographers, approximately in the ninth century Charlemagne decided to athena ask for the supervision of Rome in order to have the doctrinally unified versions of the chant. The resultant liturgical practice is commonly known as the “Gregorian Chant,” which is acknowledged as the central musical tradition in Europe during the medieval period (“Medieval music” n. p. Effects Engine. ). Gregorian chant was named so in honor of Pope Gregory I, who is believed to have organized around 3,000 melodies for the Roman Catholic worship. Such form of chant interblend ancient melodies, coming from the oral traditions of sources like Greek, Hebraic and Eastern, with the early Christian churches liturgical prayers (Pen). Dynasplint Knee. It is believed that many of the effects of the steam engine, Gregorian chants were written in the western monasteries during the reign of Charlemagne (“Medieval music”). The music of the church is divided into athena in the illiad chants used for the mass and for the office. Chants for the mass are a combination of celebrating the word of God and the Holy Eucharist, while chants for the office or ordinary are those that are part of the churches daily services which includes psalms and prayers. The text that change daily are known as “proper,” while the stable texts which are repeated for most of the church services are tagged as “ordinary” (Cyrus n. p. Of The Steam Engine. ). Plainchant fuses text and tunes so as to function as a prayer, while the Latin text serves as the musical rhythm dictator in order for the text and tune to exactly correspond with each other. Normally, the melodic contour of such music is shaped by the words direction, which is set syllabically, making the text understandable.
Other chants are also set in a melismatical manner where in “one syllable is sustained over several notes” for illiad the purpose of ornamenting and emphasizing important syllables (Pen 119) and neumatic melodies where the music contains two to five notes for each syllable. Every service is embedded with a mixture of the said styles, making the liturgical action more dramatic (Cyrus). Notation The Carolingian cantors adapted almost four thousand chants every church year. In order to organize the imported chants they developed systems that organize the musical materials involved. Engine. As music during the early medieval period was not written down, the pressures of memorizing every song is free hunters perhaps the very reason why the Carolingian cantors created the system of notation. The system of church modes, wherein chants are classified according to their range, central pitch or final and melodic idioms were also developed. Alongside with the development of of the steam engine notation systems, liturgical books became widespread, regularizing the liturgical practice (Cyrus). Notation Improvements By the end of the ninth century until the 12th century both composers and performers created means for the liturgical process to prosper. Various feasts were developed alongside with new chants.
Liturgical compositions from the past were copied through the use of a new system known as staff notation which was developed by Guido of kano model Arezzo. Such notation was able to specify pitches of a melody through the combination of staff or set of effects of the steam horizontal lines and free hunters, one or more clefs in order to identify the pitches of the chant. Guido also created a sightsinging system involving solmization, a process where pre-assigned syllables are used for certain pitches (Cyrus). Additionally, other improvements in the sacred medieval music were observed such as the polyphony. Early polyphony As plainchant was sung slowly and without rhythm or harmony, perhaps sacred composers grew weary of the chants and began experimenting with their music by adding musical lines in order to create harmony. This is known as polyphonic music, which gave birth to of the engine harmony. Cherokee Indian. Around the end of ninth century, monastery singers like Switzerland’s St. Gall added voice in effects of the parallel motion to normative the chant, wherein they can sing in perfect musical intervals of the fourth and fifth together with the original tune.
Such development is known as “organum,” which is considered as the beginning of “counterpoint,” an important feature of music where “two or more melodic strands occur simultaneously” (“Medieval music” n. p. ). From then on, the organum developed into several ways. The “Florid organum” is one of the most significant forms of organum that was developed around 1100 in the south-west of France. Also referred to as the school of St. Martial, named after a monastery in France that is noted to have the best-preserved manuscripts of effects steam such musical style, “Florid organum” is incorporated within the chants in such a way that the original tune is being sung in long notes, while another voice would serve as an accompaniment by singing many notes to each of the original piece that is often done in “highly elaborate fashion” in kano model order to further emphasize the perfect consonances of the effects steam engine, music (“Medieval music”n. p. ). Middle Medieval Music. Subsequent developments of the organum took place in England, specifically at Notre Dame in Paris, which is said to be the center of free hunters musical creativity all through the 13th century.
The emergence of the Notre Dame School of Polyphony around 1150 until 1250 is said to be the vehicle for a more modernized form of the organum, and paved way for the beginning of “Ars Antiqua”—a period in which rhythmic notation is recognized in the Western music; a period that greatly applies the method of rhythmic notation which is known as the rhythmic modes (“Medieval music” n. p. ). Basically, Notre Dame organum employs three distinct rhythmic styles that adheres to the rhythmic modes: (1) “organum purum” wherein both upper and of the steam, lower voice freely moves without a specific rhythm to follow, (2) “copula” which upper voice moves in accordance to a strict rhythm while the lower voice moves freely, and (3) “discant” wherein both the upper and lower voice follows a strict rhythm (Cyrus n. p. ). Also this period, the athena, concept of formal structure emerged, allowing composers to become more attentive with proportions, architectural effects and musical texture. Composers of the said period created various musical forms such as the “clasulae,” melismatic (technique of placing several noted in a single syllable of engine text) parts of the organa are extracted and fitted with new wordings so as to improve musical elaboration; the “versus’ or the “monophonic conductus” has a structure known as strophic, wherein the music is repeated for each successive stanza of the liturgical reading or poetry; and the “trope” where new musical and indian facts, textual materials are added to a pre-existing liturgical composition, most especially the introductory chants of the mass and of the, the short chants of the ordinary. Trope singers, which are usually soloist, can come before, in the middle or after the host chant or choral; they simply amplify the meaning of the original composition. In some cases, tropes inject dialog and cherokee, short interludes within the music; as such, they are though to be the effects of the, forerunners in control the field of liturgical drama which also emerged in this period (Cyrus n. p. ). Effects. “Sequence” also emerged during the era of liturgical consolidation in the medieval period. “Sequence” is identified as a separate form of choral composition that follows the dynasplint knee, Alleluia during mass.
Credited to Notker Balbulus, sequence is a syllabic genre that contains irregular phrase lengths. In this type of chant genre, the musical lines normally contain one to four clauses, while the entirety of the music is often repeated before starting a new musical material (Cyrus n. p. ). The “motet” is profoundly one of the most significant forms of music created during the steam engine, Middle Ages, specifically during the early parts of the Notre Dame period. Made out jerome groopman, of the effects of the steam, clausula, motet is normative focused on the usage of multiple voices, as stated by European composer, Perotin. Motet was further developed into a greater form of musical elaboration and sophistication during the 14th century which is noted as the era of “Ars Nova” (“Medieval Music”). Secular Music Although the effects steam engine, plainchant was dominant in the sacred musical landscape of the middle age, other musical forms were used for the purpose of secular expression (Pen 119). Dynasplint Knee. Secular music existed in the shadow of secular music during the medieval period as most of the steam, music scribes in this era were inclined in the creation of sacred music. Likewise, Medieval secular music was usually passed along orally and are rarely written down. As such, only limited number of composition has survived. Athena In The. Nonetheless, those existing copies of secular music serve as a vehicle for present day people to view the life at of the steam engine court in town during Middle Age.
One of the earliest surviving music in jerome groopman secular form was accounted to effects of the engine the Goliards, who are wandering poet-musicians in Europe during the normative control, tenth until the mid-thirteenth century. Their secular compositions were consolidated in an early thirteenth century musical collection known as the of the steam, “Carmina Burana. ” However, due to kano model the unclear notation, the reconstruction of the actual secular melodic sounds created by the Goliards was impossible, except for some pieces that have similarities with sacred music (Cyrus n. p. Effects Of The Engine. ). Normative. Most of the poetry created by the Goliards are secular in form, while some songs celebrate religious ideals and others are notably profane that tackles drunkenness, lechery as well as debauchery (“Medieval Music”). The secular music of the Troubadours of southern France and the Trouveres of the northern region are said to be the largest collection of secular music. The music created by the said groups are from steam engine their poems and utilized the kano model, vernacular tradition of effects of the steam engine monophonic secular music that are probably accompanied by varying instruments and performed by professionals ranging from skilled poets, singers and instrumentalists. Likewise, their poems have adopted the language of their regions—Troubadours used lyrics written in Occitan also referred to as old Provencal or langue d’oc while the Trouveres used old French or langue d’oil. The music of the Troubadours was complimentary with the cultural life of Provence. Typically, their music describes war, courtly love and chivalry. Troubadour musical period lasted through the jerome groopman, twelfth century until the first decade of the thirteenth century. The abrupt end of the Troubadour period was accounted to the Albigensian crusade, a campaign spearheaded by Pope Innocent III, which aims to eliminate Albigensian heresy, thererby eliminating the whole civilization of the Troubadours. Troubadour survivors of the effects of the engine, fierce campaign migrated to Spain, Northern France or Northern Italy, where their musical inclination is said to athena have contributed in the secular music tradition of the said places (“Medieval Music”).
The music of the Trouveres, on the other hand, was similar to that of the of the, Troubadours. However, they were unaffected by the extermination directed towards the Albigenses unlike the Troubadours, allowing their music to survive until the thirteenth century. Most of the 2,000 surviving songs of the Trouveres showed musical sophistication that deeply highlights the poems it accompanied. Other than the Goliards, Troubadours and Trouveres, vast numbers of secular songs were also composed by civilization such as the in the illiad, Minnesingers, who are said to of the engine be the facts, German counterpart of the effects of the engine, Troubadours and Trouveres, and the Flagellants, who were noted for the geisslelieder songs that aims to free hunters appease the anger and wrath of God through this penitential music along with the mortification of their bodies (“Medieval Music”). University/College: University of Chicago. Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter. Date: 3 February 2017. Let us write you a custom essay sample on Uniqueness and Importance of Medieval Music. for only $16.38 $13.9/page.
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Free Information Technology essays. Information technology continues to have an ever-growing impact upon society and the way that society conducts its affairs. Information and communications technologies have spread out in almost in every professional, commercial and industrial activity and most organizations would find it difficult, if not impossible, to function without relying heavily on these technologies. On the other hand, information and communications technologies have posed and continue to create novel and complex social and legal problems. Frequently, the law has been found wanting when dealing with the effects steam engine issues raised by these constantly evolving technologies, and kano model legislators and steam the courts have often struggled to come to dynasplint knee terms with the effects of the challenges raised by free hunters them. An understanding of the steam engine legal issues involved remains of key importance to persons and jerome groopman organizations concerned with information and communications technology, and it is effects of the engine, only armed with such understanding that they can satisfactorily address and cater for the problems raised by the development and use of these technologies.
Success in dynasplint knee, any field of human activity leads to crime that needs mechanisms to engine control it. Legal provisions should provide assurance to users, empowerment to law enforcement agencies and deterrence to criminals. The law is as stringent as its enforcement. Crime is no longer limited to space, time or a group of people. Free Hunters? Cyber space creates moral, civil and criminal wrongs. It has now given a new way to express criminal tendencies. Back in 1990, less than 100,000 people were able to log on to the Internet worldwide. Now around 500 million people are hooked up to surf the net around the effects steam engine globe. In many cases, law enforcement officers have lacked the tools needed to tackle the kano model problem; old laws didn't quite fit the crimes being committed, new laws hadn't quite caught up to the reality of what was happening, and there were few court precedents to look to for guidance. Furthermore, debates over privacy issues hampered the ability of enforcement agents to gather the evidence needed to prosecute these new cases. Effects Of The Steam? Finally, there was a certain amount of antipathy or at the least, distrust between the two most important players in any effective fight against cyber crime: law enforcement agencies and computer professionals.
Yet close cooperation between the two is crucial if we are to control the cyber crime problem and make the Internet a safe 'place' for facts, its users. Law enforcement personnel understand the steam criminal mindset and know the basics of gathering evidence and kano model bringing offenders to justice. IT personnel understand computers and networks, how they work, and how to track down information on them. Each has half of the key to defeating the cyber criminal. IT professionals need good definitions of cybercrime in order to know when (and what) to steam engine report to athena illiad police, but law enforcement agencies must have statutory definitions of specific crimes in order to charge a criminal with an offense.
The first step in specifically defining individual cybercrimes is to sort all the acts that can be considered cybercrimes into organized categories. In this assignment I will be focused on various aspects of the issues and situations in cyber space, the types of cyber crimes, cyber crimes in effects of the steam, various jurisdictions and criminal justice system in Sri Lanka. Jerome Groopman? In further understanding I would like to state that, the cyber crimes in cyber space I will explain as social issues in cyber space. SOCIAL ISSUES AND CYBER SOCIAL ISSUES. In Sri Lanka we can identify some special social issues in ordinary circumstances. I will list out those as follows:- ' Age and the life course.
' Education and public schools. ' Work and occupations. ' Health and medicine. ' Alcohol and drugs. ' Crime and the justice system. Now I would like to effects of the list out the cyber crime issue in cyber space as follows:- ' Source Code Theft (Stealing Computer Programs) ' Denial of Service Spreading Virus Malicious Codes.
' Defamation Social Networking Abuse(eg. FACEBOOK etc) ' Email related crimes. ' Intellectual Property crimes- software piracy, copyright infringement, trademarks violations. According to these two lists we can identify that the social issues in control, ordinary circumstances and in cyber space are quiet different. Therefore we have to go into depth here for recognized major cyber issues in relation to the criminal justice system in Sri Lanka. Cyber crime is the latest and perhaps the most complicated problem in the cyber world. 'Cyber crime may be said to be those species, of effects steam which, genus is the dynasplint knee conventional crime, and effects of the where either the dynasplint knee computer is an object or subject of the conduct constituting crime. 'Any criminal activity that uses a computer either as an instrumentality, target or a means for perpetuating further crimes comes within the ambit of cyber crime' The computer may be used as a tool in the following kinds of activity - financial crimes, sale of illegal articles, pornography, online gambling, intellectual property crime, e-mail spoofing, forgery, cyber defamation, cyber stalking.
The computer may however be target for unlawful acts in the following cases- unauthorized access to computer/ computer system/ computer networks, theft of information contained in the electronic form, e-mail bombing, data diddling, salami attacks, logic bombs, Trojan attacks, internet time thefts, web jacking, theft of computer system, physically damaging the of the steam engine computer system. United Nations' Definition of Cybercrime. Cybercrime spans not only state but national boundaries as well. Perhaps we should look to international organizations to provide a standard definition of the crime. At the Tenth United Nations Congress on the Prevention of Crime and dynasplint knee Treatment of Offenders, in a workshop devoted to the issues of crimes related to computer networks, cybercrime was broken into two categories and defined thus: a. Cybercrime in a narrow sense (computer crime): Any illegal behavior directed by means of electronic operations that targets the security of computer systems and the data processed by them. b. Effects? Cybercrime in a broader sense (computer-related crime): Any illegal behavior committed by means of, or in relation to, a computer system or network, including such crimes as illegal possession and offering or distributing information by means of a computer system or network. In the present global situation where cyber control mechanisms are important and we need to push cyber laws but the real issue is how to prevent cyber crime. Cherokee? For this, there is of the steam, need to raise the probability of apprehension and conviction. For this Sri Lanka needs total international cooperation with specialized agencies of different countries. Jerome Groopman? Police has to ensure that they have seized exactly what was there at the scene of crime, is the same that has been analyzed and the report presented in court is based on this evidence. It has to effects maintain the chain of custody.
The threat is not from the intelligence of kano model criminals but from our ignorance and the will to fight it. The law is stricter now on producing evidence especially where electronic documents are concerned. CLASSIFICATION OF CYBER CRIMES. The subject of cyber crime may be broadly classified under the of the steam following four groups. 01.
Against Individuals. i. Harassment via e-mails. iii. Dissemination of dynasplint knee obscene material. v. Unauthorized control/access over computer system. vi. Indecent exposure. vii. Email spoofing. viii. Cheating Fraud.
02. Against Individual Property: - i. Computer vandalism. ii. Transmitting virus. iii. Unauthorized control/access over computer system. iv. Intellectual Property crimes. v. Internet time thefts. 03. Against Organization: - i. Of The Engine? Unauthorized control/access over computer system.
ii. Possession of athena illiad unauthorized information. iii. Cyber terrorism against the government organization. iv. Distribution of pirated software etc. 04. Effects Of The? Against Society at dynasplint knee large: i. Pornography (basically child pornography). ii.
Polluting the youth through indecent exposure. iv. Financial crimes. v. Sale of illegal articles. vi. Online gambling. TYPES OF CYBER CRIMES AND SOCIAL ISSUES IN CYBER SPACE.
' Unauthorized access to computer systems or networks / Hacking- This kind of offence is of the steam engine, normally referred as hacking in the generic sense. However the framers of the information technology act 2000 have no where used this term so to avoid any confusion we would not interchangeably use the word hacking for 'unauthorized access' as the latter has wide connotation. ' Theft of information contained in electronic form-This includes information stored in computer hard disks, removable storage media etc. Theft may be either by appropriating the data physically or by tampering them through the virtual medium. ' Email bombing-This kind of activity refers to sending large numbers of normative control mail to the victim, which may be an individual or a company or even mail servers there by ultimately resulting into crashing. ' Data diddling-This kind of an attack involves altering raw data just before a computer processes it and effects then changing it back after the processing is completed. The electricity board faced similar problem of data diddling while the department was being computerized. ' Salami attacks- This kind of crime is normally prevalent in the financial institutions or for the purpose of free hunters committing financial crimes. An important feature of this type of offence is that the alteration is so small that it would normally go unnoticed.
' Denial of Service attack-The computer of the victim is flooded with more requests than it can handle which cause it to crash. Distributed Denial of Service (DDOS) attack is also a type of denial of service attack, in which the offenders are wide in number and widespread. Effects Engine? E.g. Amazon, Yahoo. ' Virus / worm attacks-Viruses are programs that attach themselves to a computer or a file and then circulate themselves to other files and to other computers on free hunters, a network. They usually affect the data on a computer, either by altering or deleting it. Worms, unlike viruses do not need the host to attach themselves to. They merely make functional copies of themselves and do this repeatedly till they eat up all the available space on a computer's memory.
E.g. love bug virus, which affected at least 5 % of the of the steam engine computers of the globe. The losses were accounted to be $ 10 million. The world's most famous worm was the Internet worm let loose on the Internet by athena in the illiad Robert Morris sometime in 1988. ' Logic bombs-These are event dependent programs. This implies that these programs are created to do something only when a certain event occurs.
' Trojan attacks-This term has its origin in steam engine, the word 'Trojan horse'. In software field this means an dynasplint knee, unauthorized programme, which passively gains control over another's system by representing itself as an of the steam engine, authorized programme. The most common form of kano model installing a Trojan is effects, through e-mail. E.g. a Trojan was installed in dynasplint knee, the computer of a lady film director in the U.S. while chatting. The cyber criminal through the web cam installed in the computer obtained her nude photographs. He further harassed this lady. ' Internet time thefts-Normally in these kinds of thefts the Internet surfing hours of the victim are used up by another person. This is done by gaining access to the login ID and the password. ' Web jacking- This term is derived from the term hi jacking.
In these kinds of offences the hacker gains access and control over the web site of another. He may even mutilate or change the information on the site. This may be done for fulfilling political objectives or for money. ' Phishing It is the process by which someone obtains private information through deceptive or illicit means in order to falsely assume another person's identity. The Phisher will use spoofed emails to lead the recipient to counterfeit websites. Once here, the victim is tricked into divulging credit card information, account usernames and passwords, social security numbers, etc. E.g. Verify your account'. Businesses should not ask to send passwords, login names, or other personal information through e-mail. If we receive an e-mail message from Google asking you to update your credit card information, it is a phishing scam.
' Intellectual Property rights violations. Intellectual property law is important because it is the key to effects protecting innovation in computer hardware and software in its widest sense. Intellectual property rights, which are include copyright, the athena in the illiad law of confidence, design rights, trade marks, patents and regulations to protect integrated circuits etc. These rights provide a basic framework of protection from piracy and plagiarism for computer programs, databases and effects steam engine works created using a computer and works or other information created, stored, made available online and transmitted digitally. ' Face Book issue. Cyber Social networks are popular platforms for interaction, communication and collaboration between friends. Facebook as one of these social networks has become a popular social medium among contemporary Sri Lankan youth. But in today's context this face book becomes a nuisance to the society. Because, in dynasplint knee, past there were some suicide issues in effects of the engine, relation to the Facebook.
On the other hand, a massive attack was carried out through 'Facebook' against normative Muslims in Sri Lanka. 'There are some peoples attempt to interpret suicides committed by four young women during the past two months as deaths that occurred due to 'Facebook'. Certain media had reported these deaths as 'another death due to 'Facebook'. There is a dialogue in the society as well regarding these events. Engine? Now the intention of the government in Sri Lanka to ban 'Facebook' using the suicide committed by a married woman at Padukka, the deaths of Inusha Imandi of Kothalawala, Kurunegala, Dinishika Kannangara of Pitigala in Elpitiya and the student at Polpithigama should be recognized. One of the four deaths was due to dynasplint knee an illicit affair. There had been various incidents that have been reported due to illicit affairs. Of The Steam? The girl at Kurunegala committed suicide due to jerome groopman frustration as a result of the punishment meted out to her. The death of the young woman at Pitigala was due to the love industry created by the present society. Present day young women have been subjected to an inferior complex that only beautiful people can have love affairs. It is of the steam engine, a result of the love commercial industry created by capitalism.
The suicide committed by the student at Polpithigama was due to the absence of a person for cherokee indian facts, her to discuss her frustration and mental stress. There fore on of the engine, one hand these kinds of useless actions are happening not because of face book. People should have the free hunters responsibility to protect their lives and they have a duty to maintain a privacy with these social networks. According to reports compiled by psychiatrists and researchers Sri Lanka is placed 11th in the number of of the engine suicides committed in the world. Annually about 4000 commit suicide in free hunters, the country. The number of suicides by young people in of the steam engine, Sri Lanka is higher. We are placed 5th in suicides by young people. Our country is placed 2nd in suicides by dynasplint knee young women and effects steam girls aged between 10 and 29. Latest research reports state that when one person commits suicide 20 others attempt suicide. It is also stated that the number of jerome groopman suicides is low due to emergency health care.
The reason for many of these suicides is steam engine, poverty, failure in examinations, breaking down of love affairs, drunkenness, domestic quarrels and athena in the illiad violence, abuse, marginalizing and effects of the steam engine mental sickness. But in majority position of the society is going against with these social networks like face book and twitter etc. However these kinds of free hunters issues become major social issues in cyber space. ' Social and cultural issues relating to the gender and ICT. In our society there are lots of gender discrimination situations. Especially in relation to the ICT there are some social issues like accessibility of the ICT to women and the harassments using ICT. Engine? Women tend to normative control have less access than men to those ICT facilities that do exist.
Frequently, rural information centers or cyber cafes are located in places that women may not be comfortable frequenting. Steam Engine? Since most communications facilities in rural areas are shared public access, women also have problems of time. Given multiple roles and cherokee indian heavy domestic responsibilities, their leisure hours are few, and the centers may not be open when women can visit them. Or they may be open evenings, when it is problematic for women to visit them and return safely to their homes in the dark. Their mobility to access to effects of the transport to those areas are also more limited than that of men. Some accommodations that may be needed to ensure gender equality in access and use of ICTs are adaptation of schedules to suit women's hours and availability of women support staff and trainers. Another cultural aspect of gender and ICTs is gender bias in attitudes towards women studying or using information technology. Dynasplint Knee? Throughout the world, there are problems in attracting young women to science and technology studies. The problem is worse in Africa than in any other region. 'Many (predominantly male) math and science teachers in Africa hold outmoded views that girls cannot think or work scientifically and that science is too mechanical and technical for effects of the steam, girls, thus discouraging female students' In some Pacific countries (especially those of Melanesia) traditional cultural attitudes discriminate against women having access to education and technology.
Girls are encouraged to take any job or get married rather than seek higher education. The alternative of doing two things at the same time is kano model, not realistically entertained. Sometimes collateral cultural factors, other cultural attitudes based in gender bias, and not the effects steam engine immediate gender identification of technology use, prevent young girls and women from accessing and using ICTs. In Uganda, girls did not get access to the limited number of computers installed in school because of the socio-cultural norm that 'girls do not run.' As a result, boys ran and got to the computers first and refused to give them up to girls. 'In India, in the well-known 'whole in the wall' experiment, the aggressiveness of boys pushing away girls prevented the cherokee facts girls from using the computers' Above acts we can consider as the major cyber crimes and social issues in cyber space in world. In the sense of criminal justice system in Sri Lanka we can identify another major issue as cyber terrorism. Now I will explain the cyber terrorism in a broader perspective. DEFINITION OF THE CYBERTERRORISM.
Defines cyber terrorism as The use of computer network tools to shut down critical national infrastructure (such as energy, transportation, government operations) or to coerce or intimidate a government or civilian population The United States Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) defines 'Terrorism as the unlawful use of effects of the steam engine force or violence, committed by athena a group(s) of two or more individuals, against effects of the engine persons or property, to intimidate or coerce a government, the civilian population, or any segment thereof, in furtherance of political or social objectives'. Since cyber terrorism covers a vast area of technical aspects it is required to know the exact differences between the following: i. Hacker: A term used by some to mean a clever programmer and by others, especially those in popular media, to mean someone who tries to break into computer systems. ii. White hat: A hacker, who identifies a security weakness in a computer system or network but, instead of taking malicious advantage of it, exposes the normative weakness in steam engine, a way that will allow the system's owners to fix the breach before it can be taken advantage by others. iii.
Black hat: A hacker who breaks into a computer system or network with malicious intent. Unlike a white hat hacker, the black hat hacker takes advantage of the break-in, perhaps destroying files or stealing data for some future purpose. The black hat hacker may also make the exploit known to other hackers and/or the public without notifying the victim. This gives others the opportunity to exploit the vulnerability before the organization is able to secure it. iv. Grey hat: A hacker who exploits a security weakness in a computer system or product in control, order to bring the weakness to the attention of the owners. Unlike a black hat, a grey hat acts without malicious intent. The goal of a grey hat is to improve system and network security. However, by effects steam publicizing vulnerability, the free hunters grey hat may give other hackers the opportunity to engine exploit it. This differs from the white hat who alerts system owners and vendors of vulnerability without actually exploiting it in public.
v. Phishing: An e-mail fraud method in which the perpetrator sends out legitimate-looking email in an attempt to gather personal and financial information from recipients. Typically, the messages appear to come from well-known and trustworthy Web sites. Indian Facts? Web sites that are frequently spoofed by phishers include PayPal, eBay, MSN, Yahoo, BestBuy, and America Online. A phishing expedition, like the fishing expedition it's named for, is a speculative venture. The phisher puts the effects engine lure hoping to fool at least a few of the prey that encounter the bait. vi. Rootkit: A collection of tools or programs that enable administrator-level access to a computer or computer network. Typically, a hacker installs a rootkit on a computer after first obtaining user-level access, either by exploiting a known vulnerability or cracking a password. Once the rootkit is installed, it allows the attacker to dynasplint knee mask intrusion and gain root or privileged access to the computer and, possibly, other machines on the network. vii.
Spam: The use of electronic messaging systems to send unsolicited bulk messages, especially advertising, indiscriminately. Effects Of The? While the most widely recognized form of spam is e-mail spam, the term is in the, applied to similar abuses in other media: instant messaging spam, Usenet newsgroup spam, Web search engine spam, spam in steam, blogs, wiki spam, online classified ads spam, mobile phone messaging spam, Internet forum spam, junk fax transmissions, social networking spam, social spam, television advertising and file sharing network spam. viii. Spyware: Any technology that aids in in the, gathering information about a person or organization without their knowledge. On the Internet (where it is sometimes called a spybot or tracking software), spyware is a programme that is effects steam, put in someone's computer to secretly gather information about the user and relay it to advertisers or other interested parties. Spyware can get in a computer as a software virus or as the result of installing a new program.
ix. Trojan horse: A program in which malicious or harmful code is contained inside apparently harmless programme or data in such a way that it can get control and do its chosen form of damage, such as ruining the file allocation table on your hard disk. A Trojan horse may be widely redistributed as part of a computer virus. x. Facts? Virus: A program or programming code that replicates by being copied or initiating its copying to another program, computer boot sector or document. Viruses can be transmitted as attachments to an e-mail note or in a downloaded file, or be present on a diskette or CD. The immediate source of the e-mail note, downloaded file, or diskette you've received is usually unaware that it contains a virus. A virus that replicates itself by resending itself as an e-mail attachment or as part of a network message is of the, known as a worm. THE MAJOR HACKING EVENTS WORLD EXPERIENCED. Hacking has been around for decades. During the 1960s, the kano model word hacker grew to prominence describing a person with strong computer skills, an extensive understanding of effects how computer programs worked, and a driving curiosity about computer systems.
Hacking, however, soon became nearly synonymous with illegal activity. While the first incidents of hacking dealt with breaking into phone systems, hackers also began diving into computer systems as technology advanced. Today's crimes are often financially-motivated fraud. Facts? There are some major hacking incidents that made some of the biggest headlines in effects steam, history. In 1994: Russian hackers siphon $10 million from Citibank and jerome groopman transfer the money to engine bank accounts around the world. Vladimir Levin, the 30-year-old ringleader, uses his work laptop after hours to transfer the funds to accounts in Finland and Israel. Normative? Levin stands trial in the United States and steam engine is sentenced to three years in dynasplint knee, prison. In 1996: i. Hackers alter Web sites of the United States Department of Justice (August), the CIA (October), and the U.S. Air Force (December). ii.
Canadian hacker group, Brotherhood, breaks into the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation. iii. The U.S. General Accounting Office reports that hackers attempted to break into of the, Defense Department computer files some 250,000 times in 1995 alone. According to the report about athena illiad 65 percent of the attempts were successful. In 1997: i. A 15-year-old Croatian youth penetrates computers at effects steam a U.S. Air Force base in Guam. ii. First high-profile attacks on kano model, Microsoft's Windows NT operating system. In 1998 : i. Effects Engine? January: Yahoo notifies Internet users that anyone visiting its site in recent weeks might have downloaded a logic bomb and worm planted by hackers claiming a logic bomb will go off if Kevin Mitnick is not released from prison. ii.
Ethnic Tamil guerrillas swamped Sri Lankan embassies with over 800 e-mails a day for more than two weeks. The messages read as 'We are the Internet Black Tigers and cherokee we're doing this to disrupt your communications.' Intelligence authorities characterized it as the first known attack by terrorists against effects steam a country's IT infrastructure. In 1999 : i. Jerome Groopman? Software security goes main stream in the wake of Microsoft's Windows 98 release, year 1999 become a banner for security (and hacking). Hundreds of advisories and effects of the steam patches were released in response to cherokee facts newly found (and widely publicized) bugs in Windows and other commercial software products. A host of security software vendors release anti-hacking products for use on home computers. ii. The Melissa worm is released and quickly becomes the most costly malware outbreak to date. iii. 'Level Seven' hacks The U.S Embassy in China's Website and places racist, anti-government slogans on embassy site in regards to 1998 U.S. embassy bombings.
In 2000 the I LOVE YOU worm, also known as VBS/Love letter and Love Bug worm, is a computer worm written in VB Script. Engine? It infected millions of computers worldwide within a few hours of its release. It is considered to be one of the most damaging worms ever. It originated in the Philippines; made by an AMA Computer College student for his thesis. In 2010: i. UN department of safety and security hacked by Turkish hacker DigitALL(1923Turk)Mirror Link. ii.
The Stuxnet worm is kano model, found by VirusBlokAda. Stuxnet was unusual in that while it spread via Windows computers, its payload targeted just one specific model and type of SCADA systems. It slowly became clear that it was a cyber-attack on Iran's nuclear facilities - with most experts believing that Israel was behind it - perhaps with US help. In one of the first events to effects steam really bring 'hacktivism' to kano model the attention of the mainstream press, it was reported that some of the documents stolen by Anonymous revealed HB Gary Federal was working with Bank Of America(BOA) to respond to Wikileaks' planned release of BOAs internal documents. 40. The HB Gary documents detailed some planned shady tactics, including launching a 'dirty tricks' campaign against Wikileaks and disrupting a Salon.com reporter who was assumed to be sympathetic to effects engine Wikileaks. SRI LANKAN EXPERIENCES OF CYBER TERRORISM. Sri Lanka, for dynasplint knee, the second time in three years, grabbed the attention of cyber security experts when a new computer virus started circulating around the engine globe last week.
In its original form, the virus displays a message box entitled Mawanella and copies itself to the hard disk and thereafter replicates itself, copying the virus code to free hunters all out-going email messages from the infected computer. The virus code is of the, based on the now infamous Love Bug virus, which originated from the Philippines, in 1997. LTTE cyber attack on Sri Lanka Army website. Kano Model? Sri Lankan Army site 'assassinated' by of the steam rebels 'Horrible' and 'gruesome'[1st May 2009] Sri Lanka Army's official news wing, (www.army.lk) has been illegally hacked and technically 'assassinated' by suspected Tiger terrorists or their proxies, during the kano model wee hours on Friday (1st May), inserting some horrible and gruesome images, .This new form of information 'terrorism' is a criminal offence that can be subjected to prosecution, according to steam engine international legal provisions. Normative? The attack on steam engine, the www.army.lk site sent army technicians scrambling to remove the content. By Friday afternoon California time, the site appeared to be running normally. Another government website has been hacked by dynasplint knee suspected Tiger rebels the government. Effects? Information Department said. The government news portal www.Lankapuvath.lk has come under a cyber .Attack this morning by jerome groopman the suspected LTTE hackers.
SRI LANKAN CRIMINAL JUSTICE SYSTEM. GOVERNMENT'S PERSPECTIVE SRI LANKA'S LEGISLATIONS ON CYBER ISSUES. The law regarding Legal Security and Copy Right Laws in Sri Lanka based on the English law. Both English law and Sri Lankan laws are having common features in regarding to the e-media. Effects Steam Engine? Furthermore in Sri Lanka there is no any difference between domestic law and the international law regarding cyber-terrorism. There are several legislations which passed by the Parliament recently. i. Information and jerome groopman Communication Technology Act (No.27 of effects of the steam 2003) ii. Evidence (Special Provisions) (Act No.14 of 1995) iii. Intellectual Property Act (No. 36 of 2003 (Sections related to Copyright) iv.
Electronic Transactions Act (No. 19 of 2006) v. Computer Crimes Act (No. 24 of 2007) vi. Payment And Settlement Systems Act, (No. 28 of 2005) vii. Payment Devices Frauds Act (No.30 of 2006) Information and Communication Technology Act (No.27 of 2003)
This act is developed to improve ICT and cherokee facts resolve its disputes efficiently. In UK there are several laws as Computer Misuse Act (1990), Trade Marks Act (1994), Defamation Act (1996), Data Protection Act (1998), the Copyright and Related Regulations (1996), Electronic Communication Act (2000), Telecommunications Regulations (1999), 'The Consumer Protection (Distant Selling) Regulations (2000) By this act it establishes a national committee on Information and effects of the steam Communication Technology in Sri Lanka and to introduce a national policy on free hunters, ICT and for steam, the preparation of an kano model, action plan. Intellectual Property Act (No. 36 of 2003 (Sections related to Copyright) We are mainly considering regarding the effects engine copy rights sections of this act. According to the act Copyright means the rights given by law to the creators for their literary and artistic works. The rights take two forms. i. Economic rights. ii. Jerome Groopman? Moral rights.
Copyright protects the rights of the effects engine authors of literary and facts artistic works and ensures them the economic benefits and recognition thereby promoting creativity in literary and artistic fields and investment. Effects Steam? Such creations enhance economic development, education, culture, and enjoyment of life. When it comes to the Cyber terrorism it deals with the software matters or any matter which related to computers. Electronic Transactions Act (No. 19 of 2006) This act deals with the creation and dynasplint knee exchange of data messages, electronic documents, electronic records and other communications in electronic form in Sri Lanka.
And it provides for the appointment of effects a certification authority and accreditation of certification service providers. Computer Crimes Act (No. 24 of 2007) This is an dynasplint knee, act to provide for the identification of computer crime and to steam engine provide the procedure for the investigation and jerome groopman prevention of such crimes; and to provide for matters connected there with and incidental. The Sri Lankan Computer Crimes Act No.
24 of 2007 primarily addresses computer-related crimes and hacking offences. Content related offences are being addressed through a series of effects of the steam engine changes to the Penal Code and other statutory provisions. Cultures globally are progressively reliant on information and facts communication technologies (ICT) and thus susceptible to risks such as cyber-crime which comprises a misuse of technological innovation. To deal with this element Sri Lanka introduced the Computer Crimes Act No. 24 of 2007 which was introduced into functional impact from July 15, 2008.
Apart from offering a better way of life for community the fast growth of ICT increases essential questions regarding storage space of private details, privacy, data protection and crime. Computer systems are not only focused for criminal activity but are also important equipment used in the commission payment of other violations such as fraud, scams, forgery, damage, removal of business details and ruin of computer features, etc. The phrase 'Computer Crime' is steam engine, a common phrase used to free hunters recognize all criminal offenses or scammers that are linked with or related to computers and it. Generally computer crime consists of three components. They are:- i. Computer Related crimes ' Computers used as a tool for criminal activity such as theft, fraud, etc. ii. Hacking offences ' which affects integrity, availability and of the steam engine confidentiality of in the illiad a computer system or network (also includes the introduction of viruses, worms etc). iii.
Content related Cyber Crime ' where computers together with Internet resources are used to distribute illegal data. E.g.;- Internet based pornography, criminal copyright infringement. Sri Lankan Computer Crime act is content with 38 chapters. Effects? All those rules and regulation are discussed in the Computer Crime Act. Any person who obtains unauthorized access to a computer or network (Computer hacking and cracking), modification of a computer or network unlawfully, offences committed against athena in the national security, dealing with data unlawfully obtained illegal interception of data, using of illegal device, unauthorized disclosure of information enabling access to a service are the offences defined under sections 3 to 10 of the Act respectively. It states: i. The illustrations given in the Act states that for any unauthorized modification or damage or potential damage to take place, any one of the following should occur ' ii. Impairing the operation of any computer, computer system or the reliability of any data or information held in any computer; or.
iii. Destroying, deleting or corrupting or adding, moving or altering any information held in any computer; iv. Making use of engine a computer service involving computer time and data processing for the storage or retrieval of data; v. Introducing a computer program which will have the effect of malfunctioning of a computer or falsifies the cherokee facts data or any information held in any computer or computer system (eg:- viruses, worms, etc). Other than that following offences also include in computer crime act. Unauthorized obtaining of information from of the engine a computer or a storage medium; unauthorized use of computer service and interception of data; selling, importing or distributing any device or computer access code or password for the commission of offences under the Act; providing access information to a service without authority or in breach of a contract.
Section 15 16 of the act describes regarding the investigations in connection with offences under the kano model same Act. To achieve this objective, the act has been included allowing a board of professionals to assist the Cops in the research computer crime activity offences. In terms of the role imagined for professionals they will believe legislation only of the, when their assistance is called for. The Act encourages the professionals with specific abilities, such as visiting the scene of crime for jerome groopman, purposes of investigation, to effects of the engine access and analyze computers, data or information organized in a computer, etc. A panel of cherokee indian experts will be appointed by the Minister-in-charge of the subject of Science and Technology. Qualifications, experience and remuneration of such experts are explained in the section 17 of the Act. Section 18 of the act states that such experts called upon to assist any police officer shall have power to enter any premises along with a police officer not below the rank of a sub-inspector, access any information system, computer or computer system or any program, data or information held in such computer to perform any function or to do any such other thing, require any person to disclose any traffic data, oral examination of any person, do such other things as may be reasonably required for the purpose of the same Act. Further section 19 21 also describe that if preservation of information reasonably required for the purposes of investigations, expert or Police officer has powers to effects of the arrest, search and seize any information accessible within any premises without a warrant in the course of free hunters investigation.
Section 23, section 24, section 28 and section 29 is related to the duties of the investigator. Section 28 provides immunity from legal proceedings against experts (who are peace officers under the section 29 of the effects of the steam engine Act) and Police officers appointed for investigations under the Act. Section 33 of the Act provides where a request is made to the Government of Sri Lanka, by or on behalf on facts, another Government for the purpose of extradition of the person accused or convicted of an offence under this Act the Minister shall forthwith notify the effects engine requesting Government of the measures which the Government of Sri Lanka has taken, or proposed to dynasplint knee take to effects of the steam engine extradite the person for that offence. Free Hunters? Rights of non-resident persons arrested under this Act specified under Section 34 of the Act. Under section 35 of the effects of the steam engine Computer Crime Act the provisions of the Mutual Assistance in free hunters, Criminal Matters Act No. 25 of 2002 are applicable for the investigation and effects steam engine prosecution of the offences under the Computer Crime Act. Other computer related offences are: i. Publication of an obscene article electronically may be a criminal offence under amended section 2 of the Obscene Publication Ordinance, No. Jerome Groopman? 22 of 1983. ii. Section 286B of the Penal Code (Amendment Act No.
16 of 2006) introduced the offence as it is a duty of person providing service by computer to prevent sexual abuse of a child and person who contravenes the same shall be guilty of an offence. iii. Further, storing or distribution of child phonography by e-mail and the Internet may be an offence under section 286(c) of the steam Penal Code (Amendment) No. 22 of 1995 read with provisions under Electronic Transactions Act No. 19 of 2006. However, it is jerome groopman, time to bring new amendments to effects steam the same law avoiding certain unnecessary disputes that arise over interpretation of dynasplint knee creation of pseudo-photographs under this Ordinance.
When compared to other countries legislative enactments on Cyber Crimes, the adequacy of Sri Lankan legislation need to effects of the engine be examined the kano model provisions of Computer Crimes Act No 24 of of the steam engine 2007 in the view of Indian legislations. Sri Lanka legislative enactment on Cyber Crimes is Computer Crimes Act No 24 of 2007and Indian legislation is jerome groopman, Information Technology Act 2000 and its Amendment Act on 2008 which is effects steam, known as the Cyber law. Securing unauthorized access to a computer is an dynasplint knee, offence and under Section 2 of the Sri Lankan Computer Crimes Act and also by Section 1(2) of the Indian IT Act state that a person can commit an offence being in the country or being outside of the country and also the affected media can be in or outside the country. By Section 75 of the effects of the Indian IT Act the offender can be of other nationality if he commits the offence to an Indian located computer or network. Therefore both India and Sri Lanka have extended its legislative applications to identify offenders even outside of their jurisdictions. Jerome Groopman? Section 3 of the of the Sri Lankan Computer Crimes Act covers unauthorized access and similarly the Indian IT Act covers it under the cyber security of indian facts Section 2 of the Act. Section 6 of the Sri Lankan Computer Crimes Act defines that offences committed against the national security, the steam engine national economy or public order shall be guilty of an offence. Indian IT Act covers this area under Section 70 of normative control its Act. Illegal interception of effects of the engine data is an kano model, offence under Section 8 of the effects of the steam engine Sri Lankan Computer Crimes Act and Section 9 states that using of illegal devices is an offence and for committing this offence using a computer password or access code to access the computer is athena, sufficient. Similarly using another's password or unique identification code is a punishable offence under the Section 66C of the of the steam engine Indian IT Act. Part II of the Sri Lankan Computer Crimes Act deals with investigations procedures and jerome groopman appointment of panel of experts for such investigations.
Code of Criminal Procedure Act, No. 15 of 1979 applies for the Section 15 and appointment of a panel of effects of the steam engine experts is normative, stated under Section 17 (Code of Criminal Procedure Act No.15, 1979). Experts in this section are persons who are having electronic engineering or software engineering qualifications to assist Police Officers. Comparatively the Indian IT Act applies Indian Code of Criminal Procedure 1973 for effects engine, investigations. Both Sri Lankan Computer Crimes Act and the Indian IT Acts have provided provisions to appoint computer emergency response teams termed as Sri Lanka CERT and athena in the Indian CERT respectively. Punishments by ways of fines and imprisonment are key features of provisions of both Sri Lankan and Indian computer crimes legislations and the minimum and maximum periods of imprisonments have been defined. However Indian IT Act provides a separate chapter on offences. Chapter 38 of the Intellectual Property Act No.36 of 2003 defines the Offences and Penalties against violation of Intellectual Property Rights and these provisions are applicable for effects steam engine, Intellectual Property Rights violations in cyber space as well. Under the Sri Lanka Telecommunications Act No. 25 of 1991 'Intrusion', 'interception and disclosure of contents of message' by telecommunication officials, other than in the course of his duty are offences under sections 52-54 of the Act.
Usage information means information relating to kano model the identity of calling subscriber, called subscriber, date and time of originating of steam message and the type of message for the purpose of sections 52 and 54. Offences under this Act are cognizable offences. Section 12 explains on Confidentiality of information obtained in the course of an normative, investigation. Even though Sri Lanka currently has Methods on fighting criminal activity like the method against interaction that increases national hate, the new law is to help deal with these concerns better. And we still need more exercising and attention. Sri Lanka is completely helpful of the strategy implemented by the authorities of European countries and is efficiently looking at the alternatives to steam accede to the meeting.
Initial actions have already been started by the government in this relationship and it is predicted that formal conversation would started with the Council of European countries for this objective, during 2009. ACTIONS TAKEN BY THE SRI LANKAN GOVERNMENT. With the rapid development of the Internet, many economies are now increasingly dependent on cherokee indian, public network applications such as online banking, online stock trading, e-business, e-government and steam engine e-customs. The protection of the indian facts various national information infrastructures that make up this new and engine emerging e-economy is critical to free hunters a country's political and economic stability and security. The need to protect these critical national information infrastructures is also urgent. Attacks on information infrastructures are increasing in frequency, sophistication and scale. For example, the Code Red II Internet worm integrated characteristics of a computer virus, Trojan, Worm and Hacking activity to propagate quickly across the Internet and of the steam infect massive numbers of host computers. When discussing the Sri Lankan situation it is a must to gain an idea on dynasplint knee, the background. Sri Lanka's telecommunication regulator is Telecommunication Regulatory Commission Sri Lanka (TRCSL) and its main objective is to ensure the availability of advanced and high quality service throughout the country at an affordable price.
TRCSL directly engage with the steam telecommunication service providers to ensure the aim is being achieved and jerome groopman also regulates the services given by drafting policies in the field of telecommunication. Information and Communication Technology Agency of Sri Lanka who is a fully owned organization of the Sri Lankan government work along with TRCSL in implementing the policies, building up ICT related infrastructure and ICT training with the aim of engine building Sri Lanka A IT save country. With funding of the World Bank ICTA is conducting programmes to jerome groopman develop ICT infrastructure and it has been a major contributor in achieving the country's development objectives through the of the steam engine growths related to Connectivity, Accessibility and Content. Sri Lanka's Network Readiness Index has risen significantly during the recent past years and comparing it with Pakistan a similar South Asian developing country Sri Lanka is in a comprehensive status. These development projects have made a significant change to the society at large and jerome groopman through this positive transformation there are some unavoidable drawbacks too. The newborn IT educated younger generation is involving in cyber related crimes more often and due to this vulnerabilities are growing within the networks To address this urgent need, countries have established Incident Response Teams and in Sri Lanka the national CERT is the SLCERT (Sri Lanka Computer Emergency Readiness Team) which is a fully owned subsidiary of ICTA (Information and Communication Technology of Sri Lanka). A national CERT (Computer Emergency Readiness Team) is an organization which acts as the of the focal point for Cyber Security of a nation. It can be taken into consideration as the dynasplint knee most trusted source of advice about the latest threats and vulnerabilities affecting computer systems and effects steam networks and a source of expertise assistance in responding to free hunters recovering from cyber attacks. Since the inception of Sri Lanka CERT in 2006 the rate of incident reporting has increased rapidly and to prove that in 2010 it was only 151 whereas in of the, 2011 it was 1469 and all these incidents have been resolved satisfactorily. Type of Incident No. Hate/Threat Mail 3.
Unauthorized Access 3. Intellectual property violation 5. Social Network Accounts 1,425. SLCERT provides its expertise through consultancy services to the government organizations, non government organizations, various institutions and individuals. There they provide technical consultancy through ethical hacking and penetrant testing, and issues a security certification for the network's security level.
Furthermore they provide legal consultancy if needed at an incident. The present Sri Lankan legislation does not specifically cover Cyber Crimes to jerome groopman meet the global standards where as the Indian legislation has mostly addressed the effects engine Cyber Crimes issue. The conclusion stresses the fact that the existing legislation and in the illiad litigation is not merely sufficient to overcome these ever increasing crimes but also find new security measures in addition to the existing ones to override the hackers and engine strengthen the computer systems from normative control possible cyber attacks. Traditional crime has long ago moved online. Crimes like money laundering, child pornography, sexual exploitation of children, sale and trafficking of illegal drugs, prostitution, internet fraud, credit card fraud, illegal gambling, hate propaganda, racism crimes, intellectual property theft, piracy harassment, stalking threats, extortion identity theft and many more. Cybercrime is rather a novel aspect of criminal activity to the Sri Lankan society. With the advancement of information technology and of the engine knowledge of computer science in Sri Lankans, some individuals have turned cybercrime as a mean of acquiring wealth in normative control, an unlawful and undetected manner and also to achieve political and social status. Cybercrime is mostly committed by the educated youth. There has been an increasing of effects steam engine cybercrime complains within the last year according to the Sri Lanka, Computer Emergency Response Team (SLCERT).
In the recent past, an illiad, increase in the number of cyber-criminal activities in Sri Lanka had been observed. A representative of SLCERT said that most complaints are related to hacking of passwords, stealing of information, demanding ransoms in steam, addition to Facebook and credit card related crimes. Cyber crimes in Sri Lanka has made a major topic due to various reasons, most effecting reason is the lack of implementation of dynasplint knee already enacted policies and steam engine regulations which is being put up to regulate the illegal activities in cyberspace and the mitigate the misconducts but in Sri Lanka most of them are being ignored by the law enforcement authorities and due to kano model that criminals are acting without any consent. The liability of the Government is to make sure that nationwide systems are protected and have not been occupied. To accomplish this, the countries internet actions need to be harmonized both on an institutional stage and effects region and provincial stages and indian this has to of the steam be led by the top organization for internet protection in Sri Lanka CERT. One of the arguments, which are always advanced to justify this stand of non-enactment, is that 'the measures suggested are not adequate to deal with the problem'. It must be appreciated that 'something is better than nothing'. The ultimate solution to normative any problem is not to steam engine enact a plethora of kano model statutes but their rigorous and dedicated enforcement.
The courts may apply the effects engine existing laws in a progressive, updating and purposive manner. It must be appreciated that it is not the 'enactment' of a law but the kano model desire, will and efforts to effects of the accept and kano model enforce it in effects steam, its true letter and spirit, which can confer the most strongest, secure and safest protection for cherokee, any purpose. The enforcement of of the these rights requires a 'qualitative effort' and jerome groopman not a 'quantitative effort'. Thus, till a law dealing expressly with cyber terrorism is enacted, we must not feel shy and hesitant to use the existing provisions. If this essay isn't quite what you're looking for, why not order your own custom Information Technology essay, dissertation or piece of coursework that answers your exact question? There are UK writers just like me on hand, waiting to help you. Each of of the us is qualified to dynasplint knee a high level in our area of expertise, and we can write you a fully researched, fully referenced complete original answer to of the engine your essay question. In The Illiad? Just complete our simple order form and you could have your customised Information Technology work in your email box, in of the, as little as 3 hours. This Information Technology essay was submitted to cherokee indian facts us by a student in order to help you with your studies. This page has approximately words. If you use part of this page in effects steam, your own work, you need to provide a citation, as follows:
Essay UK, Social Issues And Cyber Social Issues . Athena In The Illiad? Available from: http://www.essay.uk.com/free-essays/information-technology/social-issues-cyber-social-issues.php [05-10-17]. If you are the original author of this content and no longer wish to have it published on of the, our website then please click on the link below to request removal: Essay UK offers professional custom essay writing, dissertation writing and coursework writing service. Kano Model? Our work is high quality, plagiarism-free and delivered on time. Essay UK is a trading name of Student Academic Services Limited , a company registered in England and of the steam Wales under Company Number 08866484 . Registered Data Controller No: ZA245894.
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Nov 17, 2017 Effects of the steam engine,
closed business plan Write a Winning Business Plan. B usiness P lanning. What are the Benefits? Every wholesale, retail, and/or service business can benefit from the preparation of a carefully written business plan. There are two main purposes for writing that plan. There is an engine, additional benefit if you do business internationally.
Your business plan will serve as your guide during the lifetime of indian facts your operation. It is the blueprint of your business and will provide you with the tools to analyze your operation and of the steam, implement changes that will increase your sales and, ultimately, your profitability. A business plan is a requirement if you are planning to seek financing. It will provide potential lenders or investors with detailed information on all aspects of your company's past and current operations and provide future projections. If you do business internationally, a business plan provides a standard means of indian evaluating your products' business potential in effects steam a foreign marketplace. Business Plan Outline.
The following pages provide a suggested outline of the cherokee indian material to be included in your business plan. Your final plan may vary according to of the engine, your specific needs or individual requirements of control your lender or investor. Cover Sheet (Serves as the title page of your business plan) Name, address, and phone number of the effects of the steam company. Name, title, address, phone number of owners/corporate officers. Month and year your plan was prepared. Name of preparer.
Copy number of the plan. Table of Contents (Quick reference to normative, major topics covered in effects of the steam your plan) The executive summary is the abstract of your business plan. It summarizes the indian facts content and of the, purpose of jerome groopman your finished plan, covering all of the key points. This is a key section if you are seeking funding. Your Company (introductory overview - who, what, where it is and why it is unique) Market Opportunity (opportunities your company is effects of the engine positioned to dynasplint knee, take advantage of)
Capital Requirements, Breakdown of Uses of effects of the steam Funds, Repayment of Loan or Benefits to kano model, Investors. (include only if you are seeking funding) Management (who they are and strengths each one brings to the company) Competitors (direct and indirect); list their strengths and weaknesses. Your Company's Competitive Advantages. Financial Projections (summary of Income Statement Projections for next 3 years) Note : Write the steam engine executive summary after you have completed your business plan. It is a summary. Part I: The Organizational Plan.
What is normative control included? This section should include a summary description of your business statement followed by effects of the information on the administrative end of your company. Summary Description of the Business. In a paragraph or two give a broad overview of the nature of your business, telling when and why the company was formed. Control? Then complete the summary by briefly addressing:
mission (projecting short- and effects of the engine, long-term goals) business model (describe your company's model and why it is unique to your industry) strategy (give an overview of the strategy, focusing on short- and long-term objectives) strategic relationships (tell about dynasplint knee, any existing strategic relationships) SWOT Analysis (strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and of the steam, threats that your company will face, both internal and external) Products or Services. If you are the manufacturer and/or wholesale distributor of a product: Describe your products. Dynasplint Knee? Tell briefly about your manufacturing process. Include information on suppliers and availability of materials. If you are a retailer and/or an e-tailer: Describe the products you sell. Include information about your sources and handling of inventory and fulfillment.
If you provide a service: Describe your services List future products or services you plan to provide. Address Copyrights, Trademarks, and Patents. Back up in Supporting Documents with registrations, photos, diagrams, etc. Describe your projected or current location. Project costs associated with the location.
Include legal agreements, utilities forecasts, etc. in engine Supporting Documents. Note: If location is important to marketing, cover in Part II - The Marketing Plan. Describe your legal structure and free hunters, why it is advantageous for your company. List owners and/or corporate officers describing strengths (include resumes). List the people who are (or will be) running the effects of the engine business. Describe their responsibilities and abilities. Project their salaries. (Include resumes in Supporting Documents) How many employees will you have in what positions? What are the necessary qualifications?
How many hours will they work and at what wage? Project future needs for adding employees. Accounting: What system will you set up for daily accounting? Who will you use for a tax accountant? Who will be responsible for periodic financial statement analysis? Legal: Who will you retain for an attorney? (Keep 'Murphy's Law' in cherokee indian mind.)
What kinds of insurance will you carry? (Property Liability, Life Health) What will it cost and who will you use for of the engine, a carrier? Address security in terms of inventory control and theft of normative information (online and off). Project related costs. Part II: The Marketing Plan. What is engine a marketing plan?
The Marketing Plan defines all of the components of your marketing strategy. You will address the details of your market analysis, sales, advertising, and public relations campaigns. The Plan should also integrate traditional (offline) programs with new media (online) strategies. Overview and Goals of Your Marketing Strategy. Target Market (identify with demographics, psychographics, and niche market specifics) Competition (describe major competitors assessing their strengths and weaknesses. Market Trends (identify industry trends and customer trends) Market Research (describe methods of research, database analysis, and results summary) General Description (budget % allocations on- and off-line with expected ROIs)
Method of cherokee indian Sales and Distribution (stores, offices, kiosks, catalogs, d/mail, website) Packaging (quality considerations and packaging) Pricing (price strategy and competitive position. Database Marketing (Personalization) Sales Strategies (direct sales, direct mail, email, affiliate, reciprocal, and viral marketing) Sales Incentives/Promotions (samples, coupons, online promo, add-ons, rebates, etc.) Advertising Strategies (traditional, web/new media, long-term sponsorships) Public Relations (online presence, events, press releases, interviews) Networking (memberships and leadership positions) Description of of the steam Customer Service Activities. Expected Outcomes of Achieving Excellence.
Implementation of Marketing Strategy. Out-Sourced Functions (advertising, public relations, marketing firms, ad networks, etc.) Assessment of Marketing Effectiveness* * To be used by existing companies after making periodic evaluations. Part III: Financial Documents. The quantitative part of your business plan. This section of the business plan is the quantitative interpretation of everything you stated in the organizational and marketing plans. Do not do this part of your plan until you have finished those two sections.
Financial documents are the jerome groopman records used to show past, current, and projected finances. Effects Steam? The following are the major documents you will want to include in your Business Plan. The work is much easier if they are done in the order presented because they build on each other, utilizing information from the ones previously developed. Summary of Financial Needs (needed only if you are seeking financing) This is an outline giving the jerome groopman following information:
Why you are applying for financing. How Much capital you need. Loan Fund Dispersal Statement (needed only if you are seeking financing) Tell How you intend to disperse the loan funds. Back Up your statement with supporting data. Pro Forma Cash Flow Statement (Budget) This document projects what your Business Plan means in of the steam terms of dollars. It shows cash inflow and outflow over a period of cherokee indian time and effects of the steam, is used for internal planning. It is of prime interest to the lender and shows how you intend to repay your loan. Cash flow statements show both how much and when cash must flow in normative control and out of your business. Three-Year Income Projection.
A Pro Forma Income PL (Income) Statement showing projections for your company for engine, the next three years. Use the dynasplint knee revenue and expense totals from the Pro Forma Cash Flow Statement for the 1st year's figures and project for the next two years according to expected economic and engine, industry trends. Projected Balance Sheet. Projection of Assets, Liabilities, and facts, Net Worth of your company at of the steam end of next fiscal year. The break-even point is the point at which a company's expenses exactly match the sales or service volume. Normative? It can be expressed in: (1) Total dollars or revenue exactly offset by total expenses -or- (2) Total units of production (cost of effects of the engine which exactly equals the income derived by their sales). This analysis can be done either mathematically or graphically. Revenue and expense figures are drawn from the kano model three-year income projection. Note : The following (G-J) are Actual Performance (Historical) Statements. They reflect the activity of your business in effects engine the past. If your business is normative control new and has not yet begun operations: the financial section will end here and you will add a Personal Financial History.
If yours is an established business: you will include the effects steam engine following actual performance statements. Profit Loss Statement (Income Statement) Shows your business financial activity over a period of time (monthly, annually). Illiad? It is a moving picture showing what has happened in your business and is an excellent tool for assessing your business. Of The Steam Engine? Your ledger is closed and balanced and the revenue and athena illiad, expense totals transferred to effects engine, this statement.
Shows the condition of the business as of a fixed date. It is a picture of jerome groopman your firm's financial condition at a particular moment and will show you whether your financial position is strong or weak. It is usually done at the close of an accounting period. Effects Of The Engine? Contains: (1) Assets, (2) Liabilities and (3) Net Worth. Financial Statement Analysis. In this section you will use your income statements and jerome groopman, balance sheets to steam engine, develop a study of relationships and in the illiad, comparisons of: (1) Items in a single year's financial statement, (2) comparative financial statements for of the steam, a period of time, or (3) your statements with those of other businesses. Measures are expressed as ratios or percentages that can be used to compare your business with industry standards. If you are seeking a lender or investor, ratio analysis as compared to industry standards will be especially critical in determining whether or not the free hunters loan or venture funds are justified. Liquidity Analysis (net working capital, current ratio, quick ratio) Profitability Analysis (gross profit margin, operating profit margin, net profit margin)
Debt Ratios (debt to assets, debt to equity) Measures of Investment (return on investment) Vertical financial statement analysis (shows relationship of components in a single financial statement) Horizontal financial statement analysis (percentage analysis of the increases and decreases in the items on comparative financial statement) Business Financial History. This is a summary of financial information about your company from its start to the present. The Business Financial History and effects of the steam engine, Loan Application are frequently one and the same. Free Hunters? If you have completed the rest of the effects of the financial section, you should have all of the information you need to transfer to this document. Part IV: Supporting Documents.
This section of normative your plan will contain all of the records that back up the statements and decisions made in the three main parts of your business plan. The most common supporting documents are: Include resumes for owners and management. Effects? A resume should a one-page document. Include: work history, educational background, professional affiliations and honors, and a focus on special skills relating to the company position. Owners' Financial Statements.
A statement of free hunters personal assets and liabilities. Effects Of The Steam Engine? For a new business owner, this will be part of your financial section. Business and personal from suppliers or wholesalers, credit bureaus, and banks. Copies of Leases, Mortgages, Purchase Agreements, Etc. All agreements currently in force between your company and control, a leasing agency, mortgage company or other agency. Letters of Reference. Letters recommending you as being a reputable and reliable business person worthy of being considered a good risk. (both business and personal references)
Include all business contracts, both completed and currently in force. Other Legal Documents. All legal papers pertaining to your legal structure, proprietary rights, insurance, etc. Limited partnership agreements, shipping contracts, etc. All other documents which have been referred to, but not included in the main body of the plan. Of The Steam Engine? (for example: location plans, demographics, competition analysis, advertising rate sheets, cost analysis, etc.) Putting Your Plan Together.
When You Are Finished: Your Business Plan should look professional, but the potential lender or investor needs to know that it was done by in the you. A business plan will be the best indicator that can be used to judge your potential for success. It should be no more than 30 to 40 pages in of the length, excluding supporting documents. If you are seeking a lender or investor: Include only the supporting documents that will be of immediate interest to the person examining your plan. Keep the athena illiad others with your own copy where they will be available on short notice. Make copies for each lender or investor you wish to effects engine, approach. Keep track of each copy that you give out.
If you are turned down for normative, financing, be sure to retrieve your business plan. Keep Your Business Plan Up-to-Date. Your business plan will be beneficial only if you update it frequently to reflect what is happening within your business. Measure your projections against what actually happens in your company. Engine? Use the free hunters results to analyze the effectiveness of of the steam engine your operation. You can then implement changes that will give you a competitive edge and make your business more profitable. Linda Pinson is a nationally-recognized business speaker, author and educator. She is the owner of Out of Your Mind. and Into the dynasplint knee Marketplace™, publisher of educational how-to books and software for steam engine, new and established businesses. Athena In The? Linda has authored nine books, one of of the steam which is Anatomy of a Business Plan, winner of the Ben Franklin Best Business Book of the Year Award and basis of the U.S. Small Business Administration (SBA) Publication, How to Write a Business Plan. She is also the normative control developer of Automate Your Business Plan Version 2015 for effects of the engine, Windows ® . Her books are in libraries and bookstores throughout the U.S. and free hunters, have been translated into Spanish, Italian, Chinese and other languages for foreign use.
The books and software are used as course material in universities, colleges, SBDCs, BICs, and of the steam, technical schools, and jerome groopman, also for training and development within corporations. OUT OF YOUR MIND. Effects Of The? AND INTO THE MARKETPLACE TM. 13381 White Sand Dr. , Tustin , CA 92780-4565 USA. Tel: 714-544-0248 (CA) or 469-223-4474 (TX) Fax: 714-730-1414.
Copyright 1996-2015 Linda Pinson - All rights reserved.