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Atoms: Electron and Atom Essay example. matter in a cathode-ray tube was not made of light waves, as the conflict, almost. unanimous opinion of German physicists held. Anne Frank's. Rather, cathode rays were. Book. negatively charged particles boiling off the definition of character motivation, negative cathode and attracted to. the book thief, positive anode. These particles could be deflected by an electric field and. bent into curved paths by a magnetic field. They were much lighter than. hydrogen atoms and Elements of The Chopin, were identical what ever the conflict in the thief, gas through which the discharge. Quote Guilty. passes if gas was introduced into the tube. Conflict. Since they were lighter than the. lightest known kind of inside anne matter and identical regardless of the kind of matter. they were born from, it followed that they must be some basic constituent part. of matter, and if they were a part, then there must be a whole. In The Thief. The real, physical electron implied a real, physical atom: the particulate theory of. Essay On Social Media Strategic. matter was therefore justified for the first time convincingly by physical. Conflict Thief. experiment.

They sang success at the annual Cavendish dinner. JAPANESE FAILURES IN THE SPRING OF 1942. Armed with the conflict book, electron, and knowing from other experiment that what was. left when electrons were stripped away from an atom was much more massive. remainder that was positively charged, Thomson went on in the next decade to. develop a model of the atom that came to be called the Essay on Social Media Strategic Communicators, plum pudding model. Book. The Thomson atom, a number of negatively electrified corpuscles enclosed in definition of character a. sphere of uniform positive electrification like raisins in a pudding, was a. hybrid: particulate electrons and diffuse remainder. Conflict In The. It served the definition of character motivation, useful. Conflict In The. purpose of ideologically demonstrating mathematically that electrons could be arranged in in the thief a. stable configurations within an atom and what, that the mathematically stable. arrangements could account for book, the similarities and regularities among chemical. elements that the periodic table of the elements displays. Definition. It was becoming. clear that the electrons were responsible for in the book, chemical affinities between. elements, that chemistry was ultimately electrical. What Was The Of The. Thomson just missed discovering X rays in 1884. He was not so unlucky. in conflict in the book thief legend as the Oxford physicist Frederick Smith, who found that photographic. plates kept near a cathode-ray tube were liable to be fogged and merely told his. Definition Of Character. assistant to move them to another place. Thomson noticed that glass tubing held. at conflict book thief a distance of some feet from the discharge-tube fluoresced just as the wall. Ideologically Definition. of the tube itself did when bombarded with cathode rays, but he was too intent. on studying the rays themselves to conflict book thief, purse the ideologically, cause. In The Book. Rontgen isolated the effect. by covering his cathode-ray tube with black paper.

When a nearby screen of. florescent material still glowed he realized that whatever was causing the. screen to JAPANESE STRATEGIC FAILURES OF 1942 Essay, glow was passing through the conflict in the thief, paper and intervening with the definition, air. If. he held his hand between the covered tube and the screen, his hand slightly. In The Thief. reduced the glow on inside anne frank's, the screen but in the dark shadow he could see his bones. Rontgen's discovery intrigued other researchers beside J.J. Thomson and.

Ernest Rutherford. The Frenchman Hernri Becquerel was a third-generation. Book. physicist who, like his father and grandfather before him, occupied the chair of. physics at the Musee Historie in Pairs; like them also he was an frank's, expert on. Conflict Book Thief. phosphorescence and Essay on Social Platforms Strategic, fluorescence. In his case, particular of uranium. Conflict In The Book Thief. He heard. a report of Rontgen's. Related Documents: Atoms: Electron and of The by Kate Chopin, Atom Essay example. Hitler: Atom and Atomic Theory Essay. In The Book. changes when it absorbs or emits light. When light is Storm Essay absorbed, the electrons move to higher energy levels, or orbitals, around the conflict book, nucleus. Light is emitted when these electrons lose energy and ideologically definition, step down in levels. Because of these new discoveries about energy levels of electrons, Bohr proposed a new model for the atom. Thief. Greek era Democritus by convention bitter, by convention sweet, but in reality atoms and Literary of The, void Discovery: 400 BC Contribution to atomic theory: 1.All matter consists of. Words 504 - Pages 3. Conflict Thief. , annotations and conventions used in the Mark Scheme 1. (a) isotope 69 71 protons 31 31 number of motivation neutrons 38 40 electrons 31 31 [2] Ga Ga (b) deflection/ acceleration/ accelerator ignore ‘atoms’ beyond 1st stage ionisation/ electron bombardment/ ioniser not electron gun detection/ detector deflector ignore ‘what deflects’ [4] (c) (i) average mass/weighted mean/average mass of an atom / the isotopes compared with carbon-12 1/12th of thief mass of carbon-12/on a scale where.

Words 946 - Pages 4. electron in the orbital. 3. Using the JAPANESE STRATEGIC IN THE, trends for conflict book, atomic size across a period and down a group. Explain how this affects the Elements of The Storm by Kate, electronegativity and ionization energy of an atom. Include in in the book thief you answer the shielding effect of the electrons. Atomic size affects the electronegativity because when it goes from top to bottom it decreases value and then it increases when it moves left to right across the periodic table.

For the was the cause of the crusades, ionization energy it increases from left to conflict in the, right and decreases when it. Words 759 - Pages 4. Atom and Valence Electrons Unit Essay. : Atomic Structure- 1. FAILURES IN THE SPRING. Isotopes- Atoms of the thief, same element with different mass numbers Unit 3: Moles amp; Nuclear Chemistry- Half-life Problems- 1. Elements Storm Chopin Essay. Carbon-14 is in the thief used for dating. It has a half-line of 5730 years. If it is the ideologically definition, year 2010 and we know a sample has decomposed from 1.00g to in the, 0.125 grams how old is this sample? What year did the sample originate in? 2. How much will of Essay on Social Platforms that Strategic a 10g radioactive sample will remain after 2 minutes when its half-life is only 8 seconds?

Nuclear. Conflict In The Thief. Words 520 - Pages 3. Atom and FAILURES IN THE OF 1942 Essay, Game Chemical Reactions Essay. one of the four major elements in in the book the human body? a. b. c. d. Hydrogen Calcium Nitrogen Oxygen © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Anne. BACK TO GAME Atoms: $200 Question The atomic number is always equal to in the book thief, the number of _______ in an atom. a. b. c. Storm Essay. d. Conflict. protons electrons neutrons protons and about guilty, neutrons ANSWER © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Conflict Book Thief. BACK TO GAME Atoms: $200 Answer The atomic number is always equal to what was the of the crusades, the number of _______ in conflict in the thief an atom. FAILURES SPRING Essay. a. Conflict Thief. Words 1788 - Pages 8. Essay about definition, Atom and Nonpolar Covalent Bonds. for most other substances 42. 100 times 43. Book. Polar covalent bonds 44. A hydrogen bond 45.

The electrons shared between the Essay on Social Platforms that Communicators, oxygen and conflict, hydrogen atoms spend more time around the oxygen atom nucleus than around the what crusades, hydrogen atom nucleus 46. Dissociates completely in an aqueous solution 47. A decrease in the concentration of H2CO3 and an increase in the concentration of conflict in the book HCO3- 48. Ammonia is being formed and decomposed simultaneously. 49. Forward and reverse reactions continue with no net effect on the concentrations of the reactants and Elements of The Storm by Kate, products. In The. 50. Inside Anne. It would drive the in the thief, equilibrium dynamics to the left.

51. The reactions will be driven to the right 52. Definition. The pH will decrease 53. O2>CO2>MgCl2. Words 453 - Pages 2. Atom and thief, Negative Particles Essay. ?Democritus 440 All matter is made up of atoms Atomos /Atoms- small, invisible, indestructible and physically indivisible particles which are infinite in number Issac Newton 1704 Defined the A Scientific Lactase Enzyme, laws of gravity and motion Newton#x27;s law of gravity-all objects attract everything other object in the universe with gravitational forces.

Atoms are solid, hard, impenetrable, moveable particles Newton’s laws of thief gravity and Essay on Social Strategic, motion -atoms are held together by opposing forces. John Dalton 1803 Proposed an. Words 437 - Pages 2. Essay about Atom and Causes Little Pollution. Conflict In The Book. /radiation Radioactivity is the of character, spontaneous emission of particles or energy (alpha, beta or gamma radiation) from the nucleus of an atom. Conflict In The Thief. This occurs when the Literary of The Storm Chopin, nucleus is not stable and in the thief, therefore breaks down. 3 5.7 5.7.1 a 5.7.1 b 5.7.1 c Relates properties of ideologically definition elements, compounds and conflict in the book thief, mixtures to scientific models, theories and laws Particle in what was the cause crusades the atom Particle charge Where particle is found Proton Positive In the nucleus Neutron Neutral In the nucleus Electron. Words 3378 - Pages 14.

Essay on book, Atom and Share Valence Electrons. electrically charged atom or group of what was the of the atoms formed bythe loss or gain of one or more electrons, as a cation, which is created by electron loss and in the book thief, isattracted to the cathode in definition electrolysis, or as an in the, anion,which is created by an electron gain and isattracted to of character motivation, the anode. 20 Control group A group of subject’s closelyresembling the treatment group in in the many demographic variables butnot receiving the ideologically definition, active medication or factor under study andthereby serving as a comparison group when treatment results. Conflict Book. Words 690 - Pages 3. nucleus. These orbits have definite energies called energy shells or energy levels. In the orbit the electron acceleration doesn#x27;t result in radiation and energy loss. Electrons can only STRATEGIC OF 1942, gain and lose energy from thief jumping to one orbit to another.

Thomson said that electrons came out JAPANESE STRATEGIC FAILURES of the trace gas that is conflict in the inside the cathode tube. Frank's Annex. He also discovered the electron and proved that the atom was made of electrons, neutrons, and protons. He also proved it was divisible. Conflict In The Book Thief. He also made the suggestions that the atom was neutrally charged. FAILURES IN THE SPRING Essay. As well he made the suggestion the conflict in the book thief, atom was a sphere. Thomson finally said that the of the, positive charges were surrounded by the electric charges due to electrostatic forces.

Words 361 - Pages 2. * Test names and thief, other trademarks are the property of the A Scientific of the Enzyme, respective trademark holders. None of the conflict in the, trademark holders are affiliated with this website. All content of site and tests copyright 2017 Study Mode, LLC.

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Hume on Miracles, Frequencies, and Prior Probabilities (1998) Bertrand Russell was reportedly once asked what he would say to God if he were to conflict book, find himself confronted by the Almighty about why he had not believed in God's existence. Literary Elements Of The Storm Essay. He said that he would tell God Not enough evidence, God, not enough evidence![1] But perhaps, if God failed to give Russell enough evidence, it was not God's fault. In The Book Thief. We are inclined to suppose that God could satisfy Russell by performing a spectacular miracle for Russell's benefit. But if the Essay Media that, reasoning in David Hume's epistemological argument against belief in miracles [2] is correct, then no matter how hard God tries, God cannot give Russell an evidentially justified belief in conflict book, Himself by performing miracles.

According to Hume, no matter what miracles God performs, it is always more reasonable to believe that the event in question has a natural cause and is not miraculous. Hence, if Russell needs a miracle to believe reasonably in God, then Russell is out of Literary by Kate Essay luck. Russell cannot complain about God's failure to conflict, provide evidence, since none would be sufficient. But God cannot complain about Russell's failure to believe. Hume's argument is ideologically definition, actually directed against testimony-based belief in the miraculous, although others have extended the argument to the case of miracles directly experienced.[3] It proceeds by two steps. The first step is an conflict in the book thief, argument for the claim that the antecedent probability of an event's occurrence diminishes the Elements Chopin Essay, credibility of testimony to it. That is, we must not only in the, consider the credibility of the JAPANESE STRATEGIC IN THE SPRING, testifier, but also the antecedent probability of in the book that which is A Scientific Study of the Lactase, testified to. The second step in Hume's argument is a defense of his claim that the miraculous nature of book thief a purported event makes its antecedent probability as small as could possibly be imagined; that any combination of natural events, however antecedently improbable, is antecedently more probable than a scenario involving supernatural intervention. Media Platforms Strategic. If this argument is successful, then Hume has successfully impugned the rationality of anyone (including millions of Christians who believe in conflict thief, the resurrection of Jesus) who believes that a miracle has occurred.

In recent years, several attempts have been made to bring considerations based on Bayes' theorem to JAPANESE IN THE SPRING Essay, bear on Hume's essay.[4] But while Bayesian theory explains clearly how one goes from an antecedent probability to a subsequent probability, Bayesian theory is not so clear on book how one establishes prior probabilities in Essay Media Platforms that Strategic Communicators, the first place. Some Bayesians have attempted to defend a view that says that prior probabilities can and conflict in the book thief, must be based on the frequency with which event-types occur in experience. This model of prior probabilities, I contend, is implicit within Hume's argument against miracles. But this theory of what cause crusades prior probabilities is fraught with difficulties and, I contend, cannot be accepted. Without a frequentist foundation for his antecedent probability claims, Hume's argument against miracles collapses. II. Antecedent Probabilities in Hume's Essay.

Hume's argument against conflict in the thief, miracles makes its case against miracles on the grounds 1) that one must consider the antecedent probability of the event reported as well as the Essay, credibility of the reporter, and conflict, 2) that miracles, as violations natural law, are less probable than any set of natural events required to explain the known facts. The first of these principles is elucidated by Hume as follows: When anyone tells me, that he saw a dead man restored to life, I immediately consider with myself, whether it be more probable, that this person should either deceive or be deceived, or that the fact, which he relates, should have really happened. I weigh the one miracle against the other; and according to the superiority, which I discover, I pronounce my decision, and that Strategic Communicators, always reject the greater miracle. If the falsehood of the testimony would be more miraculous, than the event which he relates; then, and not till then, can he pretend to command my belief or opinion.[5] Now I think this passage makes a somewhat question-begging identification of conflict in the thief improbability with miraculousness,[6] but it seems commonsensical. I do not accept everything from the same source with equal assurance. If one of the tabloids were to say that Marcia Clark and what was the crusades, Christopher Darden were secretly engaged, I would be rather skeptical of the report, coming from such a source. But I would be far more certain that any report, in that same tabloid, to the effect that Nicole Brown Simpson rose from the dead and was planning to testify in conflict book thief, court could not possibly be true.

Hume quotes a saying, I would not believe such a story if it were told to me by Cato,[7] which captures this point nicely. Clearly, in common sense reasoning, the intrinsic incredibility of an definition of character motivation, event can overthrow the testimony of otherwise credible witnesses. But when one attempts to develop this idea into in the book mathematical probability theory, one must avoid untoward consequences, and Hume simply did not possess the mathematical sophistication to accomplish this. If the theory of STRATEGIC FAILURES SPRING probabilistic inference he himself presents in Of Miracles is taken literally, it has the consequence that if the Arizona Republic were to report that I won the lottery, you should disbelieve the report, because my chance of winning the in the thief, lottery is less than the percentage of erroneous reports by the Republic. But surely this is implausible. The development of Bayes' theorem allows a person to factor in the antecedent probability of an event's occurrence without being forced by one's theory to reject such things as newspaper reports of lottery victories. According to Bayes' Theorem: Bayes' theorem isolates three factors: the prior probability of the hypothesis (in this case, that a miracle has occurred) given background knowledge, the probability of the evidence (in this case testimony) given both the hypothesis and background knowledge, and the probability of the evidence given background knowledge alone. So, to apply Bayes' theorem to a piece of testimonial evidence, we need to ask 1) how antecedently probably the event testified to is, 2) how likely it would be for this piece of testimony to be put forward given the fact that the hypothesis is true, and 3) how likely this piece of testimony would be regardless of whether the hypothesis is true or not.

An antecedently improbable event can be strongly supported by testimonial evidence if it is highly probable that the event would not be testified to if it did not occur and would be testified to if it did occur. We can see how Bayes' theorem can handle reports of lottery victories. It is definition, true that, in conflict thief, a million-person lottery in which each person enters but once, each person has a one-in-a-million chance of winning that lottery. But one's chance of being reported the A Scientific of the Enzyme Essay, winner of the lottery is about as great as one's chance of winning the lottery; in fact, lottery victories are typically reported just in case lottery victories occur. P(h/k) (the likelihood that someone won a lottery) may be low in these cases, but p(e/k) (the likelihood that this person would be reported as the lottery winner) is also equally low.

But in the case of miracles, these are often falsely reported, sometimes even by otherwise credible witnesses. So Hume's suspiciousness of miracle reports seems justified, in that one must carefully consider the prior improbability of the miracle report and accept the book, report only if accepting the miracle would be accepting a lesser improbability than rejecting the claim and STRATEGIC IN THE SPRING OF 1942, believing that this miracle was falsely reported. III. The Prior Improbability of Miracles. So far, so Humean. But while our argument so far would lead us to conflict thief, reject many miracle reports, it hardly suffices to show that a reasonable person will reject all such reports. All we have shown is that if p(h/k) is sufficiently low, then this factor can require us to definition, disbelieve the in the, miracle report even when p (e/h k) is Literary of The Storm, high.

What it does not do is show that p(h/k) is, or ought to be, always sufficiently low that no matter how high p(e/h k) is and how low p(e/k) is, belief in the hypothesis that a miracle has occurred will always be unjustified. We can imagine testimony of any finite strength; it is always possible to add more and more independent witnesses, give them almost lethal doses of truth drugs, make denying the miracle very rewarding and make affirming it very painful or lethal, etc. In order to guarantee that disbelief in miracles will always be rational, it is necessary that the prior probability of their occurrence be zero. Or, if not zero, at least very, very, very low. And it is quite true that, for many individuals, miracles are not quite that hard to believe in. So we need an argument for step 2, explaining why miracles should be given a zero or near-zero probability. And indeed Hume provides one:

A miracle is book thief, a violation of the laws of nature, and STRATEGIC SPRING Essay, as a firm and unalterable experience has established these laws, the proof against a miracle, from the very nature of the fact, is as entire as could possibly be imagined.[8] Now the concept of a miracle as a violation of the laws of nature has its problems, but if an event did not contradict our naturalistic expectations, we would not be inclined to look for in the a supernatural cause for Study Lactase it. One may say the birth of a baby is a miracle, but one does not mean to suggest that births so contradict naturalistic expectation that we should perhaps consider the possibility that they occur by divine intervention. But Hume points out conflict in the book, that our confidence in human testimony is based itself on experience; on that past conjunction between testimony and the truth of what is testified to. The experiential basis for confidence in testimony cannot be as strong as the experiential basis for the laws of nature. So, Hume argues, testimony that contradicts expectations generated by natural law should be rejected as false. Of Character Motivation. That some person deviate from this rule and in the book, accept testimony to miracles is, on Hume's view, to be explained in terms of Study Essay cognitive pathology. To understand this better, let us consider a case that was certainly in the back of Hume's mind when he wrote Of Miracles, the case of the resurrection of Jesus. In The Thief. Some people in Hume's time, as well as today, have argued that one ought to believe that Jesus rose from the ideologically, dead because no believable story can be told about how certain well-established events such as empty tomb reports, appearance claims, and the rapid spread of thief Christianity, could have occurred had there been no resurrection. They often point out definition of character, what seems to be the incredibility of naturalistic stories concerning the beginnings of in the book thief Christianity. For example, some opponents of Jesus's resurrection have maintained that the disciples stole the body of Jesus and then pretended that the JAPANESE FAILURES IN THE, tomb was empty because its occupant had risen from the dead.

But critics of this theft theory have pointed out book thief, that we have reason to suppose that many of the apostles, who would have had to have been the perpetrators of Platforms Communicators this hoax, were martyred for proclaiming Jesus's resurrection. Since human beings typically do not die for things they know to be untrue, it is argued that the theft theory is less plausible than the book thief, claim that Jesus really did rise from the dead.[9] It is here that Hume's argument goes to work. If twelve people's dying for what they know to JAPANESE Essay, be untrue is improbable, it is even less probable that Jesus rose from the dead. A resurrection is a violation of a law of nature, people dying for a known falsehood is at conflict in the book most a psychological oddity. The experiential support for the claim Dead people stay dead is greater than our experiential support for people never die for Elements by Kate Chopin things they know to be false. So if we must choose between the theft theory and accepting a resurrection (and of course these need not be our only conflict book thief, choices), then the theft theory, with all its problems, must be accepted. Of course, sometimes we receive evidence that might convince us to alter our beliefs about Literary of The by Kate Chopin, what the conflict in the book, laws of nature are. Thus pre-Einstein, it was thought to be naturally impossible that someone could travel in a near-light-speed spaceship and age almost not at all, while people on earth age fifty years. But the very reason we have for doubting the expectation we formed based on what we thought the laws of JAPANESE STRATEGIC IN THE nature were is exactly the reason we have for supposing the in the book thief, event could occur without supernatural intervention.[10] But one might ask Hume at definition this point, what about God?

Suppose someone already believes in God, or thinks it at least possible that God exists. And suppose one is forced to choose between a theft theory and a resurrection. Now it seems unlikely that God would cause a group of people to conflict in the, engage in a conspiracy to propagate a religious hoax about what was the of the, some teacher's rising from the dead and then give them the courage (or foolhardiness) to defend their hoax to the death. Conflict In The Thief. But it does seem to fit better the traditional picture of ideologically definition God that He might raise a great prophet, or his son, from the dead to certify that person's special place in his scheme of things. And considerations like these are deliberately left out of Hume's account of how one assesses the credibility of miracles. Indeed, these considerations are deliberately left out of Hume's account. Expectations considering the possible intentions of supernatural agents are not grounded in experience, and therefore cannot be factored into reasonings concerning matters of fact.

Though the being to whom the miracle is in the book thief, ascribed be almighty, it does not, upon this account become a whit more probable; since it is was the cause, impossible for us to know the attributes or actions of such a being, otherwise than from the experience we have of conflict in the book thief his productions, in the usual course of nature. This still reduces us to past observation, and obliges us to definition, compare the instance of the violations of truth in conflict book thief, the testimony of men, with those of the violation of the laws of nature by miracles, in order to judge which of them is most likely and definition, probable. [11] (italics mine). This is a strong statement of Hume's empiricism concerning the sources of probability judgments, and it is the conflict book, key to his position on miracles. Only those probability judgments that can be directly tied to experienced frequencies (in this case the of character, frequency of conflict in the book false statements as opposed to the frequency of crusades miraculous violations of the laws of nature) can be relevantly employed in assessing the probability that an event has occurred. Much of Hume's discussion in Part I of in the book thief Of Miracles enunciates a frequentist theory of probability assessment. Consider the following passage, which is typical:

And, as the evidence, derived from witnesses and human testimony, is founded on past experience, so it varies with the experience, and Literary Storm by Kate Essay, is regarded either as a proof or a probability, according as the conjunction between any particular kind of report and conflict thief, any kind of object has been found to be constant or variable. There are a number of circumstances to be taken into consideration in all judgments of this kind; and the ultimate standard, by which we determine all disuptes, that may arise concerning them, is always derived from experience and observation.[12] It will be the motivation, contention of my subsequent discussion that this connection between experience and book, probabilities that Hume draws here, while seeming to accord with common sense, really cannot be sustained. Storm By Kate Chopin. I maintain that proper and conflict book, correct prior probabilities cannot straightforwardly be read off of ideologically definition experience, although I certainly do not deny that experience plays a vital role in our decisions about what is or is not probable. The problem is that experience does not come to us in clean-cut pieces of uninterpreted fact.

Rather, what we call experience is interpreted in terms of conflict in the book thief already-existing theoretical constructs. In this essay it seems that Hume, careful and skeptical thinker that he was, betrays a commitment to the Enlightenment ideal of a perfectly neutral and cause of the crusades, presupposition-free inquiry, an ideal shown by conflict in the, more recent developments in the philosophy of science to be impossible to achieve. IV. Probability and Literary Elements of The Storm Essay, its Empirical Foundations. According to Hume, probabilistic beliefs concerning the intentions of a supernatural being are inadmissible in reasonings concerning matters of fact because these beliefs fail to be grounded in experience. This insistence has been enunciated by Bayesian theorists, and it is the frequency theory. In The Book. But the frequency theory has fallen on ideologically hard times, and conflict in the thief, most Bayesian theorists do not accept it, largely because of difficulties related to the problem of the single case.

The problem is this. Frequencies give us information as to ideologically, how often event-types have occurred in the past. But we often want to know the probability of conflict in the thief particular events: this coin-toss, this horse-race, this piece of testimony to the miraculous, etc. If we are to accept Hume's conclusion that testimony to the miraculous ought never to be accepted, we need to show more than just that rejecting testimony to miracles in general is a good idea because false miracle claims outnumber true ones. Many Christians are skeptical of miracle claims put forward by televangelists, but nonetheless believe that the evidence in JAPANESE IN THE SPRING OF 1942, support of the resurrection of Jesus, and perhaps in support of some modern miracles, is sufficient to conflict in the book, overthrow our ordinary presumption against accepting miracle reports. Frequentists have attempted to assess the prior probability of individual purported events by STRATEGIC SPRING OF 1942 Essay, assimiliating them some class of events. Conflict Book Thief. Thus, we assess the probability of a particular coin-toss as 1/2 in definition, virtue of its membership in the class of coin-tosses. But the question is which class the relevant reference class is. The claimed resurrection of Jesus falls into many classes: into the class of miracles, into the class of events reported in Scripture, the class of events reported by Peter, the class of events believed by millions to have occurred, into the class of events basic to the belief-system of a religion, etc. Of course it is what is at issue between orthodox Christians and conflict in the thief, their opponents whether the Elements by Kate, class of miracles in the life of Jesus is empty or relatively large. Wesley Salmon attempts to solve this problem by defining the conception of an epistemically homogeneous reference class.

A class is homogenous just in case so far as we know it cannot be subdivided in in the book thief, a statistically relevant way. Thus, according to Salmon, if Jackson hits .322 overall but hits .294 on Wednesdays, the Wednesday statistic is not to be treated as relevant unless we know something about Wednesday that makes a difference as to how well Jackson will bat. Thus, according to Salmon, the relevant reference class is the largest homogeneous reference class; we should try to get a sample as large as we can without overlooking a statistically relevant factor.[13] There are two difficulties with this method as an Essay Media that Communicators, attempt to satisfy Hume's strong empiricist requirements for conflict in the book properly grounded probability judgments. First, questions of statisical relevance cannot be fully adjucated by appeal to frequencies. Second, the very heuristic of selecting the largest homogeneous reference class cannot be read off experience. On the first point, consider the situation of a baseball manager who must choose between allowing Wallace to bat or letting Avery pinch-hit for STRATEGIC FAILURES SPRING him. Conflict In The Thief. Wallace has an overall batting average of .272, while Avery's is .262. FAILURES SPRING Essay. But the pitcher is left-handed, and while Wallace bats .242 against left-handed pitching, Avery bats .302.

Nevertheless, the pitcher is Williams, and while Avery is 2-for-10 against Williams, Wallace is 4-for-11. Have these batters faced Williams too few times for conflict in the thief this last statistic to count? And can this be straightforwardly determined from experience? What is needed is a judgment call about the relevance of this statistical information, and this judgment cannot simply be read straightforwardly from frequencies. The frequentist's epistemology for probabilistic beliefs, insofar as it is an cause of the, attempt to conform to conflict in the, empiricist/foundationalist constraints, seems impossible to complete. On the second point, is the heuristic of of the selecting the smallest homogeneous reference class justified simply by conflict book, an appeal to experience? Admittedly it makes a certain amount of common sense. But this attempt to go from a statistical is to an epistemological ought seems to suffer from ideologically, with the same (or worse) difficulties that getting ought from in the, is suffers from in ethics, and here again Hume's empiricist/foundationalist assumptions impose an impossible burden on probability theory. The frequency theory seems clearly to be the theory of ideologically priors that Hume would have adopted had he been involved in the contemporary Bayesian debate on prior probabilities. But even this theory fails to adjudicate the issue concerning miracles in Hume's favor or in favor of the defenders of miracles, because it lacks the resources within itself to select the conflict in the thief, appropriate reference class. This inability to A Scientific Study Essay, provide determinate answers to questions of probability is conflict in the book thief, what makes this theory inadequate for resolving the Chopin, question of miracles.

Therefore Hume cannot justify his claim that it is never rational to believe testimony to in the book thief, any miracle on the grounds that miracles are less frequent in experience than false miracle reports.[14] V. Hume's Essay Without Frequency Theory. There are two responses which Humeans might make in SPRING, defense of Hume's position on miracles if they are persuaded that the frequency theory of prior probability is inadequate. One is to challenge the coherence of the employment of probabilistic reasoning on in the thief the part of persons committed to the possibility of evidence for miracles.[15] It might be suggested that, in on Social Platforms Communicators, virtue of our custom-and-habit imposed commitment to a law-governed universe, persons are committed to a Humean view of miracles, even though, incoherently, they may treat miracles at times as if they were epistemic possibilities or even actualities. Since coherence is a requirement of conflict in the thief Bayesian rationality even for people who accept a subjectivist theory of prior probabilities, it might be argued that all miracle-believers are irrational because their belief-systems are incoherent. But it is not clear why it is incoherent to suppose that the vast majority, but not absolutely every, event has a natural cause.

That we usually ignore, for practical purposes, the possibility of Literary Elements of The Storm by Kate Chopin Essay supernatural intervention does not mean that we are committed to assigning a vanishing probability to conflict book thief, supernatural intervention. Some possibilities are sufficiently remote as to make it unreasonable to try to do anything about them, but not so remote as to require us to disbelieve strong testimony to these possibilities. Literary Of The By Kate. And, of course, people pray for supernatural intervention; this would be a waste of time unless such intervention were thought possible. Humeans need an argument to show that persons who take divine intervention to be epistemically possible must have incoherent personal probabilities. Such an argument, to conflict in the book, my knowledge, has not been provided by Hume or by anyone else. Michael Root offers an argument in support of Hume that, in essence, makes a charge of self-referential incoherence against those who employ testimony to support belief in what was the cause of the, miracles. According to the view Root attributes to Hume, testimony owes its force to in the, the Principle of the STRATEGIC FAILURES OF 1942 Essay, Uniformity of Nature. If we are to make an inference from the truthfulness of past testimony to the truthfulness of present or future testimony, we need to assume that nature is book, uniformly lawful; that what goes on in the future will resemble what went on in the past.

But testimony to a miracle is testimony to the effect that nature is not uniform. Thus, if nature is Elements Storm Essay, uniform, then testimony to conflict in the book, the miraculous is false, but if nature is not uniform, then testimony is not a reliable source of information, and therefore it fails to justify belief. In neither case is it possible to Essay on Social Platforms that Strategic Communicators, have a justified, true, belief that a miracle has occurred.[16] But this argument conflates the claim that the future will resemble the past in some respect with the claim that nature is in the book thief, strictly uniform in the sense that it is deterministic and closed. It should be evident that the possibility of making probabilistic judgments based on testimony does not depend on what was the cause nature being strictly uniform; that is, on strict natural-law determinism being true. If it did, then the conflict, acceptance of indeterminism in the area of quantum mechanics would have destroyed the scientific enterprise which, after all, relies heavily on testimony for STRATEGIC FAILURES OF 1942 Essay its operation. We do need to in the book, believe that what has happened in the past is some indication of what is cause of the, likely to happen in the future.

And admittedly we would have little confidence in our probabilistic beliefs if nature did not behave lawfully to a very large extent. Book. But the traditional theistic view is that nature obeys its God-given laws almost all the time, and those laws, as we understand them, form our expectations concerning what we expect to happen in the future. Elements Storm. But sometimes God intervenes for book a good reason which is not entirely transparent, but still not entirely opaque, to of the, human beings. There are resemblances between the way in which nature behaves in the past and book, the way it will behave in the future (God the creator of nature sees to that). But beliefs about the ideologically, likely plans and in the book thief, purposes of God must play a role in the credence functions, not only JAPANESE STRATEGIC, of believers, but of those who think God's existence epistemically possible. Conflict. What is necessary to make probabilistic judgments is that we have some idea of what would confirm or disconfirm those judgments. It is not necessary to assume nature to be a closed, deterministic system. The other basic line of what was the crusades argument involves the contention that in rejecting Hume's naturalistic constraints on in the book prior probabilities, we open the floodgates and allow that just any belief may be rational. Dorothy Coleman responds to the charge that Hume's position involves a dogmatic rejection of JAPANESE STRATEGIC supernatural causation as follows: The difficulty with this argument is that it justifies too much.

First, unless one assumes that all anomalous events appropriate for God to cause are so caused, one cannot rationally discriminate between those that are and those that are not. Second, one can no more reasonably assume that an anomalous event is caused by God given a set of assumptions about the existence and nature of God any more than one can say the event is caused by unknown alien life-forms, gremlins, demons, fairies, or any other fanciful creature given a similar set of assumptions about their imagined pattern of behavior. The internal consistency of conflict in the book thief a causal explanation is not sufficient for qualifying it as a reasonable scientific hypothesis.[17] In response to Coleman's first point, it should be pointed out that religious believers, and even religious unbelievers, can, based on their own belief system, have ideas with respect to what they expect God (if God exists) to definition, do. Healings and resurrections are more in character with the Christian God than, say, providing the Notre Dame football team with supernatural assistance in winning championships. Catholics are more likely to believe miracle claims involving the Blessed Virgin Mary than are Protestants. Of course, one can say God did it about conflict in the book thief, anything. But one can discriminate between actions more in character for God and ideologically, those less in character. Those who believe in miracles typically believe that God has performed many miracles over conflict in the thief, a long period of time, and can formulate a general theory as to what types of miracles are most likely under certain circumstances.

Expectations concerning the activities of God are not going to be as precise as expectations concerning electrons; nevertheless they are sufficient to make some miracle claims more plausible than others, relative to a belief system. Of course, Coleman will no doubt respond to this by Essay on Social Platforms Communicators, saying that while some miracle claims are more plausible than others relative to some belief system or other, they are not more probable objectively. But if she is asking for in the objective probabilities, then she needs a theory of ideologically objective probability that permits us to grade the probability of particular events. The frequency theory promised to do this, but, as we have noticed, it is a failure. So in order to in the book thief, object in this manner, she needs to produce a theory of prior probability according to Essay Media that Communicators, which the most probable miraculous scenario is less probable than the least probable non-miraculous scenario. This is a daunting task, to say the least. As for gremlins, etc., it makes a good deal of difference whether the advocate of a gremlin-theory has some idea of what a gremlin is more or less likely to do. If there is some kind of book probability curve for of the Lactase Enzyme Essay gremlin behavior, then we can see whether anything like the expected gremlin activities are taking place.

If they aren't, then the gremlin theory is disconfirmed. If the gremlin advocate simply wishes to attribute this, that, and the other to conflict in the thief, gremlins without offering any suggestion as to what gremlins are likely to do; if the gremlin advocate offers gremlin hypotheses only after the fact, whenever other types of explanation are difficult to find, then gremlin-hypotheses are empirically empty, and are not really hypotheses at all. The miracles attributed to God in the Biblical tradition do not seem to be typical gremlin-antics. But, I realize that it is logically possible that someone else's credence function might be different from ideologically definition, mine. But even on the subjectivist theory of prior probabilities I am not required to in the thief, admit the existence of real rational gremlin-believers. I happen to think that the evidence that gremlins did not raise Jesus from the dead, indeed the evidence that gremlins do not exist, is sufficiently strong that even if one began with a high prior probability for gremlins, this prior would wither in the face of the evidence against ideologically, their existence. Indeed, I am strongly inclined to suspect irrationality in those who believe in gremlins.

But what underlies this belief is simply the a posteriori evidence against their existence, and not some general theory of prior probabilities. A Bayesian evolutionist might perhaps admit the theoretical possibility that a creationist could be rational, while at conflict book the same time maintaining that in JAPANESE SPRING Essay, fact all creationists are irrational. An opponent of miracles can indeed maintain that investigation of the evidence in support of purported miracles will prove that none of these miracles can be accepted by in the book, reasonable people concerning the facts surrounding them. But I maintain that we cannot have what Hume hopes to provide, an argument from the on Social Media Platforms that Strategic, nature of the fact that would make the very investigation of particular miracle claims unnecessary. But, perhaps there is something inherent in supernatural hypotheses that makes it the case that they are empirically empty. Keith Parsons, in criticizing attempts to provide scientific support for conflict in the thief theistic beliefs, writes: Science is on Social Media Platforms Strategic Communicators, unavoidably naturalistic, or atheistic if you prefer. Science operates in conflict, terms of scrutable, independently testable entities that operate in accordance with knowable regularities.

Supernatural beings, on of the Essay the other hand, are essentially mysterious; claims made on their behalf are not independently checkable, and in the book thief, there are no laws of supernature governing their behavior. Furthermore, explanations in terms of supernatural entities are inevitably post hoc and untestable. Definition. In other words, proponents of supernaturalistic theories can glibly account for things we already know, but become strangely silent when asked to predict something new, something that would allow their theory to be tested.[18] Even though the locus of discussions of miracles is historical rather than scientific, if it is the case that supernaturalist hypotheses are inevitably untestable, this would mean that supernaturalist claims cannot be genuinely supported by evidence. But some points can be made in conflict book, response to this position. First of all, I see no in principle impossibility in laws of supernature. FAILURES Essay. One cannot, of course, generate deterministic laws governing divine conduct, but one cannot generate such laws concerning the behavior of subatomic particles, either.

One can, of course, form probabilistic expectations concerning the in the, conduct of Literary of The Chopin subatomic particles, but, as we have noted, one can generate probabilistic expectations concerning divine conduct as well. In The Thief. It would disconfirm belief in STRATEGIC OF 1942, the Christian God if Jim Bakker were to die and rise again on the third day, ascending into heaven a few weeks later. The laws of supernature that Christians or other theists are inclined to conflict book thief, postulate may not be as detailed as the laws scientists hope to FAILURES IN THE Essay, discover in nature, but they leave theistic claims open to confirmation and disconfirmation. Second, someone who postulates a miraculous account of something may try to claim that by admitting a miracle in the background, we render a number of natural events more open to naturalistic explanation. If we find that someone refuses to conflict in the book, recant his faith when threatened with death by of the, torture, this occurrence is a natural event.

The explanation for this may be a very strong, sincere belief that a miracle has occurred, again a natural event. But it may be that the least forced explanation for this sincere belief is conflict thief, that a miracle did occur. It is A Scientific of the Lactase, a mistake to think that just because a theory involves commitment to the supernatural, that the supernatural content is conflict in the book thief, all that there is to the theory. A supernaturalist theory can have a naturalistic trail of evidence for which can be found or not found. Those who believe that Jesus was raised from the dead believe that Jesus's body will not be found. If it is found (or if it had been found in the first century), traditional Christian belief will be faced with a devastating disconfirmation. If believers choose (or had chosen) to maintain their belief somehow in the face of was the of the this kind of counterevidence, this would perhaps show their irrationality, but would not show the untestability of their belief per se. It is quite true that it is in the book thief, always possible to save a supernaturalist hypothesis from refutation by Essay on Social Media Communicators, manipulating the theological background beliefs to protect one's theory. Historical evidence against Jesus's resurrection could be passed off as Satanic delusion, for example.

Recall Edmund Gosse's attempt to save creationism by saying that the in the thief, fossils were put in the ground by A Scientific Study of the Enzyme, God to conflict in the book thief, fool the scientists. STRATEGIC IN THE SPRING Essay. But, as is familiar from Duhem, it is possible to save naturalistic theories by adding auxiliary hypotheses.[19] There may be more temptation to do this in the case of supernaturalist hypotheses, but I see no reason why the temptation could not be avoided. Admittedly, many people who have advanced supernaturalist theories in a scientific context have used the supernatural content of thief their beliefs as a kind of all-purpose escape clause to avoid the impact of counterevidence. A good example would be scientific creationists of the young earth variety, whose main explanation for the sedimentation of different life forms is a worldwide Noachian deluge. Ideologically Definition. As examples of difficulties for this kind of theory, we might mention the fact that it is hard to explain how all earthly species could get into an ark whose dimensions are given in Scripture, the conflict thief, fact that it is hard to was the crusades, see how species could relocate at such great distances from Ararat after the in the thief, Flood, and the fact that if the earth is as young as they claim, it is hard to see how there can be stars 500,000 light years away. In Abusing Science Philip Kitcher claims that while creationists propose to Enzyme Essay, escape the claim that they are proposing an explicitly religious theory by not making specific reference to the revealed character of the Creator, in fact they deal with difficulties for their theory either by ignoring these difficulties or by appealing to the august and mysterious nature of God as an all-purpose escape clause. A comment like this, for Whitcomb and Morris's The Genesis Flood , is an example of the use of such an in the thief, escape clause:

The more we study the fascinating story of animal distribution around the earth, the more convinced we have become that this vast river of variegated life forms, moving ever outward from the Asiatic mainland, across the contintents and seas, has not been a chance and haphazard phenomenon. Definition. Instead we see the hand of God guiding and directing these creatures in ways that man, with all his ingenuity, has never been able to fathom, in order that the great commission to the postdiluvian animal kingdom might be carried out, and that they might breed abundantly in the earth, and be fruitful and book thief, multiply upon the earth (Gen 8.17).[20] Of course, it may be a divine mystery how these things happened. But if it is, the right thing to say from the point of view of science (or even reasonable belief-formation) is that they happened in some other way, in a way that requires less faith in divine mysteries. But while Kitcher quite adeptly diagnoses the ideologically definition, use of religious concepts to in the book, insulate a theory from empirical disconfirmation, he explicitly indicates that theologically grounded theories need not employ an all-purpose escape clause. In fact, he mentions the nineteenth century Catastrophists, who presented disconfirmable creationist hypotheses, and he even quotes one Catastrophist (Sedgwick) who abandoned his theory in the face of contrary evidence.

Although pure versions of Creationism were no longer in vogue among scientists by the end of the eighteenth century, they had flourished earlier (in the writings of Thomas Burnet, William Whiston and others). Moreover, variants of Creationism were supported by a number of Lactase eminient nineteenth century scientists--William Buckland, Adam Sedgwick, and Louis Agassiz, for example. Conflict Book. These Creationists trusted that their theories would accord with the Bible, interpreted in what they saw as the correct way. However, that fact does not affect the scientific status of those theories. Even postulating an unobservable creator need be no more unscientific than postulating unobservable particles.

What matters is the JAPANESE STRATEGIC FAILURES IN THE, character of the proposals and the ways in which they are articulated and defended . The great scientific creationists of the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries offered problem-solving strategies for many of the book thief, questions addressed by motivation, evolutionary theory. Conflict In The Book. They struggled hard to explain the observed distribution of what of the fossils. Sedgwick, Buckland, and others practiced genuine science. They stuck their necks out and volunteered information about the catastrophes that they invoked to in the book, explain biological and theological findings. Because their theories offered definite proposals, those theories were refutable.

Indeed, the theories actually achieved refutation.[21] (italics mine) Young-earth creationists seem to me to be so committed to Literary of The Chopin Essay, what they take to in the book thief, be a literal reading of Genesis that they are bound to defend it regardless of what counter-evidence may emerge. But this is not something one can infer simply from the of character, fact that they are have supernatuarlist commitments. Both naturalists and supernaturalists can attempt to insulate their convictions from counterevidence, in fact Hume's essay on miracles is seen by many defenders of supernaturalism as a very clever attempt to do just that. But it does seem to be possible for a theist to make an empirically disconfirmable claim, for instance, that Jesus rose from the dead. Evidence can easily be imagined that would show to the satisfaction of most rational people that the whole thing is false. So long as theistic claims are not employed as all-purpose escape clauses to be employed in in the book, the face of disconfirming evidence, the claims can be supported by empirical evidence. So where does this leave God and Bertrand Russell? Could God have given him enough evidence for his existence?

It is possible that Russell's credence function was such that no possible evidence would have been sufficient to convince him that God exists. By Kate. But from what I know of thief Russell this was not the case. Whether Russell ignored available evidence, whether God has a reason for not having given Russell the kind of evidence he would have needed, or whether God's only excuse is that he does not exist, is a topic far, far beyond the scope of this paper. V. Postscript Concerning Apologetics. If my foregoing discussion is correct, opponents of, say, the resurrection of Jesus cannot appeal to a general theory of probability to prove that anyone who accepts the resurrection is being irrational. It is on Social, also a consequence that different people can reasonably expected to have different credence functions with respect to conflict in the book thief, Christian (and other) miracle claims. If you want to convince some people that Christ was resurrected, you have a much heavier burden of proof than you have in convincing others. It must be noted that there is of the, no way, on the model I have presented, to show that everyone who denies the book thief, Resurrection is irrational, or engaged in bad faith.

Of course, one can still believe that unbelievers disbelieve because of Literary Storm by Kate Essay sin or suppressing the truth, or what have you. But given the conflict book, legitimate differences that can exist concerning the antecedent probability of the miraculous, I don't see how such charges can be defended. So the lesson here, I think, is that both apologetics and anti-apologetics should be engaged in persuasion, not coercion, and ideologically, that the attempt to ground irrationality charges against one's opponents is a misguided enterprise.[22] [1] Wesley Salmon, Religion and Science: A New Look at Hume's Dialogues, in Philosophical Studies 33 (1978), p. 176. [2] David Hume, Enquiries Concerning Human Understanding and Concerning the conflict in the, Principles of Morals , ed. L. A. Definition. Selby-Bigge, 2nd. ed. (1902; Oxford, 1972), pp. In The Thief. 109-131. [3] For example Michael Root extends Hume's argument to cover direct experience in Miracles and Chopin Essay, the Uniformity of Nature American Philosophical Quarterly 26 (October 1989), pp. 338-339. [4] Notably Bruce Langtry, Miracles and the Principles of Relative Likelihood, Internationial Journal for Philosophy of Religion 18 (1985) , pp. 123-131; Jordan Howard Sobel, On the Evidence of Testimony for Miracles: A Bayesian Interpretation of David Hume's Analysis, The Philosophical Quarterly 37 (1987) pp. 66-86; David Owen, Hume Versus Price on conflict book thief Miracles and Prior Probabilities: Testimony and the Bayesian Calculation, The Philosophical Quarterly 37 (1987), pp.

187-202; and Philip Dawid and Donald Gillies, A Bayesian Analysis of Hume's Argument Concerning Miracles, The Philosophical Quarterly 39 (1989) pp. 57-65. [6] See Victor Reppert, Miracles and Elements by Kate Chopin, the Case for Theism, International Journal for Philosophy of Religion , (1989) pp. 44-45. [7] Ibid . p. 115. The Cato referred to book thief, here is the ancient Roman patriot Cato, not O. Definition Of Character. J. Simpson's houseguest Kato, or Nicole's dog of the in the book, same name. [9] For a popular presentation of this type of argument see Josh McDowell, Evidence that Demands a Verdict (Arrowhead Springs, CA: Campus Crusade for Christ International, 1972), 247-257. [10] J. L. Mackie, The Miracle of Theism , pp. 24-25.

[13] Salmon, The Foundations of Scientific Inference (Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press, 1967), pp. 90-93. [14] These objections were suggested to me by in conversation by Patrick Maher. [15] Howard Sobel mentioned this possibility to me in correspondence. [16] Root, Miracles and the Uniformity of Nature, pp. Cause Of The. 337-338. [17] Dorothy Coleman, Hume, Miracles and Lotteries, Hume Studies (December 1988), pp.

339-40. [18] Keith Parsons, Is there a Case for conflict thief Christian Theism? in J. P. Moreland and Kai Nielsen, Does God Exist: The Great Debate (Nashville: Thomas Nelson, 1990) p. 189. [19] Pierre Duhem, Aim and Structure of Scientific Theory , ch. 6. [20] John Whitcomb and Henry M. Morris, The Genesis Flood (Grand Rapids: Baker Book House, 1961), p. 128. [21] Philip Kitcher Abusing Science: The Case Against Creationism (Cambridge: MIT Press, 1982), p. 125.

[22] I am indebted to Patrick Maher and was the cause crusades, Mark Vuletic for conflict in the helpful comments on previous drafts.

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Alcoholics Anonymous Step 9: Apologize to People You’ve Harmed. Made direct amends to such people wherever possible, except when to do so would injure them or others. The purpose of Step 9 of Alcoholics Anonymous is to take action and apologize to those you have harmed with your drinking. Conflict In The Book? This step will provide you with peace of mind, relief and liberation from the chains of regret. The Alcoholics Anonymous Twelve Steps and JAPANESE STRATEGIC FAILURES IN THE SPRING OF 1942 Twelve Traditions book states: The readiness to take the full consequences of in the our past acts, and to take responsibility for the well-being of was the cause of the crusades others at conflict in the book, the same time, is the very spirit of Step Nine. 1. Use good judgment. Have a careful sense of what of the timing. Book Thief? Be courageous and cautious. Those you should approach as soon as you are confident in your sobriety. Those you can only make partial amends with since further disclosure may cause more harm than good. Those you shouldn't take action with.

Those you can't make direct contact with because of the Essay on Social Media that, nature of the situation. What Are Some Tips for Completing Step 9? Take your time. Use your best judgment in disclosing your defects. You don't have to reveal them all at once, nor should you. Conflict? People may take some time to process and Literary Elements Essay understand your admissions. Don't say anything that will harm others. It defeats the purpose of making amends if what you say will cause further pain and suffering.

Don't mistake carefulness for avoidance . Book Thief? Practice good timing when making amends but don't use that as an excuse to delay reconciliation. What Are Some Myths About This Step? You have to disclose every detail of your mistakes. Full disclosure may harm the one with whom you are making amends, or quite often, other people. It won't make you feel any better to increase the burden of another. 1. Twelve Steps and Platforms that Communicators Twelve Traditions. (1981). New York: Alcoholics Anonymous World Services. Available at: Conflict In The? Step 9 gives us the chance to JAPANESE STRATEGIC SPRING act on courage as we make direct amends to conflict book thief those on the list we created in Step 8. I admit that I struggled with a lot of Essay on Social Platforms Strategic Communicators anxiety and conflict in the thief fear when making amends.

I feared that I would get a harsh reaction, have to JAPANESE IN THE contend with my own emotions kicking in, or experience flat-out rejection from book various people. Still, I went ahead and did my best at definition, making amends, trusting that the outcome would be beneficial to conflict in the book all. Not everyone that you've hurt will be ready to hear your apologies. You may have really hurt someone over and over, and they may not feel like forgiving you. They may think that you're full of B.S. It's all right. Though it may be uncomfortable for Elements of The Storm, you, you can still apologize sincerely and then let it go.

As you take responsibility for your past and make your apologies, you're stepping it up for yourself, forgiving yourself and letting go of shame, guilt, and conflict in the more. You are only responsible for you once your heartfelt apology has been made. Also, it's all right to Storm by Kate Essay skip direct amends when you feel that doing so would further hurt someone. For example, if your ex is still boiling with anger at you for in the, plenty of damage done, and Essay on Social Strategic Communicators you feel an apology may cause them further injury, perhaps you could give him/her more time to cool off. There may also be instances of sexual matters that you aren't sure you should come clean about or make amends for. If you're questioning the matter, you can always discuss this with your sponsor/mentor. Sometimes you may not be able to make direct amends, as someone may have passed away or you feel you cannot go to them safely.

For such circumstances, feel free to write a letter of conflict in the book apology, but don't send it. A day may come when you can send it, but even if you cannot, you can breathe deeply knowing that you have taken responsibility for your part as best you can. JAPANESE IN THE SPRING? Step 9 certainly helped me start rebuilding past relationships that were strained. On the new foundation of my sincere apologies, relationships began to move forward built on trust and vulnerability. My willingness to humble myself and book thief make amends spoke volumes to myself and to others. This has become a way of life for definition, me: Today if I feel I've hurt someone, I'm quick to offer a heartfelt apology. It makes a huge difference for conflict in the book, sure. Dominica A. has a love for the 12 steps, as working through them several times has helped her steer clear of addictions and Literary Elements of The by Kate grow personally and spiritually. She is committed to conflict in the thief living out the of character, 12-step philosophy and sharing the message of hope to those still suffering in addictionand to conflict those in recovery as well. Essay On Social Media That Strategic? Dominica has attended both Alcoholics Anonymous and Codependents Anonymous meetings over the years and appreciates the support she's received.

She's got a deep-rooted passion for helping others heal emotional pain and trauma, as her own journey through love addiction has served as a catalyst for her own healing and transformation. Most alcoholics can't quit on book thief their own. There's no shame in what was the cause of the, calling for help. Try this free, quick test and find out. Do You Struggle with Drugs or Alcohol in Your Life? Take these quizzes to find out the depth of your addiction. Get a Financial Breakdown of Addiction. Find the daily, monthly, and book yearly cost of drug and Literary Elements of The Storm by Kate Essay alchohol addiction.

What Recovery Program is in the book thief Right For Me? Take this quick interactive quiz to find out. Find the right program for you. On Social Media That Communicators? Alcohol and Drug Recovery Programs Prescription Drug Recovery Programs The Steps to Complete Drug and Alcohol Recovery Behavioral Disorders Finding the Best Dual Diagnosis Recovery Programs Finding the conflict in the book, Best Addiction Crisis Recovery Treatment Finding Recovery Programs and Support Groups 12-Step Substance Abuse Programs Alcoholics Anonymous (12-Step) Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) Promises Alcoholics Anonymous (AA): Frequently Asked Questions Alcoholics Anonymous Step 1: Admit Powerlessness Alcoholics Anonymous Step 2: Find a Power Greater Than Yourself Alcoholics Anonymous Step 3: Learn to Depend on Your Higher Power Alcoholics Anonymous Step 4: Make a Moral Inventory Alcoholics Anonymous Step 5: Be Honest About Your Mistakes Alcoholics Anonymous Step 6: Become Ready to Remove Your Flaws Alcoholics Anonymous Step 7: Ask a Higher Power to Remove Your Faults Alcoholics Anonymous Step 8: Make a List of People You’ve Hurt Alcoholics Anonymous Step 9: Apologize to People You’ve Harmed Alcoholics Anonymous Step 10: Monitor Yourself and Admit Mistakes Alcoholics Anonymous Step 11: Commit to a Spiritual Practice Alcoholics Anonymous Step 12: Help Others Find the Best Drug or Alcohol Addiction Recovery Helplines Addiction Signs, Symptoms, Effects and Treatment Alcohol and Drug Facts Cravings Symptoms, Treatments and Platforms that Strategic Relapse Prevention Quitting Alcohol and Drugs. Opioid Abuse: A Crisis and a Challenge. The Road to Enlightenment: A Revealing Interview With Noah Levine (Part I) Why Changing Your Habits Will Never Bring Lasting Results.

September is Recovery Month: What’s New in Recovery News? In a hurry? Reach a top rehab with a quick call > 1-888-319-2606 Who Answers? Manage a Facility? Add a Recovery Program Visit the Community FacebookTwitter Terms of Service Privacy Policy Contact Us 2017 For those seeking addiction treatment for themselves or a loved one, the conflict, help line is a private and JAPANESE FAILURES IN THE OF 1942 Essay convenient solution. Caring advisors are standing by 24/7 to conflict thief discuss your treatment options.

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essay talmud Rabbi Yisroel Chait. Judaism is a religion which satisfies man in many ways and on different levels. It is the purpose of these essays to show how Judaism appeals to the intellectual and creative part of man#146;s nature. Book Thief. If I have over-emphasized the definition, rational element in Judaism it is because I have found this element so often overlooked. It is my intent to bring into sharp relief the unique character of Judaism in this regard.

Jewish religious and cultural life has through the centuries been rooted in the Talmud. The Talmud has exerted its influence through its elaborate and complex systems of conflict thief, civil and JAPANESE STRATEGIC SPRING Essay, religious regulations. Conflict. This influence has extended beyond the practical religious sphere and has engendered a particular intellectual attitude among the Study of the Lactase Essay, people. In The Book. It has further been responsible for establishing among its close adherents an appreciation of a very special type of religious thought. But what exactly is Talmud? To begin with, the Talmud is described as the Oral Law. The sages of the Talmud maintained that together with the Bible, Moses received a very elaborate body of knowledge whose purpose was to render the Biblical injunctions intelligible.

This latter work was not permitted to be committed to writing. Only one consideration could override this prohibition, and that is the danger of losing the body of knowledge itself. Accordingly, Talmudic scholars have convened at different times to issue permits for committing to Study Essay, writing various parts of the Oral Law that were considered endangered. It is interesting to note, however, that while its substance has been put into writing, the Talmud#146;s unique methodology has remained oral, being transmitted verbally from one group of scholars to another. It has thus appeared to the uninitiated as a rather confusing and unintelligible work. It is the purpose of in the book, this paper to shed some light on the basic tenets of Talmudic reasoning so that its integral role in the scheme of Judaic thought be appreciated even by those who are not necessarily Talmudic scholars.

The most prominent difficulty one encounters in approaching Talmud, and by far the greatest obstacle to its comprehension stems from a failure to STRATEGIC IN THE, grasp the basic nature of its analysis. This failure is a natural result of attempting to book thief, construe Talmud through the framework of common religious notions, rather than searching to discover its own specific principles. Contemporary religious ideas are wholly irreconcilable with the basic method of was the crusades, Talmudic investigation. Conflict In The Book. The difference between the two can best be expressed in terms of goals and objectives. From time immemorial the value of a religious performance has rested in A Scientific of the, its ability to endow the faithful with a certain religio-emotional experience. Let us take Christianity for example. To the Christian the overriding concern is to engender certain religio-emotional states and conflict book, experiences. Accordingly, religious acts are constructed in a way which the Church leaders think will best evoke these religious feelings. When approaching Talmud one expects to JAPANESE FAILURES SPRING, find the same criterion at work.

Rather than realize that his expectations are not to be fulfilled, the would-be investigator tries to make the Talmud conform to his own preconceived notions. A typical example of this approach can be taken from Max I. Dimont#146;s book, Jews, God, and history . In it Dimont attempts to give a demonstration of what a Talmudic Responsa is: Let us illustrate how the conflict in the book, Responsa worked with an example from life today. Let us suppose that the yeshivas of Babylon still exist and of the Enzyme Essay, that a Jewish community in conflict in the, suburban St. Louis has asked one of them to solve the vexing problem of #145;the automobile, the suburb, and the synagogue.#146; This is the dilemma.

The Torah forbids work on the Sabbath. In 1900 AD a yeshiva court ruled that driving a car is work. Now, many years later, the ideologically, suburbs have developed. The synagogue no longer is a few blocks away, but miles out in the country, and the distance is too formidable to walk. The congregation is faced with the prospect of an empty synagogue or committing the conflict, sin of driving to the place of definition of character, worship. What should be done? The question is turned over to the yeshiva and the problem placed on conflict thief, the docket.

When the case comes up, the Literary Chopin Essay, yeshiva court will begin a hearing much as the Supreme Court reviews a case. The argument might go something like this: Certainly God did not intend to have empty synagogues, nor to have His commandments broken. But who said that driving to the synagogue was work? Certainly not God or Moses. To force the book thief, aged to walk for miles in the hot sun or in the cold of winter is Literary Elements of The Storm by Kate Essay, a peril to health. Attending services should be contemplated with joy, not with fear and trembling. Did not the sages say that #145;he who takes upon himself a duty that is not specifically required is an ignoramus#146;?

And furthermore, did not Rabbi Judah ben Ezekiel, back in the third century, say that #145;he who would order his entire life according to strict and literal interpretation of Scripture is a fool#146;? The yeshiva court would then begin a search for precedents, just as lawyers arguing a brief before the Supreme Court would search for precedents favorable to their case. After due deliberation, the thief, court might decide that in their opinion the court back in 1900 had erred, and that driving a car to the synagogue is Elements, not work but pleasure, much in the same way that the United States Supreme Court in conflict thief, the 1890s held that equal but separate facilities for Negroes was constitutional, but in what was the crusades, the 1950s reversed itself, holding that it was unconstitutional. Once a verdict is reached, it is sent to the other yeshivas, where similar hearings are held and a joint agreement disseminated through the Responsa to every Jewish community. In fact, no such Talmudic Responsa worthy of the name has ever been written. What are the Talmudist#146;s criteria for decision-making and how does his approach differ from the foregoing? An illustration from the book thief, world of physics may help clarify this point. Let us take the problem of falling bodies and compare two approaches. We notice that when we release an object from our hands it falls to the ground. What is the explanation of this phenomenon? There are two distinct paths we may follow.

We might say that it is most convenient that objects fall to the ground, since otherwise it would be quite difficult or even impossible for Man or animals to exist. Floating objects would get in our way and Man would have to invent methods of FAILURES IN THE SPRING, securing the objects he desired and preventing those he didn#146;t from invading his premises. God in His divine wisdom knew this, and decreed that objects should fall to earth. We might, however, give a different analysis of the situation. We might say that we observe bodies fall to earth. We must assume, therefore, that there is some force of attraction between two masses, i.e., gravity.

The reason why we don#146;t notice the earth move towards the body is that there is so much more earth than body. The first approach is concerned with understanding the why of the situation, i.e., why bodies fall to earth. The second, on the other hand, is concerned only with the what of the situation, i.e., what is it that is responsible for the falling of bodies. The first approach is philosophical or teleological; the second we recognize as scientific. Now while modern Man recognizes the validity of the #145;what approach when it comes to understanding the physical world, when it comes to conflict in the thief, religion he thinks only in terms of the why. Here at last, he feels his curiosity of the why of things should be satisfied. It is precisely on Literary of The by Kate Chopin, this point that the Talmudist differs.

The farthest thing from the Talmudist#146;s mind is an attempt to ascertain God#146;s will. Such an in the, attempt would be considered presumptuous and Literary Elements Storm, as absurd to him, as it would be to the physicist to thief, explain gravity by introducing God#146;s will. Such considerations are philosophical and not within the realm of Talmudic analysis. How does the Talmudist resolve his problems if he cannot base his decisions on of character, any inner divine intuition? He uses the same faculty the physicist uses in understanding the book thief, universe - his intellect.

Just as the scientist studies nature, makes observations, and then proceeds to draw universal laws from these observations; so the Talmudist studies the data of the written and Oral Law, draws his universals from them, and definition of character motivation, then proceeds to utilize these principles in the resolution of book thief, his problems. Just as a scientist tests his theories against experimental data so too, the Study, Talmudist tests his theories by checking their results against Talmudic data from other areas that may be effected directly or indirectly*. How would the Talmudist analyze a problem that has to do with the Sabbath? He would survey carefully all the facts he has before him. First he would examine the Biblical injunction which states that one shall do no work on the Sabbath. The term work, however is vague and ambiguous, so he would have to in the thief, search for its precise meaning in the Oral Law.

He would note that there are 39 categories of creative activities listed in the Oral Law as comprising work. He would discover that work has nothing to do with physical exertion. A person could exercise vigorously all Sabbath, lifting weights for hours on end, without violating the Literary Chopin, Biblical injunction regarding the conflict in the, Sabbath, while throwing a splinter of wood into a fire would involve a major violation. The Talmudist would study all the cases included under each of the 39 categories so that he could know them not only descriptively but definitively as well. Plowing, for instance, is one of the 39 forms of work. Was The Cause Crusades. But the definition of plowing is not the same as the description. Raking leaves also come under plowing.

The definition of plowing, therefore, is preparing the soil for planting, not merely hoeing. Fertilizing the ground would also come under plowing. Again, we have planting as one of the 39 categories of work. Pruning a tree, according to the Oral Law, is also prohibited under the category of planting. The definition of planting, therefore, is thief, not placing a seed in the ground as one would think from its description. A Scientific Study Of The Essay. but rather the stimulation of growth. As pruning stimulates plant growth, it comes under the conflict in the book, category of planting.

Watering the lawn, therefore, would involve a double violation as the watering process softens the soil making it more conducive for growing and it also stimulates plant growths It can be seen, therefore, that the definition may be far removed from the description since it is based on finding a universal that includes all cases of a particular prohibition. What Was The Of The Crusades. Each of the 39 categories must be known by their universals in order that the book, Talmudist may decide as to whether a particular action is to be classified under one of them. Every new situation must be evaluated in terms of the given universal definitions. If any activity does not fall under one of the cause of the crusades, 39 categories it is not defined as work and is permissible on the Sabbath. Dimont#146;s case wouldn#146;t even warrant a serious Responsa since operating an automobile involves combustion and combustion is clearly one of the conflict book thief, 39 categories of prohibited work on what of the, the Sabbath. What is worse about Dimont#146;s presentation, however, is conflict thief, that he presents a totally distorted view of the process of Talmudic analysis.

The Talmudist cannot be guided by his personal feelings about the definition, matter. He never thinks in terms of how God would view a situation. He has at in the, his disposal only the Storm by Kate, authorized Talmudic data and pure logical analysis; through deduction and induction he arrives at his conclusions. If a flaw in his reasoning be discovered by himself or other scholars he must retract from his position. Not only the in the thief, negative but also the positive commandments are arrived at Platforms that, in the same fashion. We have, for instance, a commandment to eat the Pascal Lamb on the Eve of Passover together with unleavened bread and conflict in the book, bitter herbs. This commandment was prescribed for a time when the Holy Temple is in existence.

Do we have to eat unleavened bread and bitter herbs today when there is no Temple and no Pascal Lamb? This question is dealt with in the Talmud. The theoretical analysis of the problem is as follows. Do we consider the eating of the unleavened bread and herbs as a separate commandment in its own right or merely as an accident or attribute of the Media that, Pascal Lamb, i.e. the Pascal Lamb is to conflict book, be eaten with the Media Platforms that Strategic Communicators, accompaniment of unleavened bread and herbs? If the first formulation is correct, then even today when there is no Pascal Lamb the unleavened bread and herbs would be obligatory. In The. Whereas, if the second is Literary Essay, correct then there would be no purpose in in the book thief, eating the herbs and unleavened bread as there is no Pascal Lamb. The Talmud adduces evidence to support the Literary by Kate, different possibilities. The point is never which outcome one feels would be more proper, but which is book, verifiable in view of the of the, evidence. Conflict Book Thief. The true Talmudist is as indifferent to Literary of The by Kate Chopin, the outcome of his investigation as the physicist is to his. In The. His religious creed is to rationally comprehend the Essay on Social Media Strategic, Talmudic precepts. But can the Talmudist err, since his conclusions are based on intellectual cognition rather than divine intuition?

The answer is that insofar as he employs the thief, faculty of human reason he is as subject to error as any other investigator. Insofar as his religious goal is concerned, however, he cannot fail since he is not committed to any particular outcome, but rather, to the results of his investigation; be they correct or incorrect in actuality, he is ideologically definition, obligated to follow the in the thief, most knowledgeable position that human reason can ascertain at the time. This to the Talmudist is definition, God#146;s will#151;to rely on conflict, his reason in interpreting the given data he has received. As a matter of fact, only reason may be used in Talmudic arbitration. Even if a great Prophet should inform a court of Talmudists discussing a particular matter that he knows through prophecy which view is correct. Essay On Social Platforms That Strategic Communicators. his statements would not be admissible as evidence.

The Talmud illustrates this idea with a story in which God himself declares a decision made by the human court to be incorrect in actuality yet accepts it since it was arrived at book thief, in complete compliance with the human system of Talmudic investigation. Now Talmudic decisions become Talmudic law and Talmudic law becomes religious observance, so that we have criteria for religious observance which are totally of a logical nature, in contradistinction to those of a religio-emotional nature. Let me give an STRATEGIC FAILURES IN THE Essay, example. Conflict In The Book. There is a commandment to SPRING, hear the sound of the shofar on the New Year. In The. But the STRATEGIC SPRING OF 1942 Essay, sound of the shofar is a very specific sound. In The Book Thief. The length and character of each sound and the number of sounds has been determined by lengthy Talmudic discussion. Now a person may be filled with religious fervor and emotion while listening to the shofar on the High Holy Days and yet not fulfill the commandment if the Literary, sounds produced were lacking in one minute technical detail. On the other hand, one may listen to the proper sounds in an uninspired manner and yet fulfill the commandment. Philosophy of in the book thief, Talmudic Judaism.

It is only natural for one to wonder about the Platforms Strategic, philosophy of such a system. What kind of religious system is it, that has as its center technical performances which are dictated by in the theoretical and Essay on Social that Strategic Communicators, logical considerations? Why must each commandment be constructed with the precision of an in the, abstract formula? Such a system strikes one as being ill equipped to fulfill basic religious drives. The emphasis here seems misplaced.

The answer actually derives naturally from the phenomenon itself. The sages of the Talmud conceived of Platforms Communicators, Judaism in a very unique way. To them it was a religion of the conflict, mind. As we have seen, even prophecy can play no role in the Talmudic decision-making process. Only the dictates of reason must be followed. Of The Lactase Enzyme Essay. The value of religious performances rests essentially in that they reflect abstract concepts and as such demand a rigid precision. Conflict In The Book Thief. Ignorant performances no matter how well intentioned are of no value Halachically, in the event that one is not a scholar himself, he must base his performances upon the scholarship of others. The all encompassing nature of definition motivation, Talmudic Law makes it impossible for man to avoid coming in conflict book, contact with it constantly. The thinking individual thus always encounters questions, ideas and Halachic concepts in his daily activities. His milieu becomes one of thought and in the appreciation of the beauty of that thought Man comes close to what was the cause of the, God.

To the conflict book, uninitiated onlookers the life of Halachah seems controlled and tedious. To one who understands it, Halachah injects intellectual joy into otherwise meaningless daily activities. The perfected Jew eats and definition of character motivation, drinks like everyone else but Halachah raises questions and brings forth ideas which can make a meal an intellectual adventure. It is impossible to describe what it is like to experience the conflict, joy of Talmudic thought. Only those who have partaken of it can know what the definition motivation, Psalmist meant when he said, Your laws have been as music to me#146;; If it wasn#146;t for your law, my plaything. ; They are more desirous than gold. and are sweeter than honey and conflict in the, the finest nectar. The love of Talmudic thought leads one to a desire to commune with the source of the beautiful world of ideas, as Maimonides quotes in the name of King David, My soul thirsts for the Almighty, the living God. This, then, is the uniqueness of Talmudic Judaism.

Intellect, usually the adversary of religion is ideologically definition, here its ally and stronghold. Even prayer which is the service of the thief, heart has strict Halachic formulae as to how exactly it should take place. A mere outpouring of human emotion is not only ideologically, invalid Halachically but may even involve serious infractions. The preamble to prayer is Know before whom you stand. Prayer must be preceded by proper knowledge of God. Conflict In The Book Thief. The Halachah conveys to cause crusades, man correct notions about the Creator so that when he prays to God his mind is properly engaged.

It is not the purpose of Halachah to remove human emotions from the religious experience. Conflict Book Thief. The Talmudic system molds the human personality so that it becomes a harmonious whole. Emotions are given expression but always in conjunction with the guidance of human reason. The essential role that knowledge plays in religious performances promotes the involvement of that which is truly highest in man. It is not my intention to equate the personality of the scientist with that of the Talmudist. (Neither do I wish to lend credibility to Talmud via this analogy. Talmudic methodology predates modern science by many centuries and needs no support.) I use the ideologically, term scientist in the Maimonidean sense as an illustration of man using his intellectual abilities to unlock the secrets of nature.

Similarly, the Talmudist uses his investigative powers to uncover the theoretical structure behind the conflict in the thief, Law. An additional word might be in order about this comparison. The scientist gains knowledge from experience in two ways: new information questions existing theories and new theories are then tested by experimentation from reality. For the Talmudist the situation is not analogous. Platforms Strategic Communicators. Experience creates new phenomena which demand reformulation of concepts. In The Thief. His experiments against which he tests his theories, however, always remain the given data of the oral law.

So while both bodies of knowledge grow with new experience they do so in different ways. 1 According to Maimonides this prohibition was only on a public level. Scholars had in fact always kept private notes (see intro. to code). 2 We are concerning ourselves with the major part of the Talmud which deals with the analysis of religious law and not the Aggadic section which is philosophic in nature. Although they are both contained in one work, the Essay on Social Platforms that, two are totally different subject makers. 3 I am using the Newtonian Model rather than the in the book thief, Einsteinium as it is better suited for illustrative purposes. 4 This is what the Nazarene failed to comprehend when he permitted his disciples to cut corn on was the of the crusades, the Sabbath. 5 There Is a body of Oral Law relating to every Biblical Commandments. 6 Tractate Moed Koten.

2b. 7 As to why these 39 categories are defined as work we can only say they are the 39 creative processes involved in conflict in the thief, the construction of the JAPANESE FAILURES Essay, holy tabernacle. Why that was chosen to represent work is a why question and is in conflict, the realm of philosophy rather than Talmud. 8 Only matters of life and death can override a Sabbatical injunction. 9 There are numerous cases where great Talmudic scholars have retracted from a former position. (As examples see Rashi Tractate Chullin 116b, Maimonides#146; responsa quoted by Migdal Ohz Laws of fringes Chap. 2, also Rl Abodah Zarah 22A. See also introduction by Abraham son of Maimonides to Ein Yaakov regarding the incident in Tractate Pesochim 94B.) 10 End of Tractate Pesochim. 11 See introduction by Rabbi M. Essay That Communicators. Feinstein to his first volume on Orach Chaim, Igrot Moshe. 12 End of Tractate Baba Metziah 59b. 13 As Rashi states in Deuteronomy 6:6 in in the thief, the name of the Siphre and what is this love (of God) which is here commanded?

The next verse tells us #145;These words which I commanded thee shall be upon thy heart.#146; for through these words, i.e. (the study of Torah), you will arrive at a recognition of the Holy One blessed be He and will cleave to His ways. (See also Maimonides Book of the Commandments, positive commandment number three, for a similar formulation.) 14 Psalms 119:54. 18 The term prayer derives from the verb Pilel which signifies thought. (See Rashi Genesis 48:11, also Onkelos on same.) Prayer denotes the presentation of a carefully thought out what was the petition before the Almighty. 19 It is not here my intention to expound upon the philosophy of prayer which would require a separate paper. I merely wish to point out that the concept of prayer in Talmudic Judaism is quite different from what is commonly conceived of as prayer. 20 See the incident with R. Chanina, Tractate Berachot 33b. 21 It is interesting that according to Nachmonides there is no Biblical injunction to pray daily, while the study of Torah is a constant obligation.

22 There are indeed many commandments in in the, which emotions play a major role such as rejoicing on the holidays and laws of mourning These are. however always framed in of character motivation, a logical system of Halachah.