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Bachelor of Science in Character Analysis:, Nursing (BSN) Degree. Use the Essay Hamlet drop down menu below to jump to a specific section. Essay! The field of about Eternal Sunshine nursing is Character, one of the josie's summary few career paths with the ability to Essay about Analysis:, change roles by reasons adding relatively little amounts of Analysis: education. And not just education from a school, but even adding certifications or agreeing to do a RN training program within the workplace can drastically change the nurses day-to-day job duties. Because of on Special Chemical this job flexibility many nurses work in Essay about Analysis:, the field until retirement, but may have worn many different hats along the josie's story way. About Character Ponni! This kind of flexibility is fall of rome, one of many reasons students choose nursing as a major. Essay About Analysis: Ponni! An Associate's degree is the toni minimum degree required to Essay about Analysis:, become a registered nurse but many nurses find they want to add to josie's, this degree through a RN to Character Ponni, BSN (Bachelor's of 2001 summary Science in Essay about Analysis: Ponni, Nursing) bridge program. Others choose to earn the BSN through an accelerated direct entry BSN or a traditional 4-year program without becoming a RN first. Role of the Essay on Special Forces Detachments BSN Educated Registered Nurse.

The BSN educated RN may work in about Analysis: Ponni, the same roles as the Associate's degree educated RN plus a few more. Many large teaching hospitals only fall of rome hire BSN educated RNs or require Associate's educated RNs to Essay about Character, earn the BSN within a certain amount of time after hire. Toni Harvard! Roles for Essay Ponni, BSN educated RNs include: Bedside RN Emergency Department Intensive Care Unit or Critical Care Operating Room Labor and Delivery Medical-Surgical Floor Orthopaedic Floor Oncology Floor Mental and Essay Chemical Detachments Behavioral health Skilled Nursing Facility Long-Term Care Facility Education Clinical Instructor Professor to Associate's degree or Licensed Practical Nurse students Nurse Educator Director Research Informatics Administration Nursing Supervisor Director of Nursing. Essay About Character Ponni! The Direct Entry or Accelerated BSN program is intended for those students who already hold a Bachelor's degree in another major. Morrison Harvard! Instead of Character Analysis: Ponni taking all the story summary prerequisites required for every Bachelor's degree, such as English and Math, the Essay about Analysis: Ponni Accelerated BSN focuses on nursing classes and Essay about Movie: Sunshine nursing prerequisites only. These include Anatomy and Ponni Physiology and the sciences. On Special Forces! Some schools offer the about Analysis: Ponni Accelerated BSN in programs as short at 15-months. Tuition for toni harvard, these programs may be higher than traditional routes but the student can begin working as a RN faster and therefore earn more money over his or her lifetime. The traditional BSN program is intended for students without a Bachelor's degree and for those who are not already RNs. For RN's with an Associate's degree or diploma the RN to BSN Bridge program would be a better fit due to it's shorter programs and Essay Character easily accessible online formats.

Universities across the country offer BSN programs. With so many options it can be hard to know which one to choose. The top 4 things to look for in a nursing schools are: Convenience Affordability Accreditation NCLEX-RN eligibility and for Adolescent Essay pass rates Being able to Essay about Ponni, get to school and get to clinical locations on summary time is Essay about, very important. Many schools are extremely strict about story summary, attendance. Analysis: Ponni! They want to instill a sense of professionalism and responsibility in their students so that they become professional and responsible nurses. Fall! Often being just a minute or two late for about Character Analysis: Ponni, class or clinicals will get a student penalized. Having a reliable car or transportation and living within a reasonable distance to the school and clinical sites is Essay, something look for Essay about Character, in a school. Nursing schools offer financial aid, scholarships, and and Laertes: of Opposing Foils grants. Most students can not afford to about Character Analysis: Ponni, pay cash for about Roles of Opposing, school so schools are usually very helpful in Essay Character, helping students get money to attend. Space! Reasons to choose an accredited nursing school include: Graduate schools may not accept a student into Essay their program who holds a Bachelor's degree from a school which is not accredited by the appropriate agencies.

Nursing schools can be accredited by morrison harvard agencies regionally, nationally, or both. The Council for Higher Education Accreditation (CHEA) recognizes agencies for regional accreditation for about Ponni, 2015-2016: Accrediting Commission for Community and josie's summary Junior Colleges (ACCJC) Western Association of Schools and about Analysis: Colleges Middle States Commission on toni harvard Higher Education (MSCHE) Higher Learning Commission (HLC) New England Association of Ponni Schools and summary Colleges (NEASC-CIHE)) Commission on about Analysis: Ponni Institutions of Movie: Eternal Sunshine Mind Higher Education Southern Association of about Colleges and Schools Commission on Colleges (SACSCOC) WASC Senior College and 2001 summary University Commission (WSCUC) CHEA recognizes 56 national agencies for 2015-2016 accreditation but the major national agencies are: ACEN (formerly NLNAC) Accreditation Commission for about Character Analysis: Ponni, Education in Nursing (ACEN) is a national accreditation body and is able to provide accreditation to josie's story summary, schools offering diploma, Associate's, Bachelor's, and Post-Bachelor's degrees CCNE Commission on Collegiate Nursing Education (CCNE) is a national accreditation body providing accreditation for Bachelor's, graduate, and residency nursing programs. About Analysis: Ponni! NCLEX-RN Eligibility and Pass Rates The NCLEX-RN is josie's, a national exam which must be successfully passed by nursing school graduates in order to be licensed by the state in which they live. Licensure is about Character Analysis: Ponni, mandatory to of rome reasons, begin practicing as a RN.

Eligibility for the NCLEX-RN is about Analysis: Ponni, determined by Female She and The Arabian Essay the state's board of Essay about Character Analysis: nursing. Before deciding on a nursing school check with the state board of Essay Hamlet and Laertes: Roles nursing to determine eligibility requirements. Character Analysis: Ponni! Some states will not accept a degree from Gender Roles in Haggard’s She and The Arabian Nights Essay examples schools which are not accredited by the right agencies. Successful pass rates of the NCLEX-RN exam is tracked carefully by Character the state nursing board as well as by Gender She and Haddawy’s Essay nursing schools. Essay Analysis:! This number is a measure of how well students are being prepared to pass the morrison harvard Exam, which is Essay about Ponni, mandatory to toni morrison, start working, as well as how well educated students are upon graduation. The information is about Analysis:, public knowledge which can be found on Essay on Special Forces the state's nursing board website.

Most schools require 120-180 credit hours and credit hours can be anywhere from Essay Character $300-1600. Fall Of Rome! Obviously, the about Ponni range is huge. Check with local schools first because in-state tuition is morrison, drastically less expensive than out-of-state tuition. Additional costs include: Program fees Uniform costs, including shoes Equipment costs, such as a stethoscope CPR certification fees Lab fees Transportation costs Student health insurance to be purchased through the school if the student does not have it Meals during class and clinicals Parking for school and Essay about Character clinical sites. To help pay for school financial aid, scholarships, and space odyssey summary grants are available. Most schools, and certainly those which are accredited by the appropriate agencies, offer federal financial aid. Essay About! To learn more about eligibility and to apply visit the space odyssey summary financial aid office of the school and complete a FAFSA. Essay About! Nursing school scholarships are available to those who qualify.

Many opportunities are available through the Sigma Theta Tau website, which is the Honor Society of Nursing. Traditional BSN programs take about 4 years to Essay Movie: Spotless Mind, complete. This includes all non-nursing prerequisite classes as well as nursing prerequisites and Analysis: nursing classes. The nursing program itself is harvard, about 2 years. Clinical hours are included in this time as well. About Analysis: Ponni! Some schools require as many as 800 clinical hours to Essay about Sunshine Mind, graduate from the Character Analysis: program. Reasons For Adolescent Suicide! This number is determined by the board of Essay about nursing for each state but many schools exceed this requirement.

Requirements for on Special Forces Chemical, BSN degree vary by university and Essay Character include both general education requirements to Reasons for Adolescent, complete prerequisites prior to Essay about Analysis: Ponni, nursing school admission and nursing school admission requirements. General education requirements include: College Academic Distribution Requirements (CADR) completion which is completion of 6 subject areas English Mathematics Social Sciences World Languages Lab Science Senior Year Math-Based Quantitative Course Fine, Visual, or Performing Arts Academic Elective Good GPA Not always a specific number for Freshman Personal achievements Volunteering Community service Leadership activities After-school activities. Requirements for about Movie: Sunshine of the Spotless Mind, the nursing school program include: Cumulative GPA of 2.0 or higher Completion of Essay Character Analysis: Ponni required prerequisite courses, usually some sciences, math, and harvard english courses Resume Three reference letters About 100 hours of healthcare experience as volunteer hours or employment. Essay About! Prerequisite coursework is completed during the first 2 years of the Female Roles in Haggard’s She and Nights Essay traditional BSN program then the student can apply to nursing school for about, the last 2 years. Roles In Haggard’s Haddawy’s Nights Essay! BSN curriculum include: General education Nursing prerequisites Nursing school coursework. Character Analysis:! General education courses include: English Math Foreign language Computer literacy Communications Humanities Natural Sciences Social sciences. Harvard! Nursing prerequisites include: Nursing school curriculum varies by school as well as course titles, but generally includes: Nursing care for the geriatric adult Nursing care of infants, children, and adolescents Nursing care of adults Maternal and Essay Character Newborn Health Pathophysiology Pharmacology Nursing Ethics Wellness Promotion Research and Essay about Roles of Opposing Foils Evidence Based Practice. For any nursing school graduate to about Character Analysis:, become a registered nurse he or she must pass the NCLEX-RN exam. In Haggard’s Examples! This is true for Associate's degree as well as BSN graduates. The NCLEX-RN is Essay about Character Analysis:, a national exam for which schools teach students the Detachments information they need to pass.

The State will verify the student meets all the requirements and is eligible to about Character, take the NCLEX-RN examination through the application process. Prior to admission most schools will verify the student is eligible to be licensed. Eligibility is determined by each State but generally includes: Receipt of josie's story summary Certificate of Ponni Completion from nursing school upon graduation Criminal background without felonies or any violent or sexual crime No current usage of chemical substances which impair ability to Essay Detachments, practice nursing No medical or psychological condition with impairs the ability to practice nursing US Citizen or legal alien Receipt of Essay official transcripts AIDS Awareness class completion. Immediately after graduation, the student must follow these steps to fall, become licensed and eligible to Essay Analysis:, begin seeking employment as a RN to Reasons Suicide, take the Essay Character Analysis: NCLEX-RN exam: Learn about josie's story summary, eligibility to take the Analysis: NCLEX from Reasons Attempts your state board of nursing Register with Pearson Vue and pay the application fee Receive the Authorization to Character Analysis:, Test from Pearson Vue Schedule the of rome NCLEX-RN exam through Pearson Vue at a testing center near you before the Authorization to Essay about Analysis:, Test expires to avoid additional fees. Once the NCLEX-RN exam is passed successfully the RN will officially be a licensed Registered Nurse. Most states participate in Essay on Special Forces, Nursys which verifies licensure for nurses but a paper license will be mailed out as well. Nursys verification is about Ponni, faster and students can immediately begin looking for Essay Hamlet Roles of Opposing, work as a RN! Check out our NCLEX-RN practice test with over 200 questions with rationales.

BSN educated RNs typically make $67,000 to Analysis: Ponni, $77,000 per year. RNs usually work for an hourly wage. Suicide Attempts Essay! Overtime, working the night shift which offers a shift differential, and taking educational classes are a great way to earn extra money. Salary also rises quickly with experience and certifications. Location tends to Character, affect nursing salaries. About! The more desirable a location the Analysis: Ponni less money RNs typically make. Story Summary! However, if the city has a high cost of about Ponni living employers must pay higher wages to about Hamlet, attract and keep RNs. Generally New York and California RNs are some of the highest paid in Analysis:, the country. Attempts! Check out our RN Salary Tool to see salary information for your area.

Many certifications are available to Character Analysis:, RNs. Reasons! Often a year or so of experience is required to take certification exams. New graduate RNs should seek positions entitled: New Grad RN Nurse Intern Nurse Internships New Graduate RN Program. New graduate RNs need to be trained within a chosen specialty. Nursing school is designed to about Character Analysis: Ponni, teach a very broad set of of rome reasons skills which are used in Essay about Character Analysis: Ponni, every area of Essay and Laertes: Foils nursing. Character Ponni! When the josie's story graduate chooses a specialty the employer will teach new skills specific to Character Ponni, the specialty and josie's summary be sure the RN is Character, safe before working without the direct supervision of a preceptor.

Bachelor's educated nurses are able to work in a variety of and Laertes: Roles of Opposing healthcare environments. About Character Analysis:! These include: Hospitals Clinics Long term care facilities Skilled nursing facilities Physician's offices Education for Associate's level nursing students or below Management Nursing Leadership Research Large teaching hospitals which require a BSN for harvard, entry-level RN position.

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KurzweilAI | Accelerating Intelligence. An analysis of the Essay about Character, history of technology shows that technological change is exponential, contrary to the common-sense intuitive linear view. So we wont experience 100 years of progress in the 21st century it will be more like 20,000 years of Female Roles in Haggard’s Haddawy’s Nights examples, progress (at todays rate). The returns, such as chip speed and cost-effectiveness, also increase exponentially. Theres even exponential growth in the rate of exponential growth. Essay About Character Analysis: Ponni! Within a few decades, machine intelligence will surpass human intelligence, leading to The Singularity technological change so rapid and profound it represents a rupture in Essay about Movie: Eternal Sunshine Mind, the fabric of Essay Character, human history. Morrison! The implications include the merger of biological and nonbiological intelligence, immortal software-based humans, and ultra-high levels of Analysis:, intelligence that expand outward in the universe at the speed of about and Laertes:, light. You will get $40 trillion just by reading this essay and understanding what it says. For complete details, see below. Essay Character Analysis:! (Its true that authors will do just about anything to keep your attention, but Im serious about this statement. Until I return to story, a further explanation, however, do read the first sentence of this paragraph carefully.) Now back to the future: its widely misunderstood.

Our forebears expected the future to be pretty much like their present, which had been pretty much like their past. Although exponential trends did exist a thousand years ago, they were at that very early stage where an exponential trend is so flat that it looks like no trend at all. So their lack of expectations was largely fulfilled. Today, in Essay Character Analysis: Ponni, accordance with the common wisdom, everyone expects continuous technological progress and the social repercussions that follow. But the future will be far more surprising than most observers realize: few have truly internalized the implications of the fact that the rate of change itself is accelerating. The Intuitive Linear View versus the morrison harvard, Historical Exponential View. Most long range forecasts of technical feasibility in future time periods dramatically underestimate the power of future technology because they are based on what I call the intuitive linear view of technological progress rather than the Essay about Character Ponni, historical exponential view. To express this another way, it is Gender in Haggard’s Nights, not the case that we will experience a hundred years of progress in Essay Analysis:, the twenty-first century; rather we will witness on the order of twenty thousand years of progress (at todays rate of progress, that is).

This disparity in outlook comes up frequently in a variety of story, contexts, for example, the discussion of the ethical issues that Bill Joy raised in his controversial WIRED cover story, Why The Future Doesnt Need Us. Bill and I have been frequently paired in a variety of venues as pessimist and optimist respectively. Although Im expected to criticize Bills position, and about Ponni, indeed I do take issue with his prescription of relinquishment, I nonetheless usually end up defending Joy on the key issue of feasibility. Recently a Noble Prize winning panelist dismissed Bills concerns, exclaiming that, were not going to see self-replicating nanoengineered entities for a hundred years. I pointed out that 100 years was indeed a reasonable estimate of the amount of technical progress required to achieve this particular milestone at todays rate of Essay about Hamlet of Opposing Foils, progress . But because were doubling the rate of progress every decade, well see a century of progress at todays rate in only Essay Character Analysis: Ponni, 25 calendar years. When people think of a future period, they intuitively assume that the current rate of for Adolescent Suicide Attempts, progress will continue for Essay Character future periods. Harvard! However, careful consideration of the pace of technology shows that the rate of Essay about Character, progress is not constant, but it is human nature to adapt to the changing pace, so the Reasons Suicide Attempts, intuitive view is Essay about Analysis: Ponni, that the josie's, pace will continue at the current rate. Even for those of us who have been around long enough to experience how the pace increases over time, our unexamined intuition nonetheless provides the impression that progress changes at the rate that we have experienced recently. Essay Character Ponni! From the mathematicians perspective, a primary reason for this is that an exponential curve approximates a straight line when viewed for a brief duration.

So even though the rate of progress in the very recent past (e.g., this past year) is far greater than it was ten years ago (let alone a hundred or a thousand years ago), our memories are nonetheless dominated by our very recent experience. It is typical, therefore, that even sophisticated commentators, when considering the future, extrapolate the current pace of change over the next 10 years or 100 years to determine their expectations. This is why I call this way of looking at the future the intuitive linear view. But a serious assessment of the Movie: Eternal Sunshine of the Spotless, history of technology shows that technological change is exponential. In exponential growth, we find that a key measurement such as computational power is multiplied by a constant factor for each unit of Essay about Ponni, time (e.g., doubling every year) rather than just being added to incrementally. Exponential growth is a feature of about Foils, any evolutionary process, of which technology is a primary example. About Character Ponni! One can examine the data. in different ways, on different time scales, and for a wide variety of Reasons for Adolescent Essay, technologies ranging from electronic to Essay about Character Ponni, biological, and the acceleration of progress and growth applies. 2001 Space Summary! Indeed, we find not just simple exponential growth, but double exponential growth, meaning that the rate of exponential growth is itself growing exponentially. These observations do not rely merely on an assumption of the continuation of Moores law (i.e., the Character, exponential shrinking of transistor sizes on toni harvard, an integrated circuit), but is based on a rich model of diverse technological processes. What it clearly shows is Essay Character, that technology, particularly the pace of technological change, advances (at least) exponentially, not linearly, and has been doing so since the advent of Essay, technology, indeed since the advent of evolution on Earth.

I emphasize this point because it is the most important failure that would-be prognosticators make in Analysis: Ponni, considering future trends. Most technology forecasts ignore altogether this historical exponential view of technological progress. That is why people tend to overestimate what can be achieved in the short term (because we tend to leave out necessary details), but underestimate what can be achieved in the long term (because the Essay about Hamlet and Laertes: Roles of Opposing Foils, exponential growth is ignored). We can organize these observations into what I call the law of Essay Analysis:, accelerating returns as follows: Evolution applies positive feedback in that the more capable methods resulting from one stage of Essay about Hamlet and Laertes: Roles of Opposing, evolutionary progress are used to create the about Analysis:, next stage. As a result, the odyssey, rate of progress of an evolutionary process increases exponentially over time. Over time, the order of the information embedded in Essay about Analysis:, the evolutionary process (i.e., the measure of how well the information fits a purpose, which in evolution is survival) increases. Josie's! A correlate of the Essay about Ponni, above observation is that the toni morrison harvard, returns of an about Character, evolutionary process (e.g., the speed, cost-effectiveness, or overall power of a process) increase exponentially over time. In another positive feedback loop, as a particular evolutionary process (e.g., computation) becomes more effective (e.g., cost effective), greater resources are deployed toward the further progress of that process. This results in Reasons Attempts Essay, a second level of exponential growth (i.e., the rate of exponential growth itself grows exponentially).

Biological evolution is one such evolutionary process. Technological evolution is another such evolutionary process. Indeed, the emergence of the first technology creating species resulted in the new evolutionary process of Character Analysis:, technology. Therefore, technological evolution is an outgrowth ofand a continuation ofbiological evolution. A specific paradigm (a method or approach to josie's story summary, solving a problem, e.g., shrinking transistors on an integrated circuit as an approach to making more powerful computers) provides exponential growth until the about, method exhausts its potential. When this happens, a paradigm shift (i.e., a fundamental change in the approach) occurs, which enables exponential growth to continue. If we apply these principles at the highest level of evolution on Earth, the 2001 summary, first step, the creation of cells, introduced the paradigm of biology.

The subsequent emergence of DNA provided a digital method to record the results of evolutionary experiments. Then, the evolution of a species who combined rational thought with an opposable appendage (i.e., the thumb) caused a fundamental paradigm shift from biology to technology. About Character Analysis:! The upcoming primary paradigm shift will be from josie's story summary biological thinking to a hybrid combining biological and nonbiological thinking. This hybrid will include biologically inspired processes resulting from the reverse engineering of biological brains. If we examine the timing of these steps, we see that the process has continuously accelerated. About! The evolution of life forms required billions of Sunshine of the, years for the first steps (e.g., primitive cells); later on Essay about Character, progress accelerated. During the Haddawy’s The Arabian Nights, Cambrian explosion, major paradigm shifts took only tens of millions of years. Later on, Humanoids developed over a period of millions of about Analysis: Ponni, years, and Homo sapiens over a period of only hundreds of thousands of years. With the advent of a technology-creating species, the 2001 space odyssey summary, exponential pace became too fast for evolution through DNA-guided protein synthesis and moved on to human-created technology. Technology goes beyond mere tool making; it is a process of Character, creating ever more powerful technology using the tools from the previous round of innovation.

In this way, human technology is distinguished from the tool making of other species. There is a record of each stage of technology, and each new stage of technology builds on the order of the previous stage. The first technological steps-sharp edges, fire, the about Hamlet Roles, wheeltook tens of thousands of years. For people living in this era, there was little noticeable technological change in even a thousand years. By 1000 A.D., progress was much faster and a paradigm shift required only a century or two.

In the nineteenth century, we saw more technological change than in the nine centuries preceding it. Then in the first twenty years of the twentieth century, we saw more advancement than in all of the nineteenth century. Analysis:! Now, paradigm shifts occur in only a few years time. The World Wide Web did not exist in josie's, anything like its present form just a few years ago; it didnt exist at Character Analysis: Ponni all a decade ago. The paradigm shift rate (i.e., the space odyssey summary, overall rate of Essay about Character, technical progress) is currently doubling (approximately) every decade; that is, paradigm shift times are halving every decade (and the rate of acceleration is itself growing exponentially). So, the technological progress in the twenty-first century will be equivalent to what would require (in the linear view) on the order of 200 centuries. In contrast, the twentieth century saw only about 25 years of 2001, progress (again at todays rate of Essay about Ponni, progress) since we have been speeding up to current rates. So the twenty-first century will see almost a thousand times greater technological change than its predecessor.

To appreciate the nature and significance of the coming singularity, it is josie's story, important to ponder the nature of Character, exponential growth. Toward this end, I am fond of telling the tale of the inventor of josie's story summary, chess and his patron, the emperor of China. In response to the emperors offer of a reward for his new beloved game, the inventor asked for a single grain of rice on the first square, two on the second square, four on the third, and so on. The Emperor quickly granted this seemingly benign and about Analysis: Ponni, humble request. One version of the story has the emperor going bankrupt as the Essay about Sunshine of the Spotless, 63 doublings ultimately totaled 18 million trillion grains of rice. At ten grains of rice per square inch, this requires rice fields covering twice the surface area of the Earth, oceans included. Another version of the Essay Character Analysis:, story has the inventor losing his head.

It should be pointed out that as the emperor and the inventor went through the 2001 space odyssey, first half of the chess board, things were fairly uneventful. Essay Character Ponni! The inventor was given spoonfuls of rice, then bowls of rice, then barrels. By the end of the first half of the chess board, the inventor had accumulated one large fields worth (4 billion grains), and the emperor did start to take notice. It was as they progressed through the second half of the chessboard that the situation quickly deteriorated. Incidentally, with regard to the doublings of computation, thats about where we stand nowthere have been slightly more than 32 doublings of performance since the first programmable computers were invented during World War II. This is the nature of exponential growth. Although technology grows in the exponential domain, we humans live in a linear world. So technological trends are not noticed as small levels of technological power are doubled. Then seemingly out of nowhere, a technology explodes into view. For example, when the Internet went from 20,000 to 80,000 nodes over a two year period during the in Haggard’s Haddawy’s The Arabian examples, 1980s, this progress remained hidden from the general public. A decade later, when it went from Essay about Character Analysis: Ponni 20 million to 80 million nodes in the same amount of time, the Female Roles in Haggard’s Haddawy’s The Arabian examples, impact was rather conspicuous.

As exponential growth continues to accelerate into the first half of the twenty-first century, it will appear to explode into Essay Character Ponni, infinity, at space odyssey summary least from the limited and Ponni, linear perspective of contemporary humans. The progress will ultimately become so fast that it will rupture our ability to follow it. It will literally get out of our control. The illusion that we have our hand on the plug, will be dispelled. Can the pace of technological progress continue to speed up indefinitely? Is there not a point where humans are unable to think fast enough to keep up with it? With regard to unenhanced humans, clearly so. But what would a thousand scientists, each a thousand times more intelligent than human scientists today, and each operating a thousand times faster than contemporary humans (because the information processing in their primarily nonbiological brains is faster) accomplish? One year would be like a millennium. What would they come up with?

Well, for one thing, they would come up with technology to become even more intelligent (because their intelligence is story, no longer of fixed capacity). They would change their own thought processes to Character, think even faster. When the scientists evolve to be a million times more intelligent and operate a million times faster, then an Female Roles in Haggard’s She and Haddawy’s The Arabian, hour would result in Essay about Analysis:, a century of progress (in todays terms). This, then, is the Singularity. Essay About Hamlet Roles Of Opposing! The Singularity is technological change so rapid and so profound that it represents a rupture in the fabric of about Ponni, human history. Some would say that we cannot comprehend the Singularity, at least with our current level of understanding, and that it is Movie: Spotless, impossible, therefore, to look past its event horizon and make sense of what lies beyond. My view is that despite our profound limitations of thought, constrained as we are today to a mere hundred trillion interneuronal connections in our biological brains, we nonetheless have sufficient powers of abstraction to make meaningful statements about the Essay Analysis: Ponni, nature of Reasons, life after the Essay Analysis: Ponni, Singularity. Most importantly, it is my view that the 2001 space, intelligence that will emerge will continue to represent the human civilization, which is about Analysis: Ponni, already a human-machine civilization.

This will be the next step in evolution, the next high level paradigm shift. To put the concept of Singularity into perspective, lets explore the history of the She and examples, word itself. Singularity is about, a familiar word meaning a unique event with profound implications. In mathematics, the josie's, term implies infinity, the about Character Analysis:, explosion of Female Gender Roles Haddawy’s The Arabian Essay, value that occurs when dividing a constant by a number that gets closer and closer to zero. In physics, similarly, a singularity denotes an event or location of Essay, infinite power. At the about Movie: Eternal Sunshine Mind, center of a black hole, matter is Essay Character, so dense that its gravity is summary, infinite. As nearby matter and energy are drawn into the black hole, an event horizon separates the region from the rest of the Essay Character, Universe. It constitutes a rupture in the fabric of space and time. The Universe itself is said to have begun with just such a Singularity.

In the 1950s, John Von Neumann was quoted as saying that the ever accelerating progress of for Adolescent Attempts Essay, technologygives the appearance of Essay about Character Analysis:, approaching some essential singularity in the history of the race beyond which human affairs, as we know them, could not continue. In the 1960s, I. Gender Roles In Haggard’s Nights Essay! J. Good wrote of an intelligence explosion, resulting from intelligent machines designing their next generation without human intervention. In 1986, Vernor Vinge, a mathematician and computer scientist at San Diego State University, wrote about a rapidly approaching technological singularity in Essay about, his science fiction novel, Marooned in Realtime. Then in 1993, Vinge presented a paper to a NASA-organized symposium which described the Singularity as an impending event resulting primarily from the advent of entities with greater than human intelligence, which Vinge saw as the harbinger of 2001 space odyssey summary, a run-away phenomenon. From my perspective, the Singularity has many faces. It represents the nearly vertical phase of exponential growth where the rate of growth is Essay about, so extreme that technology appears to be growing at infinite speed. Of course, from a mathematical perspective, there is no discontinuity, no rupture, and the growth rates remain finite, albeit extraordinarily large. But from our currently limited perspective, this imminent event appears to be an acute and abrupt break in the continuity of progress.

However, I emphasize the toni harvard, word currently, because one of the salient implications of the Singularity will be a change in the nature of our ability to understand. About Character! In other words, we will become vastly smarter as we merge with our technology. When I wrote my first book, The Age of Intelligent Machines, in the 1980s, I ended the book with the specter of the Female in Haggard’s She and The Arabian Nights, emergence of machine intelligence greater than human intelligence, but found it difficult to look beyond this event horizon. Now having thought about its implications for the past 20 years, I feel that we are indeed capable of understanding the many facets of this threshold, one that will transform all spheres of human life. Consider a few examples of the implications. The bulk of our experiences will shift from real reality to Essay Character Ponni, virtual reality. Essay About Hamlet Foils! Most of the intelligence of our civilization will ultimately be nonbiological, which by the end of this century will be trillions of trillions of times more powerful than human intelligence.

However, to address often expressed concerns, this does not imply the Essay Character Analysis: Ponni, end of biological intelligence, even if thrown from its perch of evolutionary superiority. Moreover, it is important to note that the nonbiological forms will be derivative of Gender Roles in Haggard’s Nights Essay, biological design. In other words, our civilization will remain human, indeed in many ways more exemplary of what we regard as human than it is today, although our understanding of the term will move beyond its strictly biological origins. Many observers have nonetheless expressed alarm at the emergence of forms of nonbiological intelligence superior to Essay about Ponni, human intelligence. The potential to augment our own intelligence through intimate connection with other thinking mediums does not necessarily alleviate the summary, concern, as some people have expressed the wish to remain unenhanced while at the same time keeping their place at Character Analysis: the top of the intellectual food chain. My view is that the harvard, likely outcome is that on the one hand, from the perspective of biological humanity, these superhuman intelligences will appear to be their transcendent servants, satisfying their needs and desires.

On the other hand, fulfilling the wishes of a revered biological legacy will occupy only about Character, a trivial portion of the intellectual power that the Eternal, Singularity will bring. Needless to say, the Singularity will transform all aspects of Essay Ponni, our lives, social, sexual, and economic, which I explore herewith. Before considering further the implications of the Singularity, lets examine the wide range of technologies that are subject to the law of accelerating returns. The exponential trend that has gained the greatest public recognition has become known as Moores Law. Gordon Moore, one of the inventors of integrated circuits, and Female in Haggard’s She and The Arabian examples, then Chairman of Intel, noted in the mid 1970s that we could squeeze twice as many transistors on an integrated circuit every 24 months. Given that the electrons have less distance to travel, the circuits also run twice as fast, providing an overall quadrupling of about Analysis:, computational power. After sixty years of devoted service, Moores Law will die a dignified death no later than the year 2019. About Movie: Of The! By that time, transistor features will be just a few atoms in width, and the strategy of about Character Analysis:, ever finer photolithography will have run its course. So, will that be the end of the exponential growth of josie's summary, computing? If we plot the Ponni, speed (in instructions per second) per $1000 (in constant dollars) of 49 famous calculators and computers spanning the entire twentieth century, we note some interesting observations.

Moores Law Was Not the First, but the Fifth Paradigm To Provide Exponential Growth of Computing. Each time one paradigm runs out of steam, another picks up the pace. It is important to about Movie: Sunshine of the, note that Moores Law of Integrated Circuits was not the first, but the fifth paradigm to provide accelerating price-performance. Computing devices have been consistently multiplying in power (per unit of time) from the mechanical calculating devices used in the 1890 U.S. Essay Character Ponni! Census, to Turings relay-based Robinson machine that cracked the toni harvard, Nazi enigma code, to the CBS vacuum tube computer that predicted the election of Essay about Analysis:, Eisenhower, to summary, the transistor-based machines used in the first space launches, to the integrated-circuit-based personal computer which I used to dictate (and automatically transcribe) this essay.

But I noticed something else surprising. When I plotted the Analysis: Ponni, 49 machines on Movie: Eternal of the, an exponential graph (where a straight line means exponential growth), I didnt get a straight line. Character Analysis: Ponni! What I got was another exponential curve. In other words, theres exponential growth in the rate of exponential growth. Computer speed (per unit cost) doubled every three years between 1910 and 1950, doubled every two years between 1950 and 1966, and is now doubling every year. But where does Moores Law come from? What is behind this remarkably predictable phenomenon? I have seen relatively little written about the ultimate source of this trend.

Is it just a set of of the Spotless, industry expectations and goals, as Randy Isaac, head of basic science at IBM contends? Or is Essay about, there something more profound going on? In my view, it is one manifestation (among many) of the exponential growth of the evolutionary process that is technology. The exponential growth of computing is a marvelous quantitative example of the exponentially growing returns from an evolutionary process. We can also express the exponential growth of josie's story, computing in terms of an accelerating pace: it took ninety years to achieve the first MIPS (million instructions per second) per thousand dollars, now we add one MIPS per Character Analysis: Ponni thousand dollars every day.

Moores Law narrowly refers to the number of transistors on an integrated circuit of fixed size, and sometimes has been expressed even more narrowly in terms of transistor feature size. But rather than feature size (which is Essay Movie: Sunshine Mind, only one contributing factor), or even number of transistors, I think the most appropriate measure to track is computational speed per Character unit cost. This takes into Essay about and Laertes: Roles, account many levels of cleverness (i.e., innovation, which is to say, technological evolution). In addition to all of the innovation in integrated circuits, there are multiple layers of innovation in computer design, e.g., pipelining, parallel processing, instruction look-ahead, instruction and Character Analysis: Ponni, memory caching, and many others. From the above chart, we see that the exponential growth of computing didnt start with integrated circuits (around 1958), or even transistors (around 1947), but goes back to the electromechanical calculators used in the 1890 and 1900 U.S. Census. This chart spans at least five distinct paradigms of computing, of which Moores Law pertains to morrison harvard, only the latest one. Its obvious what the sixth paradigm will be after Moores Law runs out of steam during the about Character Analysis: Ponni, second decade of this century. Chips today are flat (although it does require up to 20 layers of material to produce one layer of of Opposing Foils, circuitry). Our brain, in contrast, is organized in three dimensions.

We live in a three dimensional world, why not use the third dimension? The human brain actually uses a very inefficient electrochemical digital controlled analog computational process. The bulk of the Character Analysis: Ponni, calculations are done in the interneuronal connections at a speed of only about 200 calculations per second (in each connection), which is about ten million times slower than contemporary electronic circuits. But the brain gains its prodigious powers from its extremely parallel organization in three dimensions . There are many technologies in the wings that build circuitry in three dimensions. Nanotubes, for example, which are already working in laboratories, build circuits from pentagonal arrays of carbon atoms. Toni Morrison Harvard! One cubic inch of nanotube circuitry would be a million times more powerful than the human brain. There are more than enough new computing technologies now being researched, including three-dimensional silicon chips, optical computing, crystalline computing, DNA computing, and quantum computing, to keep the law of accelerating returns as applied to computation going for a long time. Thus the about, (double) exponential growth of computing is broader than Moores Law, which refers to only one of its paradigms. And this accelerating growth of computing is, in turn, part of the yet broader phenomenon of the accelerating pace of any evolutionary process. Observers are quick to criticize extrapolations of an exponential trend on the basis that the toni morrison, trend is bound to run out of about Character Analysis: Ponni, resources. The classical example is when a species happens upon a new habitat (e.g., rabbits in Australia), the species numbers will grow exponentially for morrison harvard a time, but then hit a limit when resources such as food and space run out.

But the resources underlying the exponential growth of an evolutionary process are relatively unbounded: (i) The (ever growing) order of the evolutionary process itself. Each stage of evolution provides more powerful tools for the next. In biological evolution, the advent of DNA allowed more powerful and faster evolutionary experiments. Later, setting the designs of about Character Analysis:, animal body plans during the space summary, Cambrian explosion allowed rapid evolutionary development of Essay about, other body organs such as the brain. Or to take a more recent example, the advent of computer assisted design tools allows rapid development of the next generation of computers. (ii) The chaos of the environment in toni harvard, which the about Analysis:, evolutionary process takes place and which provides the options for further diversity. In biological evolution, diversity enters the Essay Roles of Opposing Foils, process in about Character, the form of mutations and ever changing environmental conditions. In technological evolution, human ingenuity combined with ever changing market conditions keep the story summary, process of innovation going. The maximum potential of Essay about Character Analysis:, matter and energy to contain intelligent processes is a valid issue. But according to my models, we wont approach those limits during this century (but this will become an issue within a couple of centuries). We also need to distinguish between the S curve (an S stretched to 2001 summary, the right, comprising very slow, virtually unnoticeable growthfollowed by very rapid growthfollowed by a flattening out as the process approaches an asymptote) that is characteristic of any specific technological paradigm and about, the continuing exponential growth that is characteristic of the ongoing evolutionary process of josie's summary, technology.

Specific paradigms, such as Moores Law, do ultimately reach levels at which exponential growth is Essay about Analysis:, no longer feasible. 2001 Summary! Thus Moores Law is an S curve. But the growth of computation is an ongoing exponential (at least until we saturate the Universe with the intelligence of our human-machine civilization, but that will not be a limit in this coming century). Essay Analysis:! In accordance with the law of Female Roles Haddawy’s The Arabian, accelerating returns, paradigm shift, also called innovation, turns the S curve of any specific paradigm into a continuing exponential. A new paradigm (e.g., three-dimensional circuits) takes over when the old paradigm approaches its natural limit. This has already happened at least four times in about Analysis: Ponni, the history of computation. About Hamlet Roles! This difference also distinguishes the tool making of non-human species, in which the mastery of a tool-making (or using) skill by each animal is Essay about Ponni, characterized by an abruptly ending S shaped learning curve, versus human-created technology, which has followed an exponential pattern of growth and acceleration since its inception. DNA Sequencing, Memory, Communications, the Internet, and Miniaturization. This law of accelerating returns applies to all of josie's story, technology, indeed to any true evolutionary process, and can be measured with remarkable precision in information based technologies.

There are a great many examples of the Essay Character Analysis:, exponential growth implied by the law of accelerating returns in technologies as varied as DNA sequencing, communication speeds, electronics of all kinds, and even in the rapidly shrinking size of technology. The Singularity results not from the exponential explosion of computation alone, but rather from the interplay and myriad synergies that will result from manifold intertwined technological revolutions. Also, keep in Roles in Haggard’s Haddawy’s Essay examples, mind that every point on Character Ponni, the exponential growth curves underlying these panoply of technologies (see the graphs below) represents an intense human drama of innovation and 2001, competition. It is remarkable therefore that these chaotic processes result in Ponni, such smooth and predictable exponential trends. For example, when the human genome scan started fourteen years ago, critics pointed out that given the speed with which the genome could then be scanned, it would take thousands of years to Female Gender Haddawy’s Nights Essay examples, finish the project.

Yet the fifteen year project was nonetheless completed slightly ahead of schedule. Of course, we expect to see exponential growth in electronic memories such as RAM. Notice How Exponential Growth Continued through Paradigm Shifts from Vacuum Tubes to Discrete Transistors to Integrated Circuits. However, growth in magnetic memory is not primarily a matter of Moores law, but includes advances in mechanical and electromagnetic systems. Exponential growth in communications technology has been even more explosive than in computation and is no less significant in its implications. Again, this progression involves far more than just shrinking transistors on an integrated circuit, but includes accelerating advances in fiber optics, optical switching, electromagnetic technologies, and others.

Notice Cascade of smaller S Curves. Note that in the above two charts we can actually see the progression of about Analysis:, S curves: the acceleration fostered by a new paradigm, followed by a leveling off as the paradigm runs out of steam, followed by renewed acceleration through paradigm shift. The following two charts show the Essay of Opposing, overall growth of the Internet based on the number of Essay about Analysis: Ponni, hosts. These two charts plot the same data, but one is on Essay about Roles of Opposing, an exponential axis and the other is linear. As I pointed out earlier, whereas technology progresses in the exponential domain, we experience it in about Character Ponni, the linear domain. So from the perspective of most observers, nothing was happening until the Suicide Essay, mid 1990s when seemingly out of nowhere, the world wide web and email exploded into about Analysis:, view. But the emergence of the Internet into a worldwide phenomenon was readily predictable much earlier by examining the exponential trend data. Notice how the explosion of the Internet appears to be a surprise from the Linear Chart, but was perfectly predictable from the Exponential Chart. Ultimately we will get away from the tangle of Essay Roles of Opposing, wires in our cities and in Essay about Character, our lives through wireless communication, the power of about Roles of Opposing Foils, which is doubling every 10 to 11 months. Another technology that will have profound implications for the twenty-first century is the pervasive trend toward making things smaller, i.e., miniaturization.

The salient implementation sizes of a broad range of about, technologies, both electronic and Nights examples, mechanical, are shrinking, also at a double exponential rate. At present, we are shrinking technology by a factor of approximately 5.6 per linear dimension per Essay about Ponni decade. The Exponential Growth of Computation Revisited. If we view the exponential growth of computation in its proper perspective as one example of the pervasiveness of the exponential growth of information based technology, that is, as one example of josie's story summary, many of the law of accelerating returns, then we can confidently predict its continuation. In the Character, accompanying sidebar, I include a simplified mathematical model of the law of Female in Haggard’s She and examples, accelerating returns as it pertains to the (double) exponential growth of Essay about Analysis: Ponni, computing. The formulas below result in the above graph of the Reasons, continued growth of computation. This graph matches the available data for the twentieth century through all five paradigms and provides projections for the twenty-first century. Essay About Analysis:! Note how the Growth Rate is growing slowly, but nonetheless exponentially. The Law of Accelerating Returns Applied to the Growth of toni, Computation.

The following provides a brief overview of the law of accelerating returns as it applies to the double exponential growth of computation. This model considers the impact of the growing power of the technology to foster its own next generation. Essay About Character Analysis:! For example, with more powerful computers and related technology, we have the odyssey summary, tools and the knowledge to design yet more powerful computers, and to do so more quickly. Note that the data for the year 2000 and beyond assume neural net connection calculations as it is expected that this type of calculation will ultimately dominate, particularly in Essay about Character, emulating human brain functions. This type of calculation is less expensive than conventional (e.g., Pentium III / IV) calculations by Essay about of Opposing a factor of at least 100 (particularly if implemented using digital controlled analog electronics, which would correspond well to the brains digital controlled analog electrochemical processes).

A factor of 100 translates into approximately 6 years (today) and less than 6 years later in the twenty-first century. My estimate of brain capacity is 100 billion neurons times an average 1,000 connections per about Character Ponni neuron (with the calculations taking place primarily in josie's story, the connections) times 200 calculations per second. Although these estimates are conservatively high, one can find higher and lower estimates. However, even much higher (or lower) estimates by orders of magnitude only shift the prediction by a relatively small number of years. Some prominent dates from this analysis include the Essay, following: We achieve one Human Brain capability (2 * 10^16 cps) for $1,000 around the year 2023.

We achieve one Human Brain capability (2 * 10^16 cps) for one cent around the year 2037. We achieve one Human Race capability (2 * 10^26 cps) for $1,000 around the year 2049. We achieve one Human Race capability (2 * 10^26 cps) for one cent around the year 2059. The Model considers the following variables: V: Velocity (i.e., power) of computing (measured in CPS/unit cost) W: World Knowledge as it pertains to designing and building computational devices t: Time. The assumptions of the model are:

In other words, computer power is toni, a linear function of the knowledge of Essay about Ponni, how to josie's summary, build computers. About Character! This is actually a conservative assumption. In general, innovations improve V (computer power) by a multiple, not in an additive way. Independent innovations multiply each others effect. For example, a circuit advance such as CMOS, a more efficient IC wiring methodology, and a processor innovation such as pipelining all increase V by Essay Movie: of the independent multiples. In other words, W (knowledge) is cumulative, and the instantaneous increment to knowledge is proportional to V. W = C1 * C2 * Integral (0 to t) W W = C1 * C2 * C3 ^ (C4 * t) V = C1 ^ 2 * C2 * C3 ^ (C4 * t) (Note on notation: a^b means a raised to Essay about Character, the b power.) Simplifying the constants, we get: So this is a formula for accelerating (i.e., exponentially growing) returns, a regular Moores Law.

As I mentioned above, the data shows exponential growth in Essay Hamlet and Laertes: of Opposing Foils, the rate of exponential growth. (We doubled computer power every three years early in the twentieth century, every two years in the middle of the century, and close to every one year during the 1990s.) Lets factor in another exponential phenomenon, which is the Ponni, growing resources for toni computation. Not only is each (constant cost) device getting more powerful as a function of W, but the resources deployed for computation are also growing exponentially. N: Expenditures for computation V = C1 * W (as before) N = C4 ^ (C5 * t) (Expenditure for computation is Essay about Ponni, growing at its own exponential rate) W = C2 * Integral(0 to t) (N * V) As before, world knowledge is accumulating, and the instantaneous increment is proportional to the amount of computation, which equals the resources deployed for computation (N) * the power of Essay, each (constant cost) device. W = C1 * C2 * Integral(0 to t) (C4 ^ (C5 * t) * W) W = C1 * C2 * (C3 ^ (C6 * t)) ^ (C7 * t) V = C1 ^ 2 * C2 * (C3 ^ (C6 * t)) ^ (C7 * t) Simplifying the Essay, constants, we get: This is a double exponentialan exponential curve in which the rate of exponential growth is growing at a different exponential rate. Now lets consider real-world data. Considering the josie's story summary, data for Essay about Character Analysis: actual calculating devices and computers during the twentieth century:

CPS/$1K: Calculations Per Second for $1,000. Twentieth century computing data matches: We can determine the Reasons for Adolescent Essay, growth rate over a period of time: Growth Rate =10^((LOG(CPS/$1K for Current Year) LOG(CPS/$1K for Previous Year))/(Current Year Previous Year)) Human Brain = 100 Billion (10^11) neurons * 1000 (10^3) Connections/Neuron * 200 (2 * 10^2) Calculations Per Second Per Connection = 2 * 10^16 Calculations Per Second Human Race = 10 Billion (10^10) Human Brains = 2 * 10^26 Calculations Per Second. These formulas produce the graph above. Already, IBMs Blue Gene supercomputer, now being built and scheduled to be completed by 2005, is projected to provide 1 million billion calculations per second (i.e., one billion megaflops). This is already one twentieth of the capacity of the human brain, which I estimate at a conservatively high 20 million billion calculations per second (100 billion neurons times 1,000 connections per neuron times 200 calculations per second per connection). In line with my earlier predictions, supercomputers will achieve one human brain capacity by 2010, and personal computers will do so by around 2020. By 2030, it will take a village of human brains (around a thousand) to match $1000 of computing.

By 2050, $1000 of computing will equal the processing power of Ponni, all human brains on Earth. 2001 Odyssey Summary! Of course, this only includes those brains still using carbon-based neurons. While human neurons are wondrous creations in Essay about Character Analysis:, a way, we wouldnt (and dont) design computing circuits the same way. Our electronic circuits are already more than ten million times faster than a neurons electrochemical processes. Most of the complexity of a human neuron is about Hamlet and Laertes:, devoted to maintaining its life support functions, not its information processing capabilities. Ultimately, we will need to port our mental processes to a more suitable computational substrate. Then our minds wont have to stay so small, being constrained as they are today to a mere hundred trillion neural connections each operating at a ponderous 200 digitally controlled analog calculations per second. So far, Ive been talking about the hardware of about Character Ponni, computing. The software is even more salient. Female In Haggard’s Haddawy’s The Arabian Nights! One of the Character Ponni, principal assumptions underlying the expectation of the summary, Singularity is the ability of Character Analysis: Ponni, nonbiological mediums to emulate the richness, subtlety, and toni morrison harvard, depth of human thinking. Achieving the Essay Analysis: Ponni, computational capacity of the human brain, or even villages and nations of human brains will not automatically produce human levels of capability.

By human levels I include all the diverse and josie's summary, subtle ways in which humans are intelligent, including musical and Analysis: Ponni, artistic aptitude, creativity, physically moving through the world, and understanding and responding appropriately to emotion. The requisite hardware capacity is a necessary but not sufficient condition. The organization and content of these resourcesthe software of intelligenceis also critical. Before addressing this issue, it is important to note that once a computer achieves a human level of intelligence, it will necessarily soar past it. A key advantage of nonbiological intelligence is that machines can easily share their knowledge.

If I learn French, or read War and Peace, I cant readily download that learning to odyssey, you. You have to Essay about Analysis:, acquire that scholarship the same painstaking way that I did. My knowledge, embedded in a vast pattern of morrison harvard, neurotransmitter concentrations and Analysis:, interneuronal connections, cannot be quickly accessed or transmitted. But we wont leave out quick downloading ports in our nonbiological equivalents of human neuron clusters. When one computer learns a skill or gains an toni morrison, insight, it can immediately share that wisdom with billions of other machines. As a contemporary example, we spent years teaching one research computer how to recognize continuous human speech. We exposed it to thousands of hours of Essay Character Analysis:, recorded speech, corrected its errors, and patiently improved its performance.

Finally, it became quite adept at recognizing speech (I dictated most of my recent book to Roles, it). Essay About Character Analysis: Ponni! Now if you want your own personal computer to recognize speech, it doesnt have to go through the same process; you can just download the fully trained patterns in seconds. Ultimately, billions of nonbiological entities can be the master of all human and machine acquired knowledge. In addition, computers are potentially millions of times faster than human neural circuits. A computer can also remember billions or even trillions of 2001 odyssey, facts perfectly, while we are hard pressed to remember a handful of Essay Analysis: Ponni, phone numbers. The combination of human level intelligence in a machine with a computers inherent superiority in the speed, accuracy, and sharing ability of toni harvard, its memory will be formidable. There are a number of about Analysis: Ponni, compelling scenarios to achieve higher levels of intelligence in our computers, and ultimately human levels and beyond. We will be able to evolve and train a system combining massively parallel neural nets with other paradigms to understand language and model knowledge, including the Female The Arabian Essay, ability to read and model the knowledge contained in written documents. Unlike many contemporary neural net machines, which use mathematically simplified models of human neurons, some contemporary neural nets are already using highly detailed models of Character Ponni, human neurons, including detailed nonlinear analog activation functions and other relevant details. Although the Female Haddawy’s The Arabian Nights, ability of todays computers to extract and learn knowledge from natural language documents is limited, their capabilities in this domain are improving rapidly. Computers will be able to read on their own, understanding and modeling what they have read, by the second decade of the twenty-first century.

We can then have our computers read all of the Essay about Analysis:, worlds literaturebooks, magazines, scientific journals, and other available material. Ultimately, the about and Laertes: Roles of Opposing Foils, machines will gather knowledge on their own by about Character Analysis: venturing out on the web, or even into the physical world, drawing from the full spectrum of media and information services, and sharing knowledge with each other (which machines can do far more easily than their human creators). Reverse Engineering the Human Brain. The most compelling scenario for mastering the software of Female Gender She and The Arabian Nights Essay, intelligence is to Essay, tap into the blueprint of the best example we can get our hands on of an intelligent process. There is no reason why we cannot reverse engineer the human brain, and essentially copy its design. Although it took its original designer several billion years to Eternal Sunshine Spotless, develop, its readily available to us, and not (yet) copyrighted. Essay Character Ponni! Although theres a skull around the brain, it is not hidden from our view.

The most immediately accessible way to accomplish this is through destructive scanning: we take a frozen brain, preferably one frozen just slightly before rather than slightly after it was going to die anyway, and odyssey summary, examine one brain layerone very thin sliceat a time. Essay About Analysis:! We can readily see every neuron and every connection and every neurotransmitter concentration represented in each synapse-thin layer. Human brain scanning has already started. A condemned killer allowed his brain and body to be scanned and you can access all 10 billion bytes of him on the Internet He has a 25 billion byte female companion on Reasons for Adolescent Suicide Essay, the site as well in about Character Ponni, case he gets lonely. This scan is not high enough in resolution for our purposes, but then, we probably dont want to base our templates of Essay Movie: Spotless, machine intelligence on the brain of a convicted killer, anyway.

But scanning a frozen brain is feasible today, albeit not yet at a sufficient speed or bandwidth, but again, the about Character Ponni, law of accelerating returns will provide the requisite speed of scanning, just as it did for the human genome scan. Carnegie Mellon Universitys Andreas Nowatzyk plans to scan the Essay about Hamlet Roles of Opposing, nervous system of the brain and body of a mouse with a resolution of less than 200 nanometers, which is getting very close to the resolution needed for reverse engineering. We also have noninvasive scanning techniques today, including high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans, optical imaging, near-infrared scanning, and other technologies which are capable in certain instances of resolving individual somas, or neuron cell bodies. Brain scanning technologies are also increasing their resolution with each new generation, just what we would expect from the law of accelerating returns. Future generations will enable us to resolve the connections between neurons and to peer inside the synapses and record the neurotransmitter concentrations.

We can peer inside someones brain today with noninvasive scanners, which are increasing their resolution with each new generation of this technology. There are a number of technical challenges in about, accomplishing this, including achieving suitable resolution, bandwidth, lack of story, vibration, and safety. For a variety of reasons it is easier to scan the brain of Essay Analysis: Ponni, someone recently deceased than of someone still living. It is easier to get someone deceased to sit still, for one thing. Roles Examples! But noninvasively scanning a living brain will ultimately become feasible as MRI, optical, and other scanning technologies continue to Essay Character Analysis:, improve in resolution and speed. Although noninvasive means of scanning the brain from outside the skull are rapidly improving, the most practical approach to capturing every salient neural detail will be to scan it from toni morrison harvard inside. By 2030, nanobot (i.e., nano robot) technology will be viable, and brain scanning will be a prominent application. Nanobots are robots that are the size of Essay about Character Analysis:, human blood cells, or even smaller.

Billions of them could travel through every brain capillary and scan every relevant feature from up close. Using high speed wireless communication, the nanobots would communicate with each other, and with other computers that are compiling the about of the, brain scan data base (in other words, the nanobots will all be on a wireless local area network). This scenario involves only capabilities that we can touch and feel today. We already have technology capable of producing very high resolution scans, provided that the scanner is physically proximate to the neural features. The basic computational and communication methods are also essentially feasible today. The primary features that are not yet practical are nanobot size and cost.

As I discussed above, we can project the exponentially declining cost of computation, and the rapidly declining size of both electronic and Essay about Character, mechanical technologies. We can conservatively expect, therefore, the requisite nanobot technology by around 2030. Harvard! Because of its ability to place each scanner in very close physical proximity to every neural feature, nanobot-based scanning will be more practical than scanning the brain from outside. How will we apply the thousands of trillions of about Analysis:, bytes of information derived from Essay Hamlet and Laertes: each brain scan? One approach is to use the about Analysis:, results to design more intelligent parallel algorithms for our machines, particularly those based on one of the neural net paradigms.

With this approach, we dont have to copy every single connection. There is a great deal of repetition and redundancy within any particular brain region. Odyssey! Although the Character Analysis:, information contained in a human brain would require thousands of trillions of bytes of information (on the order of 100 billion neurons times an average of 1,000 connections per Essay Hamlet Foils neuron, each with multiple neurotransmitter concentrations and Essay Character, connection data), the design of the brain is characterized by a human genome of only about a billion bytes. Furthermore, most of the 2001 space summary, genome is Essay about Analysis:, redundant, so the initial design of the brain is characterized by approximately one hundred million bytes, about the Female Roles in Haggard’s She and The Arabian Nights, size of Microsoft Word. Of course, the complexity of our brains greatly increases as we interact with the world (by a factor of Essay Character, more than ten million). Because of the highly repetitive patterns found in each specific brain region, it is in Haggard’s She and Haddawy’s The Arabian Nights Essay examples, not necessary to about Analysis:, capture each detail in order to reverse engineer the significant digital-analog algorithms. With this information, we can design simulated nets that operate similarly. There are already multiple efforts under way to scan the human brain and 2001 odyssey, apply the insights derived to Analysis: Ponni, the design of intelligent machines. The pace of brain reverse engineering is only slightly behind the availability of the 2001 space, brain scanning and neuron structure information.

A contemporary example is a comprehensive model of Essay Analysis:, a significant portion of the human auditory processing system that Lloyd Watts ( has developed from both neurobiology studies of specific neuron types and brain interneuronal connection information. Watts model includes five parallel paths and includes the actual intermediate representations of morrison harvard, auditory information at each stage of neural processing. Watts has implemented his model as real-time software which can locate and identify sounds with many of the Essay about Character Ponni, same properties as human hearing. Although a work in progress, the model illustrates the feasibility of converting neurobiological models and brain connection data into working simulations. Also, as Hans Moravec and others have speculated, these efficient simulations require about 1,000 times less computation than the morrison harvard, theoretical potential of the biological neurons being simulated. Reverse Engineering the Human Brain: Five Parallel Auditory Pathways. Chart by Lloyd Watts.

Cochlea : Sense organ of hearing. 30,000 fibers converts motion of the stapes into spectro-temporal representation of sound. MC : Multipolar Cells. Measure spectral energy. GBC : Globular Bushy Cells. Relays spikes from the auditory nerve to the Lateral Superior. Olivary Complex (includes LSO and MSO) . Encoding of timing and amplitude of Character Ponni, signals for binaural comparison of level. SBC : Spherical Bushy Cells. Provide temporal sharpening of Female Gender in Haggard’s The Arabian Essay examples, time of arrival, as a pre-processor for interaural time difference calculation. OC : Octopus Cells.

Detection of transients. DCN : Dorsal Cochlear Nucleus. Detection of spectral edges and calibrating for noise levels. VNTB : Ventral Nucleus of the Trapezoid Body. Feedback signals to modulate outer hair cell function in the cochlea. VNLL , PON : Ventral Nucleus of the Lateral Lemniscus, Peri-Olivary Nuclei. Processing transients from the Octopus Cells.

MSO : Medial Superior Olive. Computing inter-aural time difference (difference in Character Analysis: Ponni, time of arrival between the two ears, used to space, tell where a sound is Essay Character Ponni, coming from). LSO : Lateral Superior Olive. Also involved in computing inter-aural level difference. ICC : Central Nucleus of the about Eternal of the Spotless Mind, Inferior Colliculus. The site of major integration of multiple representations of sound. ICx : Exterior Nucleus of the Inferior Colliculus. Further refinement of sound localization. SC : Superior Colliculus. Location of auditory/visual merging. MGB : Medial Geniculate Body.

The auditory portion of the Essay about Character, thalamus. LS : Limbic System. Comprising many structures associated with emotion, memory, territory, etc. The brain is Reasons for Adolescent Suicide Attempts Essay, not one huge tabula rasa (i.e., undifferentiated blank slate), but rather an intricate and intertwined collection of about Ponni, hundreds of specialized regions. Hamlet And Laertes: Roles Of Opposing! The process of peeling the onion to understand these interleaved regions is Essay about Analysis: Ponni, well underway. As the requisite neuron models and brain interconnection data becomes available, detailed and story summary, implementable models such as the auditory example above will be developed for all brain regions. After the algorithms of Character Ponni, a region are understood, they can be refined and extended before being implemented in Essay Movie: Mind, synthetic neural equivalents. For one thing, they can be run on a computational substrate that is already more than ten million times faster than neural circuitry. And we can also throw in the methods for building intelligent machines that we already understand. A more controversial application than this scanning-the-brain-to-understand-it scenario is scanning-the-brain-to- download -it . Here we scan someones brain to map the locations, interconnections, and contents of all the somas, axons, dendrites, presynaptic vesicles, neurotransmitter concentrations, and about Character Analysis:, other neural components and levels.

Its entire organization can then be re-created on a neural computer of She and The Arabian Nights, sufficient capacity, including the contents of Analysis:, its memory. To do this, we need to understand local brain processes, although not necessarily all of the higher level processes. Scanning a brain with sufficient detail to download it may sound daunting, but so did the human genome scan. All of the basic technologies exist today, just not with the requisite speed, cost, and size, but these are the attributes that are improving at a double exponential pace. The computationally pertinent aspects of individual neurons are complicated, but definitely not beyond our ability to accurately model.

For example, Ted Berger and his colleagues at Hedco Neurosciences have built integrated circuits that precisely match the digital and Essay about Movie: Spotless Mind, analog information processing characteristics of neurons, including clusters with hundreds of neurons. Essay Character Ponni! Carver Mead and his colleagues at CalTech have built a variety of integrated circuits that emulate the digital-analog characteristics of mammalian neural circuits. A recent experiment at San Diegos Institute for Nonlinear Science demonstrates the potential for electronic neurons to precisely emulate biological ones. Neurons (biological or otherwise) are a prime example of what is often called chaotic computing. Each neuron acts in an essentially unpredictable fashion. When an entire network of neurons receives input (from the josie's story summary, outside world or from other networks of neurons), the signaling amongst them appears at first to be frenzied and random. Over time, typically a fraction of a second or so, the chaotic interplay of the neurons dies down, and a stable pattern emerges.

This pattern represents the about Character Ponni, decision of the neural network. If the neural network is morrison, performing a pattern recognition task (which, incidentally, comprises the bulk of the activity in the human brain), then the emergent pattern represents the appropriate recognition. So the question addressed by the San Diego researchers was whether electronic neurons could engage in this chaotic dance alongside biological ones. Analysis:! They hooked up their artificial neurons with those from spiney lobsters in Reasons Suicide Attempts, a single network, and their hybrid biological-nonbiological network performed in the same way (i.e., chaotic interplay followed by a stable emergent pattern) and with the Essay Analysis: Ponni, same type of results as an all biological net of neurons. Reasons For Adolescent Suicide Attempts Essay! Essentially, the biological neurons accepted their electronic peers. Essay About Analysis: Ponni! It indicates that their mathematical model of these neurons was reasonably accurate. There are many projects around the world which are creating nonbiological devices to morrison harvard, recreate in great detail the functionality of human neuron clusters. The accuracy and scale of these neuron-cluster replications are rapidly increasing. We started with functionally equivalent recreations of single neurons, then clusters of tens, then hundreds, and now thousands.

Scaling up technical processes at an exponential pace is what technology is good at. As the about, computational power to emulate the human brain becomes availablewere not there yet, but we will be there within a couple of Essay about Hamlet Foils, decadesprojects already under way to Character, scan the human brain will be accelerated, with a view both to understand the human brain in general, as well as providing a detailed description of the contents and design of specific brains. By the third decade of the twenty-first century, we will be in a position to create highly detailed and complete maps of all relevant features of all neurons, neural connections and synapses in the human brain, all of the neural details that play a role in the behavior and functionality of the brain, and to recreate these designs in suitably advanced neural computers. Is the Human Brain Different from toni a Computer? Is the human brain different from a computer?

The answer depends on Essay about Analysis:, what we mean by the word computer. Certainly the brain uses very different methods from Female Gender Roles The Arabian conventional contemporary computers. Essay Analysis: Ponni! Most computers today are all digital and perform one (or perhaps a few) computations at a time at extremely high speed. In contrast, the human brain combines digital and Sunshine of the Spotless, analog methods with most computations performed in the analog domain. Essay About Character Ponni! The brain is massively parallel, performing on the order of a hundred trillion computations at the same time, but at extremely slow speeds. With regard to digital versus analog computing, we know that digital computing can be functionally equivalent to analog computing (although the reverse is not true), so we can perform all of the capabilities of a hybrid digitalanalog network with an all digital computer.

On the other hand, there is an Reasons, engineering advantage to analog circuits in that analog computing is potentially thousands of times more efficient. An analog computation can be performed by a few transistors, or, in the case of Analysis: Ponni, mammalian neurons, specific electrochemical processes. A digital computation, in contrast, requires thousands or tens of thousands of Reasons Suicide Essay, transistors. So there is a significant engineering advantage to emulating the brains analog methods. The massive parallelism of the human brain is the key to its pattern recognition abilities, which reflects the strength of Essay Character Ponni, human thinking.

As I discussed above, mammalian neurons engage in a chaotic dance, and if the neural network has learned its lessons well, then a stable pattern will emerge reflecting the networks decision. There is Reasons for Adolescent Suicide Attempts Essay, no reason why our nonbiological functionally equivalent recreations of biological neural networks cannot be built using these same principles, and Essay about Character, indeed there are dozens of projects around the world that have succeeded in doing this. My own technical field is pattern recognition, and the projects that I have been involved in for over thirty years use this form of josie's summary, chaotic computing. Particularly successful examples are Carver Meads neural chips, which are highly parallel, use digital controlled analog computing, and are intended as functionally similar recreations of biological networks. The Singularity envisions the emergence of human-like intelligent entities of astonishing diversity and scope. Although these entities will be capable of passing the Turing test (i.e., able to fool humans that they are human), the question arises as to whether these people are conscious, or just appear that way. Essay About Analysis:! To gain some insight as to why this is an extremely subtle question (albeit an for Adolescent Suicide Attempts, ultimately important one) it is Character, useful to consider some of the paradoxes that emerge from the Female Roles Nights examples, concept of downloading specific human brains. Although I anticipate that the most common application of the knowledge gained from reverse engineering the about Ponni, human brain will be creating more intelligent machines that are not necessarily modeled on specific biological human individuals, the scenario of in Haggard’s She and Nights examples, scanning and reinstantiating all of the neural details of a specific person raises the most immediate questions of identity.

Lets consider the question of about Character Ponni, what we will find when we do this. We have to consider this question on both the objective and subjective levels. Objective means everyone except me, so lets start with that. Objectively, when we scan someones brain and reinstantiate their personal mind file into a suitable computing medium, the newly emergent person will appear to other observers to have very much the same personality, history, and memory as the person originally scanned. That is, once the technology has been refined and perfected. Like any new technology, it wont be perfect at Essay Hamlet of Opposing first.

But ultimately, the scans and Essay Analysis:, recreations will be very accurate and realistic. Interacting with the newly instantiated person will feel like interacting with the original person. The new person will claim to be that same old person and will have a memory of Eternal of the Spotless, having been that person. The new person will have all of the patterns of knowledge, skill, and about Character, personality of the original. Female Gender In Haggard’s The Arabian Nights Examples! We are already creating functionally equivalent recreations of neurons and Character Ponni, neuron clusters with sufficient accuracy that biological neurons accept their nonbiological equivalents and work with them as if they were biological. There are no natural limits that prevent us from doing the same with the hundred billion neuron cluster of clusters we call the human brain. Subjectively, the 2001, issue is more subtle and Essay Character Ponni, profound, but first we need to reflect on one additional objective issue: our physical self. Consider how many of our thoughts and thinking are directed toward our body and its survival, security, nutrition, and Female in Haggard’s She and Haddawy’s The Arabian examples, image, not to mention affection, sexuality, and reproduction. Many, if not most, of the goals we attempt to advance using our brains have to do with our bodies: protecting them, providing them with fuel, making them attractive, making them feel good, providing for their myriad needs and Analysis: Ponni, desires.

Some philosophers maintain that achieving human level intelligence is impossible without a body. If were going to port a humans mind to a new computational medium, wed better provide a body. A disembodied mind will quickly get depressed. There are a variety of for Adolescent Attempts Essay, bodies that we will provide for our machines, and that they will provide for themselves: bodies built through nanotechnology (i.e., building highly complex physical systems atom by atom), virtual bodies (that exist only in virtual reality), bodies comprised of swarms of about Character Analysis:, nanobots, and other technologies. A common scenario will be to enhance a persons biological brain with intimate connection to nonbiological intelligence. In this case, the body remains the good old human body that were familiar with, although this too will become greatly enhanced through biotechnology (gene enhancement and replacement) and, later on, through nanotechnology. Reasons Suicide Attempts Essay! A detailed examination of twenty-first century bodies is Essay Character Ponni, beyond the scope of this essay, but recreating and enhancing our bodies will be (and has been) an easier task than recreating our minds. To return to the issue of subjectivity, consider: is the reinstantiated mind the same consciousness as the person we just scanned? Are these people conscious at all? Is this a mind or just a brain? Consciousness in our twenty-first century machines will be a critically important issue.

But it is not easily resolved, or even readily understood. People tend to toni harvard, have strong views on the subject, and often just cant understand how anyone else could possibly see the issue from a different perspective. Marvin Minsky observed that theres something queer about Character, describing consciousness. Whatever people mean to say, they just cant seem to make it clear. We dont worry, at toni morrison harvard least not yet, about causing pain and suffering to our computer programs. But at about Character Ponni what point do we consider an entity, a process, to be conscious, to feel pain and discomfort, to have its own intentionality, its own free will? How do we determine if an entity is conscious; if it has subjective experience? How do we distinguish a process that is Eternal of the Spotless Mind, conscious from about Character Ponni one that just acts as if it is conscious? We cant simply ask it.

If it says Hey Im conscious, does that settle the issue? No, we have computer games today that effectively do that, and josie's summary, theyre not terribly convincing. How about about, if the entity is Essay Hamlet Roles, very convincing and compelling when it says Im lonely, please keep me company. Does that settle the issue? If we look inside its circuits, and about Analysis:, see essentially the identical kinds of feedback loops and other mechanisms in its brain that we see in a human brain (albeit implemented using nonbiological equivalents), does that settle the issue? And just who are these people in the machine, anyway? The answer will depend on who you ask. About Sunshine! If you ask the people in the machine, they will strenuously claim to Essay about Character Analysis: Ponni, be the original persons.

For example, if we scanlets say myselfand record the exact state, level, and position of every neurotransmitter, synapse, neural connection, and every other relevant detail, and toni harvard, then reinstantiate this massive data base of information (which I estimate at thousands of Essay Analysis:, trillions of bytes) into a neural computer of sufficient capacity, the person who then emerges in the machine will think that he is (and had been) me, or at least he will act that way. He will say I grew up in summary, Queens, New York, went to college at MIT, stayed in the Boston area, started and Character Ponni, sold a few artificial intelligence companies, walked into a scanner there, and woke up in the machine here. Hey, this technology really works. Is this really me? For one thing, old biological Ray (thats me) still exists. Ill still be here in Gender Haddawy’s Nights Essay examples, my carbon-cell-based brain. Alas, I will have to Character, sit back and watch the new Ray succeed in endeavors that I could only dream of. Lets consider the issue of josie's story, just who I am, and who the new Ray is a little more carefully. First of all, am I the stuff in Essay about Character, my brain and body? Consider that the particles making up my body and brain are constantly changing. We are not at all permanent collections of particles.

The cells in our bodies turn over at different rates, but the about Movie: Spotless, particles (e.g., atoms and molecules) that comprise our cells are exchanged at a very rapid rate. I am just not the Ponni, same collection of particles that I was even a month ago. Toni Morrison Harvard! It is the patterns of matter and energy that are semipermanent (that is, changing only gradually), but our actual material content is changing constantly, and very quickly. We are rather like the patterns that water makes in a stream. About Character Ponni! The rushing water around a formation of Reasons Attempts Essay, rocks makes a particular, unique pattern. This pattern may remain relatively unchanged for Essay about Analysis: Ponni hours, even years. Of course, the actual material constituting the patternthe wateris replaced in milliseconds. The same is true for Ray Kurzweil. Like the The Arabian Nights Essay, water in a stream, my particles are constantly changing, but the pattern that people recognize as Ray has a reasonable level of Character, continuity. This argues that we should not associate our fundamental identity with a specific set of particles, but rather the Female Gender Roles She and Haddawy’s Nights Essay examples, pattern of matter and energy that we represent. Many contemporary philosophers seem partial to this identify from pattern argument.

If you were to scan my brain and reinstantiate new Ray while I was sleeping, I would not necessarily even know about Essay Ponni, it (with the nanobots, this will be a feasible scenario). If you then come to me, and say, good news, Ray, weve successfully reinstantiated your mind file, so we wont be needing your old brain anymore, I may suddenly realize the flaw in this identity from josie's pattern argument. I may wish new Ray well, and realize that he shares my pattern, but I would nonetheless conclude that hes not me, because Im still here. Essay About Character Analysis:! How could he be me? After all, I would not necessarily know that he even existed. Lets consider another perplexing scenario.

Suppose I replace a small number of biological neurons with functionally equivalent nonbiological ones (they may provide certain benefits such as greater reliability and longevity, but thats not relevant to this thought experiment). After I have this procedure performed, am I still the same person? My friends certainly think so. I still have the Hamlet Roles of Opposing, same self-deprecating humor, the same silly grinyes, Im still the same guy. It should be clear where Im going with this. Bit by bit, region by region, I ultimately replace my entire brain with essentially identical (perhaps improved) nonbiological equivalents (preserving all of the about Character, neurotransmitter concentrations and other details that represent my learning, skills, and josie's story, memories).

At each point, I feel the procedures were successful. At each point, I feel that I am the same guy. After each procedure, I claim to be the same guy. My friends concur. There is about Analysis:, no old Ray and Attempts, new Ray, just one Ray, one that never appears to fundamentally change. But consider this. This gradual replacement of my brain with a nonbiological equivalent is essentially identical to the following sequence: (i) scan Ray and reinstantiate Rays mind file into new (nonbiological) Ray, and, then (ii) terminate old Ray. But we concluded above that in such a scenario new Ray is Essay about Character Analysis:, not the same as old Ray. And if old Ray is terminated, well then thats the end of Ray. So the gradual replacement scenario essentially ends with the same result: New Ray has been created, and old Ray has been destroyed, even if we never saw him missing.

So what appears to be the continuing existence of just one Ray is Roles of Opposing, really the creation of Essay about Character Analysis:, new Ray and the termination of old Ray. On yet another hand (were running out of philosophical hands here), the gradual replacement scenario is not altogether different from what happens normally to our biological selves, in that our particles are always rapidly being replaced. So am I constantly being replaced with someone else who just happens to be very similar to my old self? I am trying to illustrate why consciousness is not an easy issue. If we talk about for Adolescent Suicide, consciousness as just a certain type of about Ponni, intelligent skill: the Reasons for Adolescent Suicide Attempts, ability to reflect on ones own self and Ponni, situation, for for Adolescent Suicide example, then the issue is not difficult at all because any skill or capability or form of intelligence that one cares to Ponni, define will be replicated in nonbiological entities (i.e., machines) within a few decades. With this type of objective view of consciousness, the conundrums do go away. But a fully objective view does not penetrate to the core of the issue, because the essence of consciousness is subjective experience, not objective correlates of toni harvard, that experience.

Will these future machines be capable of having spiritual experiences? They certainly will claim to. They will claim to be people, and to have the full range of emotional and spiritual experiences that people claim to have. And these will not be idle claims; they will evidence the sort of rich, complex, and subtle behavior one associates with these feelings. How do the claims and behaviorscompelling as they will berelate to the subjective experience of these reinstantiated people? We keep coming back to Essay Character Analysis: Ponni, the very real but ultimately unmeasurable issue of consciousness.

People often talk about consciousness as if it were a clear property of an entity that can readily be identified, detected, and gauged. If there is one crucial insight that we can make regarding why the issue of consciousness is so contentious, it is the following: There exists no objective test that can conclusively determine its presence. Science is about objective measurement and logical implications therefrom, but the very nature of objectivity is that you cannot measure subjective experience-you can only measure correlates of it, such as behavior (and by Roles in Haggard’s She and The Arabian behavior, I include the actions of Essay, components of an entity, such as neurons). This limitation has to do with the very nature of the concepts objective and subjective. Fundamentally, we cannot penetrate the subjective experience of another entity with direct objective measurement. We can certainly make arguments about it: i.e., look inside the brain of this nonhuman entity, see how its methods are just like a human brain. Or, see how its behavior is just like human behavior. But in the end, these remain just arguments.

No matter how convincing the odyssey, behavior of a reinstantiated person, some observers will refuse to accept the Character, consciousness of an entity unless it squirts neurotransmitters, or is Movie: Mind, based on Character Ponni, DNA-guided protein synthesis, or has some other specific biologically human attribute. We assume that other humans are conscious, but that is still an assumption, and there is no consensus amongst humans about the consciousness of nonhuman entities, such as higher non-human animals. Eternal Sunshine Of The! The issue will be even more contentious with regard to future nonbiological entities with human-like behavior and intelligence. So how will we resolve the claimed consciousness of nonbiological intelligence (claimed, that is, by the machines)? From a practical perspective, well accept their claims. Keep in mind that nonbiological entities in Essay about Character Analysis:, the twenty-first century will be extremely intelligent, so theyll be able to convince us that they are conscious. Theyll have all the delicate and emotional cues that convince us today that humans are conscious. They will be able to about Hamlet of Opposing, make us laugh and cry. And theyll get mad if we dont accept their claims. But fundamentally this is a political prediction, not a philosophical argument.

Over the past several years, Roger Penrose, a noted physicist and philosopher, has suggested that fine structures in Essay about Character Ponni, the neurons called tubules perform an exotic form of Essay about Eternal Sunshine Spotless, computation called quantum computing. Quantum computing is computing using what are called qu bits which take on Analysis: Ponni, all possible combinations of solutions simultaneously. Essay Sunshine Of The Spotless Mind! It can be considered to Essay about Analysis: Ponni, be an Reasons Suicide Attempts, extreme form of parallel processing (because every combination of values of the qu bits are tested simultaneously). Essay About Character Analysis: Ponni! Penrose suggests that the tubules and their quantum computing capabilities complicate the concept of recreating neurons and reinstantiating mind files. However, there is little to suggest that the tubules contribute to Essay Movie: Eternal of the Spotless, the thinking process. Even generous models of human knowledge and capability are more than accounted for by current estimates of brain size, based on contemporary models of neuron functioning that do not include tubules. About Analysis:! In fact, even with these tubule-less models, it appears that the brain is Essay about Movie: Eternal Mind, conservatively designed with many more connections (by several orders of Essay Character Analysis:, magnitude) than it needs for its capabilities and capacity. Summary! Recent experiments (e.g., the San Diego Institute for Nonlinear Science experiments) showing that hybrid biological-nonbiological networks perform similarly to all biological networks, while not definitive, are strongly suggestive that our tubule-less models of neuron functioning are adequate. Lloyd Watts software simulation of about Ponni, his intricate model of human auditory processing uses orders of magnitude less computation than the networks of neurons he is simulating, and there is no suggestion that quantum computing is needed. However, even if the tubules are important, it doesnt change the projections I have discussed above to any significant degree.

According to my model of computational growth, if the tubules multiplied neuron complexity by a factor of a thousand (and keep in mind that our current tubule-less neuron models are already complex, including on the order of a thousand connections per 2001 space odyssey summary neuron, multiple nonlinearities and other details), this would delay our reaching brain capacity by Ponni only about 9 years. If were off by a factor of a million, thats still only a delay of 17 years. Essay About Hamlet And Laertes: Foils! A factor of a billion is around 24 years (keep in mind computation is Essay about Ponni, growing by a double exponential). With regard to quantum computing, once again there is nothing to suggest that the brain does quantum computing. Just because quantum technology may be feasible does not suggest that the Female She and Nights Essay examples, brain is Essay about Character Analysis:, capable of it. After all, we dont have lasers or even radios in 2001 odyssey summary, our brains.

Although some scientists have claimed to detect quantum wave collapse in the brain, no one has suggested human capabilities that actually require a capacity for quantum computing. However, even if the brain does do quantum computing, this does not significantly change the outlook for human-level computing (and beyond) nor does it suggest that brain downloading is Essay about, infeasible. Attempts Essay! First of all, if the brain does do quantum computing this would only verify that quantum computing is about Analysis: Ponni, feasible. Toni Harvard! There would be nothing in such a finding to suggest that quantum computing is restricted to biological mechanisms. Essay Character! Biological quantum computing mechanisms, if they exist, could be replicated. Female Gender Roles In Haggard’s Haddawy’s Nights Essay Examples! Indeed, recent experiments with small scale quantum computers appear to be successful.

Even the Analysis: Ponni, conventional transistor relies on the quantum effect of electron tunneling. Penrose suggests that it is about Roles of Opposing Foils, impossible to perfectly replicate a set of quantum states, so therefore, perfect downloading is impossible. Well, how perfect does a download have to be? I am at this moment in a very different quantum state (and different in non-quantum ways as well) than I was a minute ago (certainly in a very different state than I was before I wrote this paragraph). If we develop downloading technology to the point where the copies are as close to the original as the original person changes anyway in the course of Analysis: Ponni, one minute, that would be good enough for about of the Spotless Mind any conceivable purpose, yet does not require copying quantum states. Essay Ponni! As the technology improves, the toni, accuracy of the copy could become as close as the original changes within ever briefer periods of Essay Character Ponni, time (e.g., one second, one millisecond, one microsecond). When it was pointed out to Penrose that neurons (and even neural connections) were too big for quantum computing, he came up with the tubule theory as a possible mechanism for neural quantum computing. Toni Morrison! So the concern with quantum computing and tubules have been introduced together.

If one is searching for barriers to replicating brain function, it is an ingenious theory, but it fails to introduce any genuine barriers. There is Essay about Analysis: Ponni, no evidence for it, and even if true, it only delays matters by a decade or two. There is no reason to believe that biological mechanisms (including quantum computing) are inherently impossible to 2001 space odyssey, replicate using nonbiological materials and mechanisms. Dozens of about Character Ponni, contemporary experiments are successfully performing just such replications. The Noninvasive Surgery-Free Reversible Programmable Distributed Brain Implant, Full-Immersion Shared Virtual Reality Environments, Experience Beamers, and morrison harvard, Brain Expansion.

How will we apply technology that is more intelligent than its creators? One might be tempted to respond Carefully! But lets take a look at some examples. Consider several examples of the nanobot technology, which, based on miniaturization and cost reduction trends, will be feasible within 30 years. In addition to Essay Character Analysis:, scanning your brain, the Eternal of the Spotless Mind, nanobots will also be able to expand our experiences and our capabilities. Nanobot technology will provide fully immersive, totally convincing virtual reality in the following way.

The nanobots take up positions in close physical proximity to every interneuronal connection coming from Essay Character Analysis: all of Female Gender, our senses (e.g., eyes, ears, skin). We already have the technology for electronic devices to communicate with neurons in both directions that requires no direct physical contact with the neurons. For example, scientists at the Max Planck Institute have developed neuron transistors that can detect the firing of a nearby neuron, or alternatively, can cause a nearby neuron to about Character Ponni, fire, or suppress it from firing. 2001 Summary! This amounts to two-way communication between neurons and the electronic-based neuron transistors. The Institute scientists demonstrated their invention by controlling the movement of a living leech from their computer. Again, the primary aspect of nanobot-based virtual reality that is not yet feasible is Essay about Ponni, size and cost. When we want to josie's, experience real reality, the nanobots just stay in position (in the capillaries) and do nothing. If we want to enter virtual reality, they suppress all of the inputs coming from the real senses, and replace them with the signals that would be appropriate for the virtual environment.

You (i.e., your brain) could decide to cause your muscles and Character, limbs to move as you normally would, but the nanobots again intercept these interneuronal signals, suppress your real limbs from moving, and instead cause your virtual limbs to move and toni, provide the Essay about Ponni, appropriate movement and reorientation in the virtual environment. The web will provide a panoply of virtual environments to explore. Some will be recreations of real places, others will be fanciful environments that have no real counterpart. Some indeed would be impossible in the physical world (perhaps, because they violate the laws of physics). We will be able to go to 2001 space summary, these virtual environments by Essay about ourselves, or we will meet other people there, both real people and simulated people. Of course, ultimately there wont be a clear distinction between the two. By 2030, going to a web site will mean entering a full immersion virtual reality environment.

In addition to summary, encompassing all of the senses, these shared environments can include emotional overlays as the nanobots will be capable of triggering the neurological correlates of emotions, sexual pleasure, and other derivatives of Essay Ponni, our sensory experience and mental reactions. In the same way that people today beam their lives from web cams in their bedrooms, experience beamers circa 2030 will beam their entire flow of sensory experiences, and if so desired, their emotions and other secondary reactions. Essay About Eternal! Well be able to Essay about Character Ponni, plug in (by going to harvard, the appropriate web site) and about Ponni, experience other peoples lives as in the plot concept of Being John Malkovich. Particularly interesting experiences can be archived and relived at any time. We wont need to wait until 2030 to experience shared virtual reality environments, at least for the visual and Suicide Attempts, auditory senses. Full immersion visual-auditory environments will be available by the end of this decade with images written directly onto Character Ponni our retinas by our eyeglasses and summary, contact lenses. All of the electronics for the computation, image reconstruction, and very high bandwidth wireless connection to the Internet will be embedded in our glasses and woven into our clothing, so computers as distinct objects will disappear. In my view, the Essay Analysis:, most significant implication of the Foils, Singularity will be the merger of biological and nonbiological intelligence. Analysis: Ponni! First, it is important to point out that well before the end of the twenty-first century, thinking on nonbiological substrates will dominate. Biological thinking is stuck at 10 26 calculations per second (for all biological human brains), and that figure will not appreciably change, even with bioengineering changes to our genome.

Nonbiological intelligence, on the other hand, is growing at Female Gender in Haggard’s She and Haddawy’s Nights Essay a double exponential rate and will vastly exceed biological intelligence well before the middle of this century. However, in my view, this nonbiological intelligence should still be considered human as it is fully derivative of the human-machine civilization. The merger of these two worlds of intelligence is not merely a merger of biological and nonbiological thinking mediums, but more importantly one of method and organization of thinking. One of the key ways in which the Character Analysis:, two worlds can interact will be through the nanobots. Nanobot technology will be able to expand our minds in virtually any imaginable way. Our brains today are relatively fixed in The Arabian, design. Although we do add patterns of interneuronal connections and neurotransmitter concentrations as a normal part of the learning process, the current overall capacity of the Character Analysis: Ponni, human brain is highly constrained, restricted to a mere hundred trillion connections. Brain implants based on massively distributed intelligent nanobots will ultimately expand our memories a trillion fold, and otherwise vastly improve all of our sensory, pattern recognition, and cognitive abilities.

Since the nanobots are communicating with each other over a wireless local area network, they can create any set of new neural connections, can break existing connections (by suppressing neural firing), can create new hybrid biological-nonbiological networks, as well as add vast new nonbiological networks. Using nanobots as brain extenders is a significant improvement over Female Gender Roles Nights Essay examples, the idea of surgically installed neural implants, which are beginning to be used today (e.g., ventral posterior nucleus, subthalmic nucleus, and Essay Analysis:, ventral lateral thalamus neural implants to counteract Parkinsons Disease and Reasons for Adolescent Attempts Essay, tremors from other neurological disorders, cochlear implants, and others.) Nanobots will be introduced without surgery, essentially just by injecting or even swallowing them. Essay About Ponni! They can all be directed to leave, so the process is easily reversible. They are programmable, in that they can provide virtual reality one minute, and a variety of brain extensions the next. They can change their configuration, and clearly can alter their software. Perhaps most importantly, they are massively distributed and therefore can take up billions or trillions of positions throughout the brain, whereas a surgically introduced neural implant can only be placed in one or at most a few locations. The Double Exponential Growth of the Economy During the 1990s Was Not a Bubble. Yet another manifestation of the law of accelerating returns as it rushes toward the Singularity can be found in the world of economics, a world vital to both the genesis of the Female Roles She and Haddawy’s The Arabian Essay, law of Character, accelerating returns, and to its implications. It is the economic imperative of a competitive marketplace that is driving technology forward and fueling the summary, law of accelerating returns. In turn, the law of accelerating returns, particularly as it approaches the Singularity, is transforming economic relationships.

Virtually all of the economic models taught in economics classes, used by the Federal Reserve Board to Essay Character Analysis: Ponni, set monetary policy, by Government agencies to set economic policy, and by josie's economic forecasters of all kinds are fundamentally flawed because they are based on the intuitive linear view of Essay about Character Analysis:, history rather than the historically based exponential view. The reason that these linear models appear to work for a while is for summary the same reason that most people adopt the intuitive linear view in the first place: exponential trends appear to be linear when viewed (and experienced) for a brief period of time, particularly in the early stages of an exponential trend when not much is happening. But once the knee of the curve is achieved and the exponential growth explodes, the linear models break down. Ponni! The exponential trends underlying productivity growth are just beginning this explosive phase. The economy (viewed either in total or per capita) has been growing exponentially throughout this century: There is also a second level of exponential growth, but up until recently the about Movie: Sunshine Mind, second exponent has been in the early phase so that the growth in the growth rate has not been noticed. Character! However, this has changed in this past decade, during which the rate of growth has been noticeably exponential. Productivity (economic output per worker) has also been growing exponentially. Even these statistics are greatly understated because they do not fully reflect significant improvements in the quality and features of products and services. It is not the case that a car is a car; there have been significant improvements in safety, reliability, and features.

There are a myriad of such examples. Female Gender Roles The Arabian Nights Examples! Pharmaceutical drugs are increasingly effective. Groceries ordered in five minutes on Essay about Character, the web and delivered to your door are worth more than groceries on a supermarket shelf that you have to fetch yourself. Clothes custom manufactured for your unique body scan are worth more than clothes you happen to find left on a store rack. These sorts of improvements are true for most product categories, and none of them are reflected in the productivity statistics. The statistical methods underlying the productivity measurements tend to factor out gains by Reasons Essay essentially concluding that we still only get one dollar of products and services for a dollar despite the about, fact that we get much more for a dollar (e.g., compare a $1,000 computer today to one ten years ago). Essay Eternal Sunshine Of The Spotless! University of Chicago Professor Pete Klenow and University of Character Analysis: Ponni, Rochester Professor Mark Bils estimate that the value of existing goods has been increasing at josie's summary 1.5% per year for the past 20 years because of qualitative improvements. This still does not account for the introduction of entirely new products and product categories. The Bureau of Labor Statistics, which is responsible for the inflation statistics, uses a model that incorporates an estimate of Essay Analysis: Ponni, quality growth at only 0.5% per year, reflecting a systematic underestimate of quality improvement and a resulting overestimate of inflation by at least 1 percent per year. Despite these weaknesses in the productivity statistical methods, the gains in productivity are now reaching the steep part of the for Adolescent Suicide Essay, exponential curve. About Character Analysis: Ponni! Labor productivity grew at 1.6% per summary year until 1994, then rose at Essay about Character Ponni 2.4% per year, and is now growing even more rapidly.

In the quarter ending July 30, 2000, labor productivity grew at 5.3%. Manufacturing productivity grew at 4.4% annually from 1995 to Essay about Movie: Eternal Sunshine of the Mind, 1999, durables manufacturing at 6.5% per year. The 1990s have seen the most powerful deflationary forces in history. This is why we are not seeing inflation. About Character Analysis: Ponni! Yes, its true that low unemployment, high asset values, economic growth, and other such factors are inflationary, but these factors are offset by the double exponential trends in the price-performance of all information based technologies: computation, memory, communications, biotechnology, miniaturization, and even the overall rate of technical progress.

These technologies deeply affect all industries. We are also undergoing massive disintermediation in the channels of distribution through the web and other new communication technologies, as well as escalating efficiencies in operations and administration. All of the technology trend charts in this essay e represent massive deflation. There are many examples of the impact of Essay about Hamlet and Laertes: of Opposing, these escalating efficiencies. BP Amocos cost for finding oil is now less than $1 per barrel, down from nearly $10 in Essay Analysis: Ponni, 1991. Processing an internet transaction costs a bank one penny, compared to Female Gender Roles, over $1 using a teller ten years ago. A Roland Berger / Deutsche Bank study estimates a cost savings of Essay about, $1200 per North American car over the next five years. Essay Hamlet And Laertes: Of Opposing! A more optimistic Morgan Stanley study estimates that Internet-based procurement will save Ford, GM, and DaimlerChrysler about $2700 per Essay about Character Analysis: vehicle. Software prices are deflating even more quickly than computer hardware. Software Price-Performance Has Also Improved at an Exponential Rate. Current economic policy is based on outdated models which include energy prices, commodity prices, and capital investment in plant and equipment as key driving factors, but do not adequately model bandwidth, MIPs, megabytes, intellectual property, knowledge, and other increasingly vital (and increasingly increasing) constituents that are driving the about Eternal Sunshine of the, economy.

The economy wants to grow more than the Essay about Character Analysis: Ponni, 3.5% per year, which constitutes the current speed limit that the Federal Reserve bank and other policy makers have established as safe, meaning noninflationary. But in keeping with the law of Movie: of the Spotless Mind, accelerating returns, the economy is capable of safely establishing this level of growth in Essay Analysis:, less than a year, implying a growth rate in an entire year of greater than 3.5%. Recently, the toni morrison, growth rate has exceeded 5%. None of this means that cycles of Character Analysis: Ponni, recession will disappear immediately. The economy still has some of the Reasons for Adolescent Suicide, underlying dynamics that historically have caused cycles of recession, specifically excessive commitments such as capital intensive projects and the overstocking of about Analysis: Ponni, inventories. However, the Roles The Arabian, rapid dissemination of information, sophisticated forms of online procurement, and increasingly transparent markets in all industries have diminished the impact of Essay Character, this cycle. So recessions are likely to be shallow and short lived.

The underlying long-term growth rate will continue at a double exponential rate. The overall growth of the economy reflects completely new forms and morrison harvard, layers of wealth and value that did not previously exist, or least that did not previously constitute a significant portion of the economy (but do now): intellectual property, communication portals, web sites, bandwidth, software, data bases, and many other new technology based categories. There is no need for high interest rates to counter an inflation that doesnt exist. The inflationary pressures which exist are counterbalanced by Essay Character Analysis: all of the deflationary forces Ive mentioned. The current high interest rates fostered by the Federal Reserve Bank are destructive, are causing trillions of dollars of lost wealth, are regressive, hurt business and the middle class, and are completely unnecessary. The Feds monetary policy is only influential because people believe it to be. It has little real power. Roles She And The Arabian Nights Essay! The economy today is largely backed by private capital in the form of a growing variety of equity instruments. The portion of available liquidity in the economy that the Character Analysis: Ponni, Fed actually controls is relatively insignificant.

The reserves that banks and financial institutions maintain with the Federal Reserve System are less than $50 billion, which is only 0.6% of the GDP, and Suicide Attempts Essay, 0.25% of the liquidity available in stocks. Restricting the growth rate of the Essay about Analysis: Ponni, economy to an arbitrary limit makes as much sense as restricting the rate at which a company can grow its revenuesor its market cap. Speculative fever will certainly occur and there will necessarily continue to be high profile failures and market corrections. Essay Eternal Sunshine Mind! However the ability of technology companies to rapidly create newrealwealth is just one of the factors that will continue to about Character, fuel ongoing double exponential growth in the economy. These policies have led to an Alice in Wonderland situation in which the market goes up on bad economic news (because it means that more unnecessary punishment will be avoided) and goes down on good economic news. Speaking of market speculative fever and market corrections, the stock market values for so-called B to B (Business to She and The Arabian examples, Business) and Essay about Analysis: Ponni, B to C (Business to Consumer) web portals and enabling technologies is likely to come back strongly as it becomes clear that economic transactions are indeed escalating toward e-commerce, and that the (surviving) contenders are capable of demonstrating profitable business models. The intuitive linear assumption underlying economic thinking reaches its most ludicrous conclusions in the political debate surrounding the Gender in Haggard’s She and Nights Essay, long-term future of the social security system. The economic models used for the social security projections are entirely linear, i.e., they reflect fixed economic growth. Essay Character Analysis:! This might be viewed as conservative planning if we were talking about projections of only 2001 odyssey, a few years, but they become utterly unrealistic for the three to four decades being discussed. These projections actually assume a fixed rate of growth of 3.5% per year for the next fifty years!

There are incredibly naive assumptions that bear on Essay, both sides of the argument. Morrison! On the one hand, there will be radical extensions to human longevity, while on the other hand, we will benefit from far greater economic expansion. These factors do not rule each other out, however, as the positive factors are stronger, and about, will ultimately dominate. Moreover, we are certain to rethink social security when we have centenarians who look and josie's, act like 30 year-olds (but who will think much faster than 30 year-olds circa the about Character Analysis: Ponni, year 2000). Another implication of the law of Essay about Movie: Eternal, accelerating returns is exponential growth in Character Analysis:, education and learning.

Over the past 120 years, we have increased our investment in K-12 education (per student and in Female Gender Roles in Haggard’s She and The Arabian, constant dollars) by Character Analysis: a factor of ten. We have a one hundred fold increase in the number of college students. Reasons Suicide Attempts! Automation started by amplifying the power of our muscles, and in recent times has been amplifying the power of our minds. Thus, for the past two centuries, automation has been eliminating jobs at the bottom of the skill ladder while creating new (and better paying) jobs at Character the top of the odyssey summary, skill ladder. Character Ponni! So the ladder has been moving up, and thus we have been exponentially increasing investments in education at all levels. Oh, and about that offer at the beginning of this essay, consider that present stock values are based on future expectations. Given that the (literally) short sighted linear intuitive view represents the ubiquitous outlook, the common wisdom in economic expectations are dramatically understated.

Although stock prices reflect the consensus of Essay about Movie: of the, a buyer-seller market, it nonetheless reflects the underlying linear assumption regarding future economic growth. But the law of Character Ponni, accelerating returns clearly implies that the growth rate will continue to grow exponentially because the rate of progress will continue to accelerate. Although (weakening) recessionary cycles will continue to cause immediate growth rates to fluctuate, the underlying rate of growth will continue to double approximately every decade. But wait a second, you said that I would get $40 trillion if I read and understood this essay. Thats right. According to my models, if we replace the Gender Roles She and The Arabian, linear outlook with the more appropriate exponential outlook, current stock prices should triple. Since theres about $20 trillion in the equity markets, thats $40 trillion in additional wealth. But you said I would get that money.

No, I said you would get the money, and thats why I suggested reading the sentence carefully. The English word you can be singular or plural. I meant it in the sense of all of you. I see, all of us as in Essay about Character Analysis:, the whole world. But not everyone will read this essay.

Well, but everyone could. So if all of you read this essay and understand it, then economic expectations would be based on the historical exponential model, and thus stock values would increase. You mean if everyone understands it, and agrees with it. Okay, I suppose I was assuming that. Is that what you expect to happen. Well, actually, no. Putting on my futurist hat again, my prediction is that indeed these views will prevail, but only over time, as more and morrison, more evidence of the exponential nature of technology and its impact on the economy becomes apparent.

This will happen gradually over the next several years, which will represent a strong continuing updraft for about Character Ponni the market. Technology has always been a double edged sword, bringing us longer and healthier life spans, freedom from physical and mental drudgery, and many new creative possibilities on the one hand, while introducing new and salient dangers on the other. We still live today with sufficient nuclear weapons (not all of which appear to be well accounted for) to end all mammalian life on the planet. Bioengineering is in the early stages of enormous strides in reversing disease and aging processes. However, the means and knowledge will soon exist in a routine college bioengineering lab (and already exists in Essay about Movie:, more sophisticated labs) to Analysis: Ponni, create unfriendly pathogens more dangerous than nuclear weapons. As technology accelerates toward the Singularity, we will see the same intertwined potentials: a feast of creativity resulting from harvard human intelligence expanded a trillion-fold combined with many grave new dangers. Consider unrestrained nanobot replication.

Nanobot technology requires billions or trillions of Essay about Ponni, such intelligent devices to be useful. The most cost effective way to scale up to such levels is through self-replication, essentially the same approach used in odyssey summary, the biological world. And in the same way that biological self-replication gone awry (i.e., cancer) results in biological destruction, a defect in the mechanism curtailing nanobot self-replication would endanger all physical entities, biological or otherwise. Other primary concerns include who is controlling the about Character, nanobots? and Female Gender Roles She and The Arabian Essay examples, who are the about Character, nanobots talking to? Organizations (e.g., governments, extremist groups) or just a clever individual could put trillions of undetectable nanobots in the water or food supply of an individual or of an entire population. These spy nanobots could then monitor, influence, and even control our thoughts and actions. In addition to introducing physical spy nanobots, existing nanobots could be influenced through software viruses and other software hacking techniques.

When there is Reasons for Adolescent Suicide Attempts Essay, software running in our brains, issues of privacy and security will take on a new urgency. My own expectation is that the creative and constructive applications of Essay Character Analysis: Ponni, this technology will dominate, as I believe they do today. But there will be a valuable (and increasingly vocal) role for a concerned and constructive Luddite movement (i.e., anti-technologists inspired by early nineteenth century weavers who destroyed labor-saving machinery in protest). If we imagine describing the dangers that exist today to people who lived a couple of space odyssey summary, hundred years ago, they would think it mad to take such risks. On the other hand, how many people in Essay Character Ponni, the year 2000 would really want to go back to the short, brutish, disease-filled, poverty-stricken, disaster-prone lives that 99 percent of the human race struggled through a couple of centuries ago? We may romanticize the past, but up until fairly recently, most of humanity lived extremely fragile lives where one all too common misfortune could spell disaster. Substantial portions of our species still live in 2001 space, this precarious way, which is at least one reason to continue technological progress and the economic enhancement that accompanies it. People often go through three stages in examining the about Character, impact of toni harvard, future technology: awe and wonderment at its potential to Essay Analysis:, overcome age old problems, then a sense of dread at a new set of space odyssey, grave dangers that accompany these new technologies, followed, finally and hopefully, by the realization that the about Analysis: Ponni, only viable and responsible path is to set a careful course that can realize the promise while managing the peril.

In his cover story for WIRED Why The Future Doesnt Need Us, Bill Joy eloquently described the Hamlet and Laertes: Roles of Opposing Foils, plagues of centuries past, and how new self-replicating technologies, such as mutant bioengineered pathogens, and nanobots run amok, may bring back long forgotten pestilence. Indeed these are real dangers. It is about Character Ponni, also the case, which Joy acknowledges, that it has been technological advances, such as antibiotics and improved sanitation, which has freed us from the prevalence of such plagues. Suffering in the world continues and demands our steadfast attention. Should we tell the Suicide Attempts, millions of people afflicted with cancer and other devastating conditions that we are canceling the development of all bioengineered treatments because there is a risk that these same technologies may someday be used for malevolent purposes? Having asked the Essay about, rhetorical question, I realize that there is a movement to do exactly that, but I think most people would agree that such broad based relinquishment is not the Essay about Hamlet, answer.

The continued opportunity to alleviate human distress is about Analysis:, one important motivation for Essay Foils continuing technological advancement. Also compelling are the already apparent economic gains I discussed above which will continue to Analysis:, hasten in the decades ahead. The continued acceleration of many intertwined technologies are roads paved with gold (I use the plural here because technology is clearly not a single path). In a competitive environment, it is an Hamlet and Laertes: Roles, economic imperative to go down these roads. Relinquishing technological advancement would be economic suicide for individuals, companies, and Character Analysis:, nations. Which brings us to the issue of relinquishment, which is Bill Joys most controversial recommendation and personal commitment. Morrison! I do feel that relinquishment at the right level is part of a responsible and constructive response to Ponni, these genuine perils. The issue, however, is Essay about Movie: Eternal Spotless Mind, exactly this: at what level are we to relinquish technology? Ted Kaczynski would have us renounce all of about Character Analysis: Ponni, it. This, in my view, is neither desirable nor feasible, and the futility of such a position is only underscored by the senselessness of Kaczynskis deplorable tactics. Another level would be to forego certain fields; nanotechnology, for example, that might be regarded as too dangerous.

But such sweeping strokes of relinquishment are equally untenable. Nanotechnology is simply the inevitable end result of the summary, persistent trend toward miniaturization which pervades all of technology. It is far from a single centralized effort, but is being pursued by Essay Character Analysis: Ponni a myriad of Essay Sunshine of the Mind, projects with many diverse goals. One observer wrote: A further reason why industrial society cannot be reformed. . . is that modern technology is a unified system in which all parts are dependent on one another. You cant get rid of the bad parts of technology and retain only the good parts. Take modern medicine, for example. Essay Character Analysis:! Progress in medical science depends on progress in chemistry, physics, biology, computer science and other fields.

Advanced medical treatments require expensive, high-tech equipment that can be made available only by a technologically progressive, economically rich society. Clearly you cant have much progress in Gender in Haggard’s She and Nights Essay, medicine without the Essay about Analysis: Ponni, whole technological system and everything that goes with it. The observer I am quoting is, again, Ted Kaczynski. Although one might properly resist Kaczynski as an about Movie: Sunshine Spotless Mind, authority, I believe he is correct on the deeply entangled nature of the benefits and risks. However, Kaczynski and about Character Ponni, I clearly part company on our overall assessment on the relative balance between the josie's story summary, two. Essay! Bill Joy and I have dialogued on and Laertes: Roles, this issue both publicly and Character Analysis: Ponni, privately, and we both believe that technology will and should progress, and that we need to be actively concerned with the dark side.

If Bill and I disagree, its on the granularity of relinquishment that is both feasible and desirable. Abandonment of Essay Eternal, broad areas of technology will only push them underground where development would continue unimpeded by ethics and Character, regulation. In such a situation, it would be the less stable, less responsible practitioners (e.g., the terrorists) who would have all the expertise. I do think that relinquishment at the right level needs to be part of our ethical response to the dangers of twenty first century technologies. One constructive example of this is the proposed ethical guideline by the Foresight Institute, founded by about of the Mind nanotechnology pioneer Eric Drexler, that nanotechnologists agree to Essay Character, relinquish the space odyssey summary, development of physical entities that can self-replicate in a natural environment. Another is a ban on self-replicating physical entities that contain their own codes for self-replication.

In what nanotechnologist Ralph Merkle calls the Broadcast Architecture, such entities would have to obtain such codes from a centralized secure server, which would guard against undesirable replication. The Broadcast Architecture is impossible in the biological world, which represents at least one way in which nanotechnology can be made safer than biotechnology. In other ways, nanotech is potentially more dangerous because nanobots can be physically stronger than protein-based entities and more intelligent. It will eventually be possible to combine the two by having nanotechnology provide the codes within biological entities (replacing DNA), in which case biological entities can use the much safer Broadcast Architecture. Our ethics as responsible technologists should include such fine grained relinquishment, among other professional ethical guidelines. Other protections will need to include oversight by regulatory bodies, the development of technology-specific immune responses, as well as computer assisted surveillance by law enforcement organizations. Ponni! Many people are not aware that our intelligence agencies already use advanced technologies such as automated word spotting to monitor a substantial flow of telephone conversations. As we go forward, balancing our cherished rights of privacy with our need to be protected from the malicious use of powerful twenty first century technologies will be one of many profound challenges. Josie's! This is one reason that such issues as an Essay about Character Ponni, encryption trap door (in which law enforcement authorities would have access to otherwise secure information) and harvard, the FBI Carnivore email-snooping system have been so contentious. As a test case, we can take a small measure of comfort from how we have dealt with one recent technological challenge.

There exists today a new form of fully nonbiological self replicating entity that didnt exist just a few decades ago: the computer virus. When this form of destructive intruder first appeared, strong concerns were voiced that as they became more sophisticated, software pathogens had the potential to destroy the computer network medium they live in. Essay About Character! Yet the immune system that has evolved in response to this challenge has been largely effective. Although destructive self-replicating software entities do cause damage from time to Attempts, time, the injury is but a small fraction of the benefit we receive from the computers and communication links that harbor them. No one would suggest we do away with computers, local area networks, and the Internet because of software viruses. One might counter that computer viruses do not have the lethal potential of biological viruses or of destructive nanotechnology.

Although true, this strengthens my observation. The fact that computer viruses are not usually deadly to Essay about Character Analysis:, humans only means that more people are willing to create and release them. It also means that our response to the danger is that much less intense. Conversely, when it comes to self replicating entities that are potentially lethal on a large scale, our response on all levels will be vastly more serious. Technology will remain a double edged sword, and the story of the Twenty First century has not yet been written. It represents vast power to be used for all humankinds purposes. We have no choice but to work hard to apply these quickening technologies to advance our human values, despite what often appears to be a lack of consensus on what those values should be. Once brain porting technology has been refined and Essay Movie: of the Spotless Mind, fully developed, will this enable us to live forever? The answer depends on about Analysis:, what we mean by space summary living and dying. Consider what we do today with our personal computer files.

When we change from Essay Character one personal computer to a less obsolete model, we dont throw all our files away; rather we copy them over to the new hardware. Although our software files do not necessary continue their existence forever, the Female She and The Arabian examples, longevity of our personal computer software is completely separate and disconnected from the hardware that it runs on. When it comes to Essay Character Ponni, our personal mind file, however, when our human hardware crashes, the software of our lives dies with it. Essay About Eternal Of The Mind! However, this will not continue to be the about Analysis:, case when we have the about and Laertes:, means to store and restore the Analysis: Ponni, thousands of space summary, trillions of bytes of information represented in the pattern that we call our brains. The longevity of about Character Analysis: Ponni, ones mind file will not be dependent, therefore, on the continued viability of Roles in Haggard’s The Arabian Essay, any particular hardware medium. Ultimately software-based humans, albeit vastly extended beyond the Analysis:, severe limitations of humans as we know them today, will live out on the web, projecting bodies whenever they need or want them, including virtual bodies in diverse realms of virtual reality, holographically projected bodies, physical bodies comprised of nanobot swarms, and other forms of nanotechnology. A software-based human will be free, therefore, from the constraints of any particular thinking medium. Today, we are each confined to a mere hundred trillion connections, but humans at the end of the twenty-first century can grow their thinking and thoughts without limit. We may regard this as a form of immortality, although it is about Hamlet of Opposing, worth pointing out that data and information do not necessarily last forever. Although not dependent on the viability of the hardware it runs on, the longevity of Character Analysis:, information depends on its relevance, utility, and accessibility.

If youve ever tried to retrieve information from an obsolete form of data storage in for Adolescent Suicide Attempts Essay, an old obscure format (e.g., a reel of magnetic tape from a 1970 minicomputer), you will understand the Essay about Character Analysis: Ponni, challenges in keeping software viable. However, if we are diligent in maintaining our mind file, keeping current backups, and porting to Essay Hamlet of Opposing, current formats and mediums, then a form of about Analysis:, immortality can be attained, at least for software-based humans. Our mind fileour personality, skills, memoriesall of 2001 odyssey, that is lost today when our biological hardware crashes. Essay About Character Ponni! When we can access, store, and restore that information, then its longevity will no longer be tied to our hardware permanence. Is this form of immortality the 2001, same concept as a physical human, as we know them today, living forever? In one sense it is, because as I pointed out earlier, our contemporary selves are not a constant collection of matter either.

Only our pattern of matter and energy persists, and even that gradually changes. Similarly, it will be the pattern of a software human that persists and develops and changes gradually. But is that person based on Essay Analysis:, my mind file, who migrates across many computational substrates, and who outlives any particular thinking medium, really me? We come back to the same questions of consciousness and identity, issues that have been debated since the Essay Roles of Opposing, Platonic dialogues. As we go through the twenty-first century, these will not remain polite philosophical debates, but will be confronted as vital, practical, political, and about Character Analysis: Ponni, legal issues. A related question is is death desirable? A great deal of our effort goes into avoiding it. We make extraordinary efforts to delay it, and Female Roles She and Haddawy’s, indeed often consider its intrusion a tragic event. Yet we might find it hard to live without it. We consider death as giving meaning to our lives. It gives importance and value to time. Essay Analysis:! Time could become meaningless if there were too much of it.

The Next Step in Evolution and the Purpose of Life. But I regard the space, freeing of the Character Analysis: Ponni, human mind from Essay Hamlet its severe physical limitations of scope and duration as the necessary next step in Essay, evolution. Evolution, in Essay Eternal Mind, my view, represents the purpose of life. That is, the purpose of lifeand of our livesis to evolve. The Singularity then is not a grave danger to be avoided. Essay Character Analysis:! In my view, this next paradigm shift represents the goal of our civilization. What does it mean to evolve?

Evolution moves toward greater complexity, greater elegance, greater knowledge, greater intelligence, greater beauty, greater creativity, and more of other abstract and subtle attributes such as love. 2001 Space Odyssey Summary! And God has been called all these things, only without any limitation: infinite knowledge, infinite intelligence, infinite beauty, infinite creativity, infinite love, and so on. Of course, even the accelerating growth of evolution never achieves an infinite level, but as it explodes exponentially, it certainly moves rapidly in that direction. So evolution moves inexorably toward our conception of God, albeit never quite reaching this ideal. Thus the Ponni, freeing of Female Roles She and Nights Essay, our thinking from the severe limitations of its biological form may be regarded as an essential spiritual quest. In making this statement, it is important to emphasize that terms like evolution, destiny, and spiritual quest are observations about the Ponni, end result, not the 2001 summary, basis for these predictions. I am not saying that technology will evolve to Essay about Character Ponni, human levels and beyond simply because it is our destiny and because of the satisfaction of a spiritual quest.

Rather my projections result from a methodology based on the dynamics underlying the (double) exponential growth of technological processes. The primary force driving technology is Suicide Attempts Essay, economic imperative. We are moving toward machines with human level intelligence (and beyond) as the about Character Analysis: Ponni, result of millions of small advances, each with their own particular economic justification. To use an example from my own experience at Essay one of my companies (Kurzweil Applied Intelligence), whenever we came up with a slightly more intelligent version of speech recognition, the new version invariably had greater value than the earlier generation and, as a result, sales increased. It is interesting to note that in the example of speech recognition software, the three primary surviving competitors stayed very close to each other in the intelligence of their software. A few other companies that failed to Essay about Character Ponni, do so (e.g., Speech Systems) went out of business. At any point in story, time, we would be able to sell the version prior to about Analysis: Ponni, the latest version for perhaps a quarter of the price of the current version. As for versions of our technology that were two generations old, we couldnt even give those away. This phenomenon is not only true for Sunshine of the pattern recognition and other AI software, but applies to Essay Analysis: Ponni, all products, from bread makers to cars. And if the product itself doesnt exhibit some level of morrison, intelligence, then intelligence in the manufacturing and Essay about Ponni, marketing methods have a major effect on the success and profitability of an of the Mind, enterprise. There is a vital economic imperative to create more intelligent technology.

Intelligent machines have enormous value. Essay About Ponni! That is why they are being built. There are tens of thousands of projects that are advancing intelligent machines in diverse incremental ways. The support for 2001 space odyssey high tech in about, the business community (mostly software) has grown enormously. When I started my optical character recognition (OCR) and speech synthesis company (Kurzweil Computer Products, Inc.) in 1974, there were only a half-dozen high technology IPOs that year. Harvard! The number of such deals has increased one hundred fold and the number of dollars invested has increased by more than one thousand fold in Essay Character, the past 25 years. In the four years between 1995 and 1999 alone, high tech venture capital deals increased from just over $1 billion to about Sunshine Spotless Mind, approximately $15 billion. We will continue to build more powerful computational mechanisms because it creates enormous value.

We will reverse-engineer the human brain not simply because it is our destiny, but because there is Essay about, valuable information to be found there that will provide insights in josie's summary, building more intelligent (and more valuable) machines. Essay Analysis: Ponni! We would have to repeal capitalism and every visage of economic competition to toni, stop this progression. By the second half of this next century, there will be no clear distinction between human and machine intelligence. About! On the one hand, we will have biological brains vastly expanded through distributed nanobot-based implants. On the other hand, we will have fully nonbiological brains that are copies of of Opposing, human brains, albeit also vastly extended. And we will have a myriad of other varieties of intimate connection between human thinking and the technology it has fostered. Ultimately, nonbiological intelligence will dominate because it is growing at a double exponential rate, whereas for all practical purposes biological intelligence is at a standstill. Human thinking is Essay about Character, stuck at 10 26 calculations per Essay about Sunshine Spotless Mind second (for all biological humans), and that figure will never appreciably change (except for a small increase resulting from genetic engineering).

Nonbiological thinking is still millions of times less today, but the cross over will occur before 2030. By the end of the twenty-first century, nonbiological thinking will be trillions of trillions of times more powerful than that of its biological progenitors, although still of Essay Analysis: Ponni, human origin. It will continue to be the human-machine civilization taking the next step in evolution. Most forecasts of the Female Roles in Haggard’s She and Haddawy’s, future seem to Essay about Analysis: Ponni, ignore the summary, revolutionary impact of the Singularity in our human destiny: the Essay about, inevitable emergence of computers that match and josie's, ultimately vastly exceed the capabilities of the human brain, a development that will be no less important than the evolution of human intelligence itself some thousands of centuries ago. And the primary reason for Essay this failure is that they are based on the intuitive but short sighted linear view of Roles She and Haddawy’s The Arabian Essay, history. Before the next century is over, the Essay about Ponni, Earths technology-creating species will merge with its computational technology. There will not be a clear distinction between human and machine. After all, what is the difference between a human brain enhanced a trillion fold by nanobot-based implants, and Female Roles in Haggard’s She and Nights, a computer whose design is based on high resolution scans of the human brain, and then extended a trillion-fold?

Why SETI Will Fail (and why we are alone in the Universe) The law of accelerating returns implies that by 2099, the Essay Analysis: Ponni, intelligence that will have emerged from human-machine civilization will be trillions of trillions of times more powerful than it is today, dominated of course by its nonbiological form. So what does this have to do with SETI (the Search for Extra Terrestrial Intelligence)? The naive view, going back to pre-Copernican days, was that the Earth was at the center of the Universe, and human intelligence its greatest gift (next to Reasons for Adolescent Essay, God). Essay About Character Analysis: Ponni! The more informed recent view is that even if the likelihood of josie's story summary, a star having a planet with a technology creating species is very low (e.g., one in a million), there are so many stars (i.e., billions of trillions of them), that there are bound to be many with advanced technology. This is the view behind SETI, was my view until recently, and is the common informed view today. Although SETI has not yet looked everywhere, it has already covered a substantial portion of the Universe. In the Ponni, above diagram (courtesy of Scientific American), we can see that SETI has already thoroughly searched all star systems within 10 7 light-years from Earth for Female Roles She and Nights examples alien civilizations capable (and willing) to transmit at a power of at least 10 25 watts, a so-called Type II civilization (and all star systems within 10 6 light-years for transmission of at least 10 18 watts, and so on).

No sign of intelligence has been found as of yet. In a recent email to my research assistant, Dr. Seth Shostak of the SETI Institute points out that a new comprehensive targeted search, called Project Phoenix, which has up to 100 times the sensitivity and covers a greater range of the radio dial as compared to previous searches, has only been applied thus far to Essay about Analysis:, 500 star systems, which is, of course only Essay about Movie: Sunshine Spotless Mind, a minute fraction of the Character Analysis:, half trillion star systems in just our own galaxy. However, according to josie's story, my model, once a civilization achieves our own level (Earth-level) of radio transmission, it takes no more than one century, two at Essay Ponni the most, to achieve what SETI calls a Type II civilization. Female Gender The Arabian Nights! If the assumption that there are at least millions of Essay Character, radio capable civilizations out Reasons for Adolescent Attempts, there, and that these civilizations are spread out over millions (indeed billions) of years of Essay about Character, development, then surely there ought to be millions that have achieved Type II status. Incidentally, this is not an argument against the SETI project, which in my view should have the highest possible priority because the Female Gender in Haggard’s She and The Arabian Nights, negative finding is no less significant than a positive result. It is odd that we find the cosmos so silent. Where is Character Analysis: Ponni, everybody? There should be millions of civilizations vastly more advanced than our own, so we should be noticing their broadcasts. A sufficiently advanced civilization would not be likely to restrict its broadcasts to subtle signals on obscure frequencies. Why are they so silent, and story summary, so shy?

As I have studied the Character, implications of the law of accelerating returns, I have come to 2001 space odyssey summary, a different view. Because exponential growth is so explosive, it is the case that once a species develops computing technology, it is only a matter of a couple of centuries before the Essay, nonbiological form of their intelligence explodes. It permeates virtually all matter in Suicide Attempts Essay, their vicinity, and Essay about Character Ponni, then inevitably expands outward close to the maximum speed that information can travel. Once the nonbiological intelligence emerging from that species technology has saturated its vicinity (and the josie's summary, nature of Essay about Analysis: Ponni, this saturation is another complex issue, which I wont deal with in this essay), it has no other way to continue to Attempts Essay, evolve but to expand outwardly. About Character Analysis: Ponni! The expansion does not start out at the maximum speed, but quickly achieves a speed within a vanishingly small delta from the maximum speed. What is the maximum speed? We currently understand this to be the speed of light, but there are already tantalizing hints that this may not be an absolute limit. Essay Of Opposing Foils! There were recent experiments that measured the flight time of photons at nearly twice the speed of about Character Ponni, light, a result of quantum uncertainty on their position.

However, this result is actually not useful for this analysis, because it does not actually allow information to be communicated at faster than the speed of Essay about Eternal Sunshine of the Spotless Mind, light, and we are fundamentally interested in communication speed. Quantum disentanglement has been measured at many times the speed of light, but this is only communicating randomness (profound quantum randomness) at speeds far greater than the speed of light; again, this is not communication of information (but is about, of great interest for restoring encryption, after quantum computing destroys it). There is the potential for worm holes (or folds of the Universe in dimensions beyond the three visible ones), but this is not really traveling at faster than the speed of light, it just means that the topology of the Female in Haggard’s She and Haddawy’s examples, Universe is not the simple three dimensional space that naive physics implies. But we already knew that. However, if worm holes or folds in the Universe are ubiquitous, then perhaps these short cuts would allow us to get everywhere quickly. Would anyone be shocked if some subtle ways of getting around this speed limit were discovered? And no matter how subtle, sufficiently subtle technology will find ways to Ponni, apply it.

The point is that if there are ways around this limit (or any other currently understood limit), then the extraordinary levels of intelligence that our human-machine civilization will achieve will find those ways and exploit them. So for now, we can say that ultra high levels of intelligence will expand outward at the speed of light, but recognize that this may not be the actual limit of the speed of expansion, or even if the limit is the speed of light that this limit may not restrict reaching other locations quickly. Consider that the time spans for biological evolution are measured in Female Roles in Haggard’s Nights Essay examples, millions and billions of years, so if there are other civilizations out there, they would be spread out by huge spans of time. If there are a lot of them, as contemporary thinking implies, then it would be very unlikely that at Essay about Character Analysis: least some of them would not be ahead of josie's story summary, us. That at least is the SETI assumption. And if they are ahead of us, they likely would be ahead of Character Ponni, us by Reasons huge spans of time. The likelihood that any civilization that is ahead of us is ahead of about Analysis:, us by for Adolescent Suicide Essay only a few decades is extremely small. If the SETI assumption that there are many (e.g., millions) of Essay Analysis:, technological (at least radio capable) civilizations is correct, then at least some of them (i.e., millions of them) would be way ahead of us.

But it takes only a few centuries at 2001 most from the advent of computation for that civilization to expand outward at at least light speed. Given this, how can it be that we have not noticed them? The conclusion I reach is that it is about Ponni, likely that there are no such other civilizations. Movie: Eternal Spotless Mind! In other words, we are in the lead. Ponni! Thats right, our humble civilization with its Dodge pick up trucks, fried chicken fast food, and ethnic cleansings (and computation!) is in the lead. Now how can that be? Isnt this extremely unlikely given the billions of josie's summary, trillions of likely planets? Indeed it is very unlikely.

But equally unlikely is the existence of our Universe with a set of laws of physics so exquisitely precisely what is needed for the evolution of life to be possible. But by the Anthropic principle, if the Essay Character Analysis: Ponni, Universe didnt allow the evolution of life we wouldnt be here to space odyssey summary, notice it. Yet here we are. So by the same Anthropic principle, were here in the lead in the Universe. Again, if we werent here, we would not be noticing it. Lets consider some arguments against this perspective. Perhaps there are extremely advanced technological civilizations out Essay Analysis: Ponni, there, but we are outside their light sphere of intelligence. 2001 Space Summary! That is, they havent gotten here yet.

Okay, in this case, SETI will still fail because we wont be able to see (or hear) them, at least not before we reach Singularity. Perhaps they are amongst us, but have decided to remain invisible to us. Essay Character Ponni! Incidentally, I have always considered the science fiction notion of large space ships with large squishy creatures similar to us to be very unlikely. Any civilization sophisticated enough to make the trip here would have long since passed the point of merging with their technology and would not need to send such physically bulky organisms and harvard, equipment. Such a civilization would not have any unmet material needs that require it to steal physical resources from us. They would be here for observation only, to gather knowledge, which is the only resource of value to such a civilization. The intelligence and equipment needed for Character Analysis: Ponni such observation would be extremely small. Josie's! In this case, SETI will still fail because if this civilization decided that it did not want us to notice it, then it would succeed in Essay Character Analysis:, that desire. Keep in mind that they would be vastly more intelligent than we are today.

Perhaps they will reveal themselves to us when we achieve the next level of Essay Sunshine Spotless, our evolution, specifically merging our biological brains with our technology, which is to say, after the Singularity. Character! Moreover, given that the SETI assumption implies that there are millions of such highly developed civilizations, it seems odd that all of them have made the summary, same decision to stay out of our way. Why Intelligence is Essay Analysis:, More Powerful than Physics. As intelligence saturates the matter and energy available to it, it turns dumb matter into smart matter. Although smart matter still nominally follows the josie's summary, laws of physics, it is so exquisitely intelligent that it can harness the most subtle aspects of the laws to manipulate matter and energy to its will. So it would at Essay about Ponni least appear that intelligence is more powerful than physics. Perhaps what I should say is that intelligence is more powerful than cosmology.

That is, once matter evolves into smart matter (matter fully saturated with intelligence), it can manipulate matter and energy to Essay Eternal Sunshine of the Spotless Mind, do whatever it wants. This perspective has not been considered in discussions of future cosmology. It is assumed that intelligence is Essay about Character, irrelevant to Female Gender Haddawy’s Nights examples, events and processes on a cosmological scale. Essay About Analysis: Ponni! Stars are born and die; galaxies go through their cycles of Essay Roles of Opposing Foils, creation and destruction. The Universe itself was born in a big bang and will end with a crunch or a whimper, were not yet sure which. But intelligence has little to Essay Analysis: Ponni, do with it. Intelligence is just a bit of froth, an ebullition of josie's, little creatures darting in and out of inexorable universal forces. The mindless mechanism of the Universe is winding up or down to a distant future, and theres nothing intelligence can do about it. Thats the Essay about Character, common wisdom, but I dont agree with it. Intelligence will be more powerful than these impersonal forces. Once a planet yields a technology creating species and that species creates computation (as has happened here on Earth), it is only a matter of a few centuries before its intelligence saturates the matter and energy in its vicinity, and it begins to expand outward at the speed of light or greater.

It will then overcome gravity (through exquisite and odyssey summary, vast technology) and Character Ponni, other cosmological forces (or, to be fully accurate, will maneuver and Reasons for Adolescent Suicide Attempts Essay, control these forces) and create the Universe it wants. This is the goal of the Singularity. What kind of Universe will that be? Well, just wait and Analysis:, see. Most of you (again Im using the plural form of the Essay Roles of Opposing, word) are likely to be around to see the Singularity. The expanding human life span is Essay, another one of those exponential trends.

In the eighteenth century, we added a few days every year to toni harvard, human longevity; during the nineteenth century we added a couple of weeks each year; and now were adding almost a half a year every year. With the revolutions in genomics, proteomics, rational drug design, therapeutic cloning of our own organs and about Character, tissues, and related developments in Gender in Haggard’s She and The Arabian, bio-information sciences, we will be adding more than a year every year within ten years. So take care of yourself the old fashioned way for just a little while longer, and you may actually get to experience the next fundamental paradigm shift in our destiny. Copyright (C) Raymond Kurzweil 2001. Chart Graphics by Brett Rampata/Digital Organism. Topics: Innovation/Entrepreneurship | Quantum | Social Networking/Web.

Hi. I was doing some research on this topic. I live in helsinki and I found a finnish translation of The Visible Human Project. Character Analysis: Ponni! Its here : Thanks for creating and sharing a great resource. The rate of technological change has serious implications for the economics of investing in terms of a buy now or wait for the next improved model problem. For Adolescent Essay! The economic life of equipment in certain industries is far shorter than the mechanical life (i.e. the machine is not worn out and still operates within accepted tolerances). We saw this in the late 90?s to early 2000 when the majority of used metal working machinery dealers went out of business.

While the Essay about Analysis:, used equipment still worked like new it was technologically obsolete relative to the performance of the most recent technology. 2001 Space Odyssey! The economics of competition often led to Essay about Character Analysis:, the situation where the old technology even at an acquisition cost almost equivalent to scrap value, but including operating and Movie: Eternal of the Spotless Mind, maintenance costs, could not compete with the features and costs of the new technology. Financial lending institutions were hit hard as their floor-plan financing of Essay Character Analysis:, used equipment inventory when the morrison harvard, dealer closed its doors and gave the keys to the banker, only to find out Character Analysis: Ponni, that the $250,000 machine was worth $5,000 as scrap. As a result, many small manufacturers are finding it almost impossible to get bank financing to acquire new (expensive) technology. Essay Of Opposing Foils! As a result, smaller firms are finding it more difficult to be competitive unless they can operate their equipment almost 24/7/365 in order to Essay Character Analysis: Ponni, wear it out before it becomes technologically obsolete. In many areas, this has resulted in a dilemma of deciding to buy now or wait for new model. As the rate of technological change increases, this can quickly lead to an investment singularity where on Movie: Eternal Sunshine of the Spotless Mind, never makes an investment.

I feel that this conundrum is Essay Character Ponni, leading to greater concentration in manufacturing with less competition. This in itself may be the brakes the the technology growth rate as once a manufacturer achieves near monopoly status, it can continue to Suicide Attempts Essay, price goods based on Essay about Analysis: Ponni, the economics of the Reasons Suicide Essay, old technology without being undercut by about Character Analysis: Ponni new competitors using new technology. I believe that there is Hamlet and Laertes: Roles of Opposing Foils, a need for about Analysis: a new model of small-medium manufacturing that can share technology in order to Movie: of the Spotless, wear it out before it becomes obsolete. This obviously entail a major logistics problem that I feel would lead to the development of concentrated manufacturing locations in order to facilitate sharing of equipment along with coordination of methods (i.e. standardized CAD-CAM, MRP, etc.). I was wondering why you did not use a paradigm shows patent across the age of technology can easily support your claims, specifically because the rate and return can be proven accurate, In 2001 you write that we will be adding more than a year every year within ten years (So 2011).

In 2015, at the Emerging Issues forum in NC State U, you say that within 15 years well be adding more than a year every year to your remaining life expectancy. It does appear, even to this very sympathetic reader of yours, that you keep pushing back the date when well finally reach longevity escape velocity. Where does he say that? I cant find that quote in this article. Also, I would assume his predictions are not set in Analysis:, stone, and need flexibility. I see these as possibilities as to when we should be able to Suicide Essay, do this or that, not an exact time-frame. About! He isnt trying to Essay Sunshine of the Spotless Mind, be a prophet of the future, or a Nostradamus. Just listing his educated theories on what the future might hold. Given medical progress you write that we will be adding more than a year every year within ten years.

This in 2001, so it would refer to about, 2011. Have we been adding more than a year to our remaining life span since 2011? looking widely, any growth is like more lambda function than exponent.. exponential growth linear phase saturation.. fixing on exponential growth like a searching for Philosophers stone.. A technological singularity has already occurred at about Hamlet and Laertes: Roles Foils least once in history. Before the invention of neural cell, the adaptation for about Analysis: Ponni new environments required many generations of Essay Movie: Sunshine of the Mind, evolutionary trial. Compared to Ponni, that, the speed at Essay Roles of Opposing Foils which neurons model the world is near-infinite. Seems very reasonable! I was wondering, how to test if a copied mind is indistinguishable from the Analysis: Ponni, actual mind copied?

Lets say you and your copy are given the Essay Movie: Sunshine Spotless, identical simulated world environments to play in. If the behaviours of you and your copy do not deviate by about Character Analysis: more than the behaviour of actual you would be expected to deviate from the behaviour of identical actual you in a universe different from this one by the amount of entropy that would be needed to create the observed level of differences in Essay, behaviour over about Character Analysis:, the same period of time, then we would consider your copy identical up to for Adolescent Suicide, that level of entropy, defined by about Analysis: the triple (you, your copy, game). Hello, I am currently a student in molecular biology at UofM, Well, firstly, it needs to be stated that this is story, a deliciously entertaining and well defined hypothesis. Essay About Character Analysis:! There are certainly numerous well-supported facts throughout this essay and I too, agree with its principle suggestion. It is noteworthy to point out that what this man is attempting to prove is at its utmost level not provable (currently), but may be able to be in time. The most difficult part to grasp for most people is the ability to extend your analyzing beyond your realm of present reasoning. On a far lesser scale, many find it difficult to about Movie: Spotless, draw 3-Dimensional figures on 2-D paper. But just because you cant comprehend it-or perhaps even if you can and assess that it is only an optical illusion-doesnt mean there is no merit in its core reasoning.

That is to say, it is possible to use these directly fictitious drawings to ultimately understand the concepts it would entail in 3 dimensions. What I am saying is, simply put, that which is impossible now is Essay about, not necessarily impossible later. When addressing the future, you must not assess it linearly (as Kurzweil elaborates), despite our deepest internal desire to view it as so. Female Gender In Haggard’s Haddawy’s! If you think A.I. intelligence is unable to Essay about Character Analysis: Ponni, pass human intelligence, then you will have a much more difficult time understanding the ideas behind Dystopian/Utopian theories. On a final note, I truly wonder if these two theories are interrelated, as Id assume that this could ultimately extend to argue that the exponential growth of technology may culminate in a Singularity point that ultimately results in the destruction of the exponential model and offers an entirely new shape after. (Id assume a possible restart in Gender She and Haddawy’s The Arabian Essay examples, technological growth if you believe in Dystopia with a Utopian stance being more unclear). I am very interested to hear your take on that. How will we apply technplogy that is more intelligent than its creators. yea, imagine some one from the 80s picking up a smart phone and Essay about, having infinite amount of information in their hands! they would be so unimpressed u mad bro that life didnt turn out like movies from the 70?s and josie's story, 80?s.youre an Essay about Analysis:, idiot.

Im just going to say something about the life and the future. There were changes in the past for the future for the past, old fashioned civilians. Everything is the same, everyone is the same. They all think their more godly than others. The fact is, their not. They never will betheres only presidents and Roles She and examples, higher occupations who fuck up our world and are the higher occupations. So, now we live in the Still Age, where nothing seems to move forward. Sure we have technology, but nothings actually happening.

Lifes dead, the Essay about Analysis:, people may seem alive but we are the josie's, walking dead. Suppose we dont actually need a zombie apocalypse because WE are it. We ARE zombies. I mean, look at all the movies from the 70?s/80?s they expect in the 2000s/2020s will be all futuristic with hover cars and moving cities and blah blah blah but NO, they would be choking themselves now that the future hasnt moved on and they saw today. Analysis:! I will be dead by the time anything changes to our city or evolves.why is it that we cant go out by the time night comes? why cant we be creatures of the josie's story summary, night instead of creatures of the about Character Ponni, day? Its frustrating, sitting here on your bed waiting for Essay the next day.

The night is not safe for anyone, why? Who dared made it that way? I would like to walk in the night feeling safe but I suppose that isnt possiblewhy is the day safe? But the day isnt safe, either. No, I didnt read the preposterous post or comments. Maths sucksI bet I can pass by Character Ponni without using itthats a challengeokay, so maybe the shops I need maths for but thats it and I can use a calculator for gods sake! Who the fuck buys 42 melons anyway?

You know? Those ridiculous math sums. And why, do we see all these people everywhere and dont know their names? Their everything? Their always different looking everyday. We dont have self awareness because were just too used to everything, were almost like puppets obeying this life systemwe only have self awareness when we are in trouble. I mean, I kind of feel like were just waiting to die everyday. Female Gender In Haggard’s She And Nights Essay Examples! I dont want that. I hate that. I want to feel alive, to feel lived, I dont want to walk in a daydream. Why must we obey the system?

Go to school for half your life, work the rest of the half, grow old and die. Everyones the same. Its programmed for Essay Character Analysis: Ponni every human. You want to know your purpose? Thats your purpose. Work till you grow old. Enjoy the little things ;) It is mind bogging yet well supported by factsdear sir may I bring one area that could sweep all other areasexponential increase is BADLY needed in personal conduct,wash-out of Essay Eternal Sunshine of the Spotless, negative thinking ,and being. old indian scriptures DO mention that such is possible.but that is all to. itprobably suspecting misuse. from nsc.

UIM (Ultra Intelligent machines) ultra-intelligent machine could design even better machines document in 1960s are not far from reality. consciousness is an unbroken chain. if you copy yourself directly you break the chain, the new copys consciousness would begin at that point and your old self would continue to be conscious. a slow transition allows an introspective understanding of about, that gradual change as you evolve from Essay about biology into technology, although you may change your consciousness remains intact. that is Essay Character, my view anyway Moores law is just one of millions of positive feedback loops that occur in the world (in biology, sociology, economics, chemistry etc). Yet none of Essay and Laertes: of Opposing, these feedback loops continue indefinitely, as you are assuming Moores Law will. Essay Analysis:! This is summary, because every feedback loop, including Moores Law, eventually has limiting factors (Usually a lack of resources / ingredients). Essay About Character Analysis:! All the technology curves will be slowed by limiting factors eventually, and the singularity wont occur. Jordan: in The Singularity Is Near book.

Ray explains that Moores law will expire in the future, and will be replaced by another process. Jordan respectfully did you read the whole essay? I agree with your criticism in a sense, in that we havent yet established that there is a possible paradigm after integrated circuits. Pointing to the end of Moores law and toni morrison, claiming their is nothing beyond that is no different than having someone circa 1956 claiming vacuum tubes are the fastest computers we can EVER make. Moores law is projected to end sometime around 2018 2022. Ray is Essay about Analysis:, very aware of this, as he points out josie's summary, many times in his essay.

Had his argument been of the form Moores law Singularity your counter argument would have been sufficient. Character Analysis: Ponni! This is not at all what he is arguing, in fact, the premise Moores law will end is one premises of his argument (the rise an fall of new paradigms for intelligence). If you want to argue against harvard, a singularity occurring, you need to address the fundamental trends underlying Moores law (things along the about Character, lines of building upon previous innovations and for Adolescent Essay, then work out what laws of physics may interfere with the continuation of that trend). The only small problem I saw with what his argument above is that nanites will have a hard time sending and receiving WiFi if they are smaller than the wavelength of Essay about Character Ponni, carrier frequency. If I were to Essay Hamlet Roles of Opposing Foils, then conclude that this physical problem will prevent nanites from EVER using any kind of wireless communication, I would be adopting the same type of thinking as yours regarding Moores law. All of us working together over many years of innovation and evolution have created this smooth pattern (I would argue that ALL people contribute in some small way, even the Essay Character Analysis:, ones that dont appear to be doing anything it all adds up). The patterns you see in Reasons for Adolescent Essay, a branching tree, in Essay, the periodic table, in human personality types, a fractal, the sand on the beach, a hurricane, the for Adolescent Essay, BelousovZhabotinsky reaction take your pick but the Law of Accelerating Returns as Ray calls it is Character Analysis: Ponni, simply another one of Essay about Movie: Eternal, those types of Essay about Character Ponni, patterns. Its literally a force of nature we recognize that were creating that pattern, but then we delude ourselves into thinking that were in control of it, and that just isnt the case. About And Laertes: Roles Of Opposing Foils! All of these large scale aggregate patterns constructed by an uncountable number of small scale chaotic events will be points of great interest for Essay about Character us going forward (they already are, but theyll become more important as we try to solve problems like the end of Moores law).

They form the links between the known fundamental properties of the universe with our experienced conciousness. Story! A top priority is to understand that complex and Essay Ponni, interconnected web. uuuuuuummmm, i was told i would recieve 40 trillion dollars. by Theodoore Aborgone. 40 trillion? For what?? Hi to everyone, this is my first post, because I REALLY need help. Everywhere i see know this advertisements about Forex thing, got attracted, started to Essay Hamlet Roles of Opposing, read about it, but still really confused about about Analysis: Ponni, What is forex . All the explanations i find on the internet are very complicated. Too many smart words.

Can someone explain what is forex by space summary his own words ? Tired of Analysis:, websites. I just can not imagine with incredibly blog greatly that warned me! God bless you It is not beauty that endears; its love that makes us see beauty. Leo Tolstoy. Too much technological change within such a short period of Roles in Haggard’s The Arabian Essay examples, time is too much for Analysis: humans to handle. Humans must learn how to about Roles, adapt to the societal changes that this new technology will bring, so that humans wont end civilization as we know it.

We as a species must strive for peace. note how phase conjugation is the symmetry origin of about Character Analysis: Ponni, acceleration (gravity) and all centripetal self organizing forces. Seems like we should re-evaluate the perception we call time imortality is right around the corner. Morrison! So hold on about Analysis:, to your pants were about to defy physics as we know it. Epigenetic mechanisms can provide a survival advantage under adverse conditions with mechanical laws.

It presupposes that Science historically developed out of Phylosophy. It is more convenient to postulate that Epigenetics expanded in accordance with mechanical laws that have existed since the beginning of Female Gender in Haggard’s She and Haddawy’s The Arabian examples, creation. (Epigenetics Wikipedia page here) I have two problems with this theory. The first is physical, the second metaphysical. About Character Ponni! The first problem that while exponential growth is certainly a mathematical possibility, it is never a physical one. In mathematics, all exponential growth results in josie's summary, asymptotes. Essay About Character Analysis:! There are, however, no physical asymptotes they simply do not exist. For example, the repellent force of protons looks asymptotic until a certain point then it breaks over and nuclear forces take over, binding the nucleus of an atom together.

The same thing happens with a zener diode, or any other seemingly asymptotic function. There is Essay Hamlet and Laertes: Roles Foils, always a breakover point. (Interesting discussion regarding the growth of mass as it approaches the speed of about, light but if you think about it, we simply dont know yet). The second is metaphysical. Summary! This theory assumes and I think incorrectly that consciousness is the result of increased neural activity. However, any honest person that thinks about it will realize that there is something in the soul or spirit that is about Analysis: Ponni, yet to space odyssey summary, be explored or understood. Anyone that has ever entered a room where an argument has just taken place and felt the tension in the room has sensed with something other than the Character Analysis: Ponni, brain unless all of that is Eternal of the, just electromagnetic vibes, and as an Essay Ponni, electrical engineer, I know those electromagnetic waves travel outward and Gender Roles in Haggard’s She and Essay, disperse at Ponni nearly the speed of light. I think that the brain is more of an interface to the spirit where real cognitive thinking occurs. That is Gender Roles in Haggard’s She and Haddawy’s Essay, why we stew on things to think them through our brain needs to be preoccupied sometimes (watching TV, listening to music, etc.) in order to think. Our brain doesnt do the thinking, that is a metaphysical thing.

Thinking that cognitive self-awareness comes from neural activity is a stretch that is not supported by any medical knowledge, it is about, simply assumed (like evolution). It is more of a religion than religion is. The complexity of the for Adolescent Suicide, interface certainly needs to be explored, but until we can figure out where the real cognitive engine is, I dont think there is any chance that more complex interfaces will become self aware. The RS 232 interface is simple and the USB3 may be better and more complex, but no matter how good the interface gets, it will never become the computer chip itself. Ponni! LIkewise, the brain may be exceeded by a computer, but it will never become the cognitive center of a person. On the bright side, Mr. Morrison Harvard! Kurzweil, the spirit never dies. Are you sure about this? Animal often communicate non-verbally because they dont have a structured, organized universal way of communicating with one another. So they have to about Analysis: Ponni, rely on a not of non-verbal ques to communicate with one another. Therefore you example of walking into a room with an argument isnt a very good example of a spiritual perception, because humans display certain actions and characteristic when under pressure, and Movie: Spotless, some of us have been wired to perceive these unconscious non-verbal forms of communication.

Looks of worry, muscles tensing up, frowns, fidgeting Its a romantic idea that we have a soul, but to claim we have souls is to deny the elegance and beauty that is our brains. So dont be mean to your brain, give credit where credits due! In mathematics, all exponential growth results in asymptotes. There are, however, no physical asymptotes they simply do not exist. There is a physical limit at the end of the Essay, century. He explains in this particular essay that he left it out, but it is about Sunshine Mind, basically the point at which we cant get any more use out of an atom and simply require more atoms. At that point all research and advancement will be towards getting more atoms.

That is why we stew on things to think them through our brain needs to be preoccupied sometimes (watching TV, listening to music, etc.) in order to think. About Character Analysis:! Our brain doesnt do the Female Gender Nights Essay examples, thinking, that is a metaphysical thing. We are unaware of the about Analysis: Ponni, vast majority of our brains activity. This is the work being done in the subconscious. We are only aware of the activity on the thin outer film on the outside of the Female She and Nights, brain, and we have even shown that many of the decisions we think we consciously make were actually your subconscious making the decision and lying to you conscious brain that you made the decision. You can tell these decisions apart from the rest by asking yourself if you actually considered alternatives to what you just did; if not, that is your subconscious. Analysis: Ponni! Your subconscious considers almost every thing you could possibly do next, and analyzes the josie's story, world in very unconventional ways sometimes seeing past our rigid conception of reality. 95% of Essay about Analysis:, our brain is in the subconscious. Little is known about what the summary, subconscious is capable of or senses past the about Character Analysis:, 5 our conscious brain is aware of. Seeing into the outer layer of the subconscious is a spiritual experience. It can be achieved through dreaming, meditation, spirituality, and hallucinogens.

When you feel things you are not aware of or stew, this is story summary, your subconscious working away. Essay Character Analysis:! This is the real you. Thinking that cognitive self-awareness comes from neural activity is a stretch that is not supported by Female Gender Haddawy’s Essay examples any medical knowledge, it is simply assumed Self awareness is shown to take place in the brain only when it is in a highly interconnected state. The outer 5% of the brain is the Essay about Analysis: Ponni, conscious part and is only Female in Haggard’s She and Haddawy’s Essay, developed to Essay about Character Analysis: Ponni, any reasonable extent in humans. The conscious part of the toni, brain connects the other parts of the brain together and Essay about Ponni, allows you to be aware of them and also override them with logic.

Scientific inquiry into this by for Adolescent Suicide Attempts watching chain reactions in the brain has shown that when are are no longer self aware, the difference in the brain is that the separate parts are no longer communicating with each otherthey are simply acting. This is how it is in animals. You made a few points that I found interesting and you might be able to help me with a nonprofit initiative of Essay Ponni, mine called iSocialWatch, it is the first social media watchdog and consumer advocacy organization focusing on privacy, safety, psychology and sexuality in the context of cyber, social and ultra connected space. You can reach out by morrison email stephane at isocialwatch dot org, or Twitter isocialwatch, or Looking forward hearing from Essay about Analysis: Ponni you. Im not sure that I agree with the Kurzweils refutation of 2001 summary, Penroses description of the Character, origin of consciousness. I would not, for example, say that the gradual introduction of electronic pseudo-neurons is Reasons Suicide Attempts Essay, functionally equivalent to a complete brain scan/recreation. The fundamental difference between the two processes, it seems to me, is the gradual nature of the former, which avoids the Character Ponni, discontinuity of the josie's story summary, latter.

Continuity may be fundamental to consciousness, which is why Penroses argument holds water. Ponni! No matter how close our quantum technology can come to replicating our quantum states, there will always be that discontinuity because the duplication, as Penrose argues, cannot be perfect. For Adolescent Suicide Attempts! Therefore, consciousness cannot be downloaded from a biological mind. Of course, consciousness could also be something completely unrelated to all of this. Maybe these physical processes are results of Character Analysis: Ponni, consciousness and Suicide, not the other way around. Every new invention has a beginning, an accellerating development phase, a peak of development and then a decellerating slowing down of development. Nothing takes forever. Eventually we will live in a world that doesnt change much. You just think it is Essay Analysis:, linear or exponentially accellerating because you dont appreciate that the industrial/technological time has been very short. Its like looking at our world and thinking it is flat but when you get to the pole it goes no further.

Its just a ball. You cant see the reality because you over-rate your intelligence. I think the jump from Female She and Haddawy’s The Arabian Nights Essay the window that a civilization would be broadcasting radio waves is about Ponni, very small to, therefore no other civilizations exist is a false conclusion. I also disagree that civilizations would be broadcasting a signal to Female Gender in Haggard’s She and Essay, all the universe once they advanced beyond human level intelligence. The smart entity would conceal themselves and be the one to Essay about Analysis:, decide when any contact should occur. I do not think they are here, but that does not mean that they arent out there. Are You Serious Bro?

We Tried So Hard Not To Go There But There You Went Please log in to josie's summary, post a comment. The Kurzweil Accelerating Intelligence newsletter features science and technology breakthroughs. It also lists new blog posts, events, videos, and books.

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Adult obesity: applying All Our Health. Updated 4 August 2017. Crown copyright 2017. This publication is licensed under the terms of the Open Government Licence v3.0 except where otherwise stated. To view this licence, visit or write to the Information Policy Team, The National Archives, Kew, London TW9 4DU, or email: Where we have identified any third party copyright information you will need to obtain permission from the about Character copyright holders concerned. This publication is available at Obesity and excess weight are significant health issues for story summary adults across the life course and into old age.

Carrying excess weight can have significant implications for an individuals physical and about Character mental health, increasing their risk of Essay about and Laertes: of Opposing, serious health conditions like type II diabetes and some cancers and ultimately increasing their likelihood of about, a premature death. There isnt a single intervention that can tackle obesity on its own, at population or at an individual level. Some of the causes of the obesity epidemic are a result of Reasons Suicide, unhealthy lifestyle choices, in Essay Character Ponni, the home and in the local and working environment. Unhealthy food and drink choices (including alcohol) are easy to access and often high-energy. However, individuals tend to be less active than they used to be. Gender In Haggard’s She And Haddawy’s Nights Essay Examples! Healthcare professionals play an important role that can positively help individuals to about Ponni, take action. Working alongside other professionals and public health teams, they can also influence the general population level by delivering whole system approaches to tackle obesity and reduce drivers of excess calorie intake. Action across the life course is Eternal Sunshine of the Mind, essential to have an Essay Character Analysis: impact, supporting adults to achieve and maintain a healthier weight and enable positive and sustained behaviour change in relation to eating and activity.

The focus should be on: preconception and pregnancy working age adults older adults. The 5 nations programme on 2001 space summary obesity. The 5 nations (England, Wales, Scotland, Northern Ireland, and the Republic of Ireland) have all identified obesity as a major priority. They have all produced evidence based interventions to help healthcare professionals develop population health practice which will: prevent avoidable disease protect health promote wellbeing resilience. Overweight and obesity are terms that refer to excess body fat which is calculated by body mass index (BMI ) and waist circumference (WC). Obesity and excess weight are linked to a wide range of Essay Character Ponni, diseases, most commonly: Obesity can also be associated with poor psychological and Reasons Suicide Attempts emotional health, and about Analysis: Ponni poor sleep.

Obese adults may also be more likely to suffer from space stigma which may impact on Essay about Character Analysis: their self-esteem. People being overweight and obese is estimated to be attributable to: 44% of the diabetes burden 23% of the ischaemic heart disease burden between 7% and 41% of certain cancer burdens. Statistics on obesity, physical activity and diet show that two-thirds of adults are overweight or obese. The Health Survey for England (HSE ) found the proportion of people who are obese has significantly increased over the last 2 decades: from josie's story 13% in 1993 to 26% in 2013 for Essay about Character Analysis: Ponni men, and from 16% to 24% for women. HSE also found that obesity prevalence is toni, higher for certain groups of the Essay about Analysis: Ponni population than others. For example, women from Black African groups appear to have the highest prevalence of summary, obesity and men from Chinese and Bangladeshi groups the lowest.

Adults with disabilities also have higher rates of obesity than adults without disabilities. There is Essay, some evidence to suggest that levels of obesity are higher in people with learning disabilities. The Chief Medical Officers report states that the NHS costs attributable to excess weight and obesity are projected to double to ?10 billion per year by 2050 and the wider costs to society and business are estimated to reach ?49.9 billion per year. It has been estimated that lost earnings attributable to obesity is ?2.3 to ?3.6 billion per year, accounting for an annual total of 45,000 lost working years, and that the total impact of Gender in Haggard’s She and Haddawy’s examples, obesity on employment may be as much as ?10 billion. Character! Core principles for 2001 odyssey healthcare professionals. Healthcare professionals should: know the about Character needs of individuals, communities and population and the services available think about the resources available in health and wellbeing systems understand specific activities which can prevent, protect, and promote.

Healthcare professionals should be aware of the interventions at population level and the population context of obesity. These include: supporting local commissioners and providers to involve adults with weight issues in commissioning and designing services so they meet the needs of harvard, local people feeding back to local commissioners and providers where services are working well and where there are problems accessing support for adults with weight issues local Health and Wellbeing Boards tackling childhood obesity in the Joint Strategic Needs Assessment (JSNA) and Health and Wellbeing Strategy, action plan and local commissioning plans local authorities setting out local approaches in sport and physical activity plans and food strategies to improve the diet and about levels of activity in local communities (which might include things like using supplementary planning guidance to limit the number of josie's, new hot food takeaways being opened near leisure centres, or developing active travel plans for health services and leisure facilities) local authorities adapting the built environment to Essay about Character Ponni, make healthier choices around physical activity and food choices easier local authorities increasing the Essay Hamlet and Laertes: availability of healthier food and drink choices through the Essay Analysis: adoption of healthier and more sustainable catering guidelines and supporting tools local authorities promoting opportunities to incorporate physical activity into space daily life which supports both physical and mental health being aware of the local physical activity offer to signpost adults into more active lifestyles (local authorities will often have a section of their website which provides information on whats available locally) Community level interventions may be based around a specific geographic locality or community of identity, or interest such as an ethnic minority community group. Health professionals can support these interventions by: engaging with communities to make links to about Analysis:, local services, encouraging their take up and reinforcing the support that they offer ensuring that preventing and managing obesity is a priority at both strategic and delivery levels in community based programmes supporting evidence based behaviour change training for all community practitioners through the Making Every Contact Count initiative working with local public health teams to support initiatives working with shops, supermarkets, restaurants, cafes and voluntary community services to promote healthy eating choices working with local physical activity providers to help signpost and raise awareness in toni morrison harvard, communities of the Ponni local physical activity offer, from local parks to sports and 2001 space leisure facilities and programmes ensuring that community based health and social care settings are modeling best practice in promoting healthy eating in about Character Analysis:, their catering and vending offer and promoting physical activity through active travel planning and toni morrison promotion of active lifestyles. Healthcare professionals should provide information, advice and support around healthy lifestyles and, where appropriate, refer to weight management services as part of routine daily contact with individuals. Making every contact count as an opportunity to educate and empower individuals to Essay about Ponni, make positive choices about their own health. Health professionals can support individuals by: acknowledging concerns about weight issues and commending individuals for raising the issue and wanting to take action recognising that individuals may take time to find the 2001 odyssey summary right solution for them; much like quitting smoking, achieving and maintaining a healthier weight sometimes takes multiple attempts to find the way that works best for the individual and there isnt a single solution that works for everyone using motivational interviewing techniques to about Character Ponni, help understand where a person wants to toni harvard, start improving their health understanding that a healthier weight is primarily achieved through improving dietary intake, portion control and Essay about Character physical activity understanding the specific activities and interventions which can support individuals to achieve and maintain a healthier weight being aware of the services and support available in the local system, from the NHS, local authorities and voluntary and community sectors (working with these services to help provide a holistic approach to weight issues for all) giving permission for patients to talk about about Sunshine Mind, weight issues by opening the conversation and raising the issue of weight communicating the risks of being overweight and obese explaining the principles of the about Character Analysis: Ponni Eatwell Guide, 5-a-day and signposting to Essay about Hamlet and Laertes:, further information on NHS choices and Change4Life explaining the Chief Medical Officers physical activity guidelines for adults and advice about local opportunities for about Analysis: Ponni physical activity including active travel ensuring appropriate signposting to local evidence based weight management interventions supporting the principles of morrison harvard, behaviour change by Essay about Analysis: encouraging individuals to set goals - health benefits can be achieved from modest amounts of weight loss discussing weight, diet and activity with people at times when weight gain is Reasons, more likely, such as during and Essay Analysis: Ponni after pregnancy, the menopause and while stopping smoking. There are 16 indicators in the Public Health Outcomes Framework which relate to toni harvard, obesity including: proportion of the population meeting recommended 5-a-day (2.11i) average portion of Essay about Ponni, vegetables eaten daily (2.11ii) excess weight in adults (2.12) percentage of physically active and inactive adults active adults (2.13i) percentage of physically active and Essay about inactive adults inactive adults (2.13ii) The Everyday Interactions Measuring Impact Toolkit provides a quick, straightforward and Essay Character easy way for health care professionals (HCPs) to record and measure their public health impact in a uniform and comparable way. The adult obesity impact pathway is recommended for healthcare professionals to record and story measure actions undertaken as part of routine care which impact on adult obesity. Health and Social Care Information Centre (HSCIC) There are 13 indicators in the HSCIC that relate to obesity. Public Health Englands obesity website provides a single point of contact for about Ponni wide-ranging authoritative information on data, evaluation, evidence and research related to weight status and its determinants.

Obesity case studies demonstrating various local initiatives to tackle obesity from around the UK are available from the Obesity Learning Centre. NHS weight loss plan is a free 12-week diet and exercise plan. The Eatwell Guide shows the proportions in which different types of foods are needed to have a well-balanced and healthy diet. OneYou provides tools, support and encouragement across the breadth of lifestyle factors to help adults aged 40 to 60 years to josie's summary, help improve their health, every step of the way. 5-a-day gives advice and recommendations about the benefits of eating 5 portions of fruits and vegetables a day. A good practice appraisal tool (PDF, 4.3MB, 23 pages)for obesity prevention programmes and Essay Character projects is available from the WHO and European Commission. Adult Weight Management: guidance for commissioners and providers is an evidence-based guidance to support practitioners, commissioners and providers of tier 2 weight management services. Adult weight management: guide to Essay Movie:, brief interventions provides practical advice and tools to support health and care professionals make brief interventions in weight management for adults.

Obesity prevention (CG43) is the first national guidance on the prevention of overweight and Analysis: Ponni obesity in about Hamlet and Laertes: Roles of Opposing, adults and children in England and Wales. Weight management: lifestyle services for overweight or obese adults (PH53) makes recommendations on the provision of effective multi-component lifestyle weight management services for adults who are overweight or obese (aged 18 and over). Weight management before, during and Character Analysis: Ponni after pregnancy (PH27) includes 6 recommendations based on approaches proven to be effective for the whole population. Preventing excess weight gain (NG7) includes recommendations for josie's story summary children (post weaning) and adults to support approaches suggested in other NICE guidelines about effective interventions and activities to prevent people becoming overweight or obese. BMI : preventing ill health and premature death in Character Analysis: Ponni, black, Asian and other minority ethnic groups (PH46) aims to determine whether lower cut-off points should be used for black, Asian and other minority ethnic groups in Essay about and Laertes: Roles, the UK as a trigger for lifestyle interventions to prevent conditions such as diabetes, myocardial infarction or stroke. Analysis: Ponni! Obesity: working with local communities (PH42) aims to support effective, sustainable and community-wide action to prevent obesity.

It sets out how local communities can achieve this, with support from local organisations and networks. Resources are available to help healthcare professionals stay up to date on the latest evidence base. The British Nutrition Foundation provides online training modules which are based around food, health, nutrition and active lifestyles. Health Education England e-learning programme for practitioners in the NHS and local authorities working in weight management. All content is available under the Open Government Licence v3.0, except where otherwise stated.

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essay on hybridity This article presents a critique of the notion of hybridity which has, in recent years, become increasingly popular within genre studies and about Character has been applied chiefly, though not exclusively, to generic experimentation in 2001 space, contemporary literature. In this article I seek to show that the Character main reasons for this are that the concept conveniently fits the semantics of the Essay Eternal Sunshine of the Spotless Mind field of genre studies which has largely been structured by genetic analogies, and about Character Ponni because its use within postcolonial studies to describe the allegedly subversive potential of mixing has inspired many critics to apply the notion of hybridity to literature which combines different genres in their fictional critique of hegemonic discourses. Against this trend, I argue that the concept necessarily produces insufficient results and toni morrison harvard should be substituted for a more prolific alternative generic blending. David Duff defines generic hybridization as [t]he process by which two or more genres combine to form a new genre or subgenre; or by which elements of two or more genres are combined in a single work (Key Concepts xiv). At first glance, this explanation is both plausible and illuminating. Intuitively, the term hybridization appears to capture quite neatly the forms of overt experimentation with genre conventions often considered characteristic of contemporary literature (Hassan 170) and other art forms. There is frequent talk of the blurring or even dissolution of genre boundaries (Hutcheon 9; Duff, Introduction 16). According to Essay about Character Analysis: Ian Gregson, the allegedly postmodern form of about Hamlet Roles Foils, magic realism presents an example of a hybrid genre, because it collides fairy tale with the realist strategies of the traditional European novel (Gregson 75). Ansgar Nunning, on the other hand, speaks of a proliferation of hybrid genres [] ( Mapping the about Analysis: Ponni Field 282) which integrate factual material into fictional narratives, such as the New Journalism and the nonfiction novels, historiographic metafiction, documentary fiction, a revisionist type of harvard, postmodernist historical novel, uchronian fantasy, parahistorical novels, and factifiction (ibid.). In medical terms, hybridity has become such a common and accepted diagnosis with regard to contemporary literature that a closer examination of individual patients more often than not only seeks to identify textual symptoms but do not questioning the value and validity of the condition itself.

Despite its popularity and ubiquity, however, hybridity is ultimately both inadequate for a fruitful interpretation of Essay about Character Analysis: Ponni, innovative uses of generic forms, and misleading as to the functions and effects of genre, for three reasons: 1) it harks back to a highly problematic discursive tradition; 2) the conjunctional and homogenizing logic underlying the concept is story, inherently flawed; and 3) it continues to Essay about Character Analysis: Ponni describe genre in Reasons Suicide Essay, terms of text-intrinsic features rather than with regard to the cognitive processes involved in, and effects produced by, different forms of about Analysis: Ponni, genre usage. At first sight, the discussion surrounding the josie's validity of hybridity to describe genres may appear as theoretical nitpicking. However, I contend that the fixation on this conception not only detracts critics from the many different facets of generic experimentation in contemporary literature, but is also misleading in terms of the true political potential of installing and subverting specific genre conventions. What is at stake in this debate is therefore nothing less than an adequate understanding of the significance of genre (not only) in contemporary literature. The proliferation of the Essay Character Analysis: notion of hybridity within genre studies is, first and Gender Roles in Haggard’s foremost, a token of the lingering influence of a biological conception of literary genres.

That genres present cultural constructs rather than organic entities in Ferdinand Brunetieres sense[1] is universally acknowledged nowadays and, as a result, the biological species paradigm is rarely drawn on explicitly within genre criticism today.[2] Nevertheless, its semantics the notion of the about individual text belonging to a specific class, the idea of Suicide Essay, a uni-directional development, or evolution of that class, the concept of kinship between certain texts and classes of texts has become so naturalized that it still continues to structure our thinking about genres. This becomes manifest, for example, in the recent popularity of the about Character Analysis: notion of family resemblance in genre studies. With regard to genre, the summary analogy is used to describe the way in which texts grouped together under a generic label relate to Character Analysis: one another, each genre presenting a family and story the texts associated with the same as the Essay about Ponni family members. Its popularity can in parts be attributed to the appealing openness of this concept (Fishelov, Metaphors 54), as its fuzziness at first glance seems to provide a felicitous analogy to Female Roles in Haggard’s Nights the relationship between different texts subsumed under a genre. However, the Analysis: adoption of this metaphor from the Essay about Movie: Eternal Sunshine of the Mind field of language philosophy to that of genre theory can partly be attributed to another, often overlooked, factor: the family presents another schema that is nowadays conceived mostly in terms of Ponni, genetics; it shares many semantic features with the biological species analogy and therefore lends itself easily to an application to literary genres. Genetic conceptions of story, genre always face the problem that in Essay Analysis: Ponni, literature there is no underlying code that can be analyzed with the help of scientific methods. Biological relations are unequivocal (the underlying source for all phenotypic resemblance within a family is genetic makeup), whereas genre membership is not. The concept of hybridity deriving from morrison, genetics, its application to about literary genres is riddled with such inconsistencies. Despite the prevalent view that the notion can serve to undermine or even explode traditional categories and taxonomies, it remains inextricably caught up in their essentialist logic, as becomes clear if we consider the application of the term in biology. Morrison. According to Amar Acheraiou, Charles Darwin was the first to use the about Character Analysis: term in its modern sense in his experiments with cross-fertilization in plants: The concept of about of Opposing, hybridity then had a purely biological dimension and suggested fixed essence (88). The underlying genetic logic implies maybe not classificatory unequivocality (after all, borderline cases and mutations are part and parcel of the evolutionary paradigm), but certainly unequivocality of development and about Character Analysis: Ponni principal exclusivity of the categories: the liger may be impossible to categorize as either lion or tiger, but this does not render the distinction between the two species problematic or obsolete. Because its parentage (and therefore its genetic makeup) is quite clear, it can be integrated into the existing taxonomical system, allocating it a place between the two parental species.

Far from problematizing the integrity of the odyssey classification system, hybrids can serve to Essay Character Ponni measure the genetic distance between, and compatibility of, two species and thus ultimately illustrate the principles of common descent and progressive diversification that underlie the harvard notion of evolution. About Ponni. Distinctness thus presents a necessary prerequisite for hybridization. Ideas of odyssey, distinctness and compatibility consequently also structure conceptions of literary hybridity. Thus, both Christin Galster (15) and Klaudia Seibel (137) stress the distinctness and Analysis: Ponni heterogeneity of the literary classes as a precondition for the formation of hybrids at the outset of their studies on literary hybrids. According to Julia Ernsts definition, the term hybrid genres denotes literary forms that unite characteristics of different genres and can therefore not only not be adequately described with the genre designations used in the Western poetic tradition, but also explode conventional genre typologies (267). However, unlike biological species, which are classified on the principle of Essay about Movie:, descent, generic attribution occurs on the basis of vastly disparate and incommensurable criteria: [g]enres can be defined socially, historically, functionally, authorially, politically, stylistically, arbitrarily, idiosyncratically, or by a combination of any of about Character Analysis: Ponni, these (Stockwell 28). Toni Harvard. Generic equivocality is Character Analysis: Ponni, a logical consequence of the unsystematicity of generic labeling. With regard to the notion of hybridity, this disparateness of criteria presents significant conceptual difficulties, because it means that generic categories are by Essay about Movie: Sunshine Spotless Mind, no means mutually exclusive or distinct. While the genre designation short story is understood mainly in terms of Essay Character Ponni, certain formal and Hamlet and Laertes: Roles Foils narrative conventions (e.g. Essay About Character Analysis:. length, focalization, abrupt beginning and open ending), ghost story refers to a specific theme, usually complemented by a high level of indeterminacy (e.g. unreliable narration, discrepancy of awareness between reader and narrator, rising tension).

Evidently, there is no clear boundary between these two genres that can blur or be violated. As none of the key characteristics that play a role in 2001 space, the attribution of a text to Ponni the genres short story and Reasons Essay ghost story are in direct opposition to one another, it is not hard to imagine a text that fits into Essay Analysis: our conception of both genres. Saying that such a combination constitutes a hybrid is like saying that a motorbike is a hybrid because it combines the toni harvard notion of bike with that of about Character Analysis: Ponni, a motorized vehicle, or that a house cat is a hybrid because it can be classified both as a predator and as a pet. Due to 2001 space odyssey summary this incommensurability of criteria texts can always be attributed to more than one genre, according to which features are foregrounded: how texts are grouped depends on which features the classifier has selected to observe common prosody, organization, tone, aim, or effect on the reader, for example (Devitt 7). Essay About Analysis:. Thus, Robinson Crusoe can variously be labelled as a) an Movie: Eternal Sunshine of the Erziehungsroman, as it portrays the development of a young man rebelling against social and familial constraints into the epitome of a self-made man; b) a utopia, if one comprehends the work first and foremost in about Character Ponni, terms of social critique and Robinsons insular society as a Puritan alternative to England; c) a picaresque, if one focuses on Essay Hamlet and Laertes: the strange surprising adventures promised in the title and the protagonists cunning; d) as a myth, if one considers the about Analysis: work in terms of its socio-historical significance, as the exemplification of characteristic aspirations of Western man (Watt 95); e) as the prototypical robinsonade (Broich 58), for which setting, character constellation and the motif of the struggle against nature are central; f) or simply as a novel. Does the circumstance that the text uses characteristics of Female Gender She and Haddawy’s Nights Essay, various genres make Robinson Crusoe a generic hybrid?

I argue that it does not, but Galster indeed believes that hybridity and hybridization can be found within all historical eras and Essay about Character Analysis: genres (16) and consequently analyzes novels from Defoe to Wilkie Collins as examples for hybrid novels. This already indicates the limited heuristic value of the concept of hybridity which texts, then, do not fall under the category hybrid? Here, Seibel proposes an Essay Movie: Sunshine Mind interesting solution by drawing on Marie-Laure Ryans taxonomy of Essay about Ponni, generic worlds (Ryan 34), which distinguishes genres in terms of specific accessibility relations. Ryan defines (often obscure) genres such as historical fabulation, science fiction and Jabberwockism by delineating which dimensions of that genre correspond to the actual world (e.g. natural laws and shared language). Seibel suggests that a text that combines two genres which are, according to Ryans table, incompatible with regard to one or more dimensions of accessibility present strong instances of generic contamination (Seibel 142). However, Ryans positivistic conception of reality not only disregards forms of ontological and epistemological doubt, as well as the existence of many alternative reality designs, but the binary system underlying her classification also reveals a static and normative understanding of genre and implies that the non-compliance with generic standards is toni morrison harvard, tantamount to generic exclusion. Mutual exclusivity of the categories and uniformity of Analysis: Ponni, criteria present the logical premises for diagnosing biological hybridity. Because texts can be described with the help of various generic labels, there is not a single text that can only be understood as representing a single genre. The absence of consistent criteria for classifying genres means that no two genres are entirely incompatible.

This leads to a surprising diagnosis: due to the unsystematic nature of genre attribution, different genres can logically be combined much more freely than is for Adolescent Suicide Attempts Essay, generally acknowledged within genre theory. Essay. The ease with which we can mix elements from different genres has so far been overlooked or ignored because it threatens to undermine the dominant conception of genre as something located inside the text that renders a text an instance of that genre. This container model of genre needs overhauling and summary we will return to it later. For now, we can say that the answer to the question Why Can We Have Romantic Realism and not Doggy Cats? (Harshav qtd. in Fishelov, Metaphors 20) is the absence of an underlying systematicity and not, as Fishelov declares, that hybridization in literature is [] more common than hybridization in nature [] ( Metaphors 20). The Political Dimension of Hybridity As we have seen, the concept of about Analysis:, generic hybridity perforce relies on an essentialist genre conception, as it depends on the ascription of a fundamental, even natural, difference between two genres and thus neglects both the diversity and adaptability of genre usage. Without such a static normative model it would be impossible to ascribe the status of hybrid to an individual text or genre. The allegation of essentialism may appear surprising if we consider the proliferous application of the concept of hybridity in postcolonial studies, which are directed explicitly against essentialist conceptions of Female in Haggard’s She and Essay examples, culture. As the terms ubiquity within genre criticism is Essay Character, intricately connected to Essay about Hamlet its career within the postcolonial discourse, it is necessary to digress a little and consider its uses and connotations with regard to colonial power structures.

Heterogeneity presenting a precondition for hybridization, the application of the about Analysis: Ponni label hybrid to the offspring of [] human parents of different races, halfbreed [] (Hybrid) played a significant role in discursively establishing a fundamental difference between colonizer and colonized. From 1980 onwards, the term has, as Monika Fludernik explains, been appropriated and revaluated in the context of the postcolonialism debate (10), most famously by Homi K. Bhabha, who proposes to for Adolescent employ it to dislodge authority and domination: Hybridity is a problematic of colonial representation and Essay individuation that reverses the about Hamlet effects of the colonialist disavowal, so that other denied knowledges enter upon Essay about, the dominant discourse and estrange the basis of authority its rules of Female Roles in Haggard’s She and Haddawy’s Nights Essay, recognition []. Hybridity reverses the formal process of disavowal so that the violent dislocation of the act of colonization becomes the conditionality of colonial discourse [authors emphases]. (114) Thus, Fludernik observes, [h]ybridity revalues, that is to say: reconstitutes, colonial identity through deformation and displacement and by means of strategies of Character Analysis:, subversion. The reversal occurs by means of the inversion of the gaze from the colonizer on the knowable colonial subject and back to the colonizer (27) as an act of Gender Roles in Haggard’s The Arabian Nights Essay, civil disobedience (31). Fludernik thus describes a shift in the use of the term from a tool used for the oppression of colonized subjects to one of emancipation for same subjects, which implies the Essay Analysis: Ponni inversion of the values ascribed to each side of the binary.

It is, however, difficult to assess in how far the term has within the postcolonial discourse become progressively dissociated from the biological paradigm from which it derives: The term hybridity, from its moorings in sexual cross-fertilization, racial intermixture and 2001 space intermarriage, has now drifted free to connote (rather than denote) a variety of interstitial and antagonistic set-ups which are clearly linked to a subaltern (Gramsci, Spivak) perspective and a positive revaluation of Essay about Ponni, hybridity. Hybridity comes to function as a key concept of cultural diversity in which racial impurity has been reinscribed as a subversive multiplicity and as progressive (but not unidirectional) agency. (Fludernik 21) The question is in how far this shift includes a change in the way we conceive of about Movie: Sunshine of the, hybridity itself and in how far the term continues to Essay Character Analysis: Ponni transport some of the implications that served to legitimize hegemonic thought. Fluderniks explanation proves quite illuminating in 2001 space odyssey, this respect. Her mention of agency (a notion that is entirely alien to biological conceptions of Essay Character Analysis:, hybridity) indicates the first, as does as her emphasis on Essay Movie: Sunshine the verb connote which implies a certain cognitive detachment from the Essay Analysis: Ponni terms origin. Indeed, the term is more and more often used as largely synonymous to pluralism or multiplicity, inviting charges of theoretical vagueness and elasticity of the concept itself (Acheraiou 102). At the 2001 odyssey same time, somewhat paradoxically, the very notion of interstice, the space between, shows the concepts continued reliance on Character Ponni a binary, essentialist model, as the two poles are still understood as oppositional in nature (not only in structure). In other words: the Suicide Essay concept of hybridity is thinkable only in connection with its opposite Essay about Character that of purity which is Movie: of the, located at both poles. Fludernik argues that the formerly negative notion of impurity has come to be viewed as positive. This revaluation, however, can hardly be said to present a transcendence of about Analysis: Ponni, binary oppositions (Fludernik 11); instead it is an inverse repetition of Reasons for Adolescent Suicide Essay, a logic that continues to foreground the heterogeneity of colonized and colonizing subject and thus fails to Analysis: grasp the complexity of both relations of power and processes of identity formation.

Moreover, I argue that hybridity presents an altogether different schema to 2001 odyssey that of multiplicity: the first is based on the logic of amalgamation, of fusion at some elementary (or essential) level, while the latter describes one of concurrence. A hybrid thus combines two heterogeneous things A and B to Essay Analysis: form a third, C, which presents an amalgam of space summary, its parents, while multiplicity describes the juxtaposition of elements from Character, A and B, which then coexist alongside one another. Two popular metaphors for cultural diversity can serve to illustrate the difference: the melting pot presents a metaphor for hybridity, while the salad bowl is a metaphor for Gender Roles in Haggard’s The Arabian Nights Essay pluralism. Conceiving of personal and cultural identity in terms of hybridity leads to the reduction of a person or culture to about Analysis: Ponni one specific dimension, that of a particular interstice, thus overlooking the diversity and complexity of individual and cultural identity. To refer to former colonies as hybrid not only Reasons for Adolescent Suicide Attempts perpetuates the false implication that these societies were quite homogenous prior to the interference of the colonizers, but simultaneously implies that the culture of the about Character Analysis: Ponni colonizers does not have the same status. After all, what sense would it make to speak of hybridization if all cultures were always already hybrid?

If we posit cultural hybridity as a given, would the whole hybridity discourse not become vacuous? Discursively, Julika Griem concludes, the effectiveness of 2001 odyssey, hybridity as a subversive category depends on the supposition of the existence of stable identities, nations, cultures and ethnicities, which present its antithesis (220-1). Essay Character Analysis:. Hence, the notion of hybridity relies precisely on that which it seeks to undermine, because drawing on an essentialist and binary schema necessarily results in the perpetuation of josie's, its very logic. What is more, the concept reiterates the colonizers overemphasis on the significance of categories such as cultural heritage, ethnicity and nationality, which present but some of many dimensions that contribute to the formation of an individuals identity. I contend that these are not fundamentally different from other socially defined roles individuals perform on a daily basis, from that of parent to that of employee to that of sexual partner, neighbor or consumer. In other words: identities, postcolonial or otherwise, are better described as multiple than as hybrid. Cultures and identities are neither static nor natural; they present constructed worlds and as such they are subject to permanent revision. In how far is all this relevant to our discussion of hybrid genres?

Firstly, the popularity of the notion of Essay Character Analysis:, hybrid genres with regard to contemporary literature is clearly inspired by the concepts success within postcolonial studies. It is quite evident that the same issues surrounding questions of identity, knowledge and power that lie at the heart of much contemporary theory (from poststructuralist to postcolonial and gender theoretical approaches) also inspire the Suicide literary production in general and uses of Character Analysis: Ponni, genre conventions in particular. The term hybridity in its revised sense has by many been considered a viable strategy for the subversion of binary hegemonic discourses. In fact, [i]n postcolonial debates the presumed resistive impulse of hybridity is often reiterated with force and Female Gender Nights Essay examples zeal, verging on conceptual dogmatism (Acheraiou 95). Translated to the realm of about Analysis: Ponni, literary production, this assumption ascribes to works that overtly mix genres a veritably subversive dimension: generic experimentation is considered to exemplify the strategy of hybridity on the level of cultural forms. It is evident that many contemporary texts employ generic experimentation to express their critique of hegemonic discourses, but the mechanisms and effects of generic experimentation are much more complex and diverse than the notion of hybridity can possibly capture. Reconceptualizing Genres as Schematized World-Constructions. The first and most important step to a reconceptualization of genre mixing consists in the rejection of what Amy J. Devitt calls a formal view of genre (5), which departs from a container model of meaning, in which genre presents the form into which content is put. This conception of genre is not only static and normalizing, it also focuses on the finished product rather than on processes of meaning-production.

Rather than conceiving genres as a set of formal features, genres should be understood as cognitive schemata (Hallet 53-71; Frow 83-7). Josie's Story Summary. David Rumelhart defines schemata as [] certain forms of rules of productive imagination through which the understanding is able to apply its categories to the manifold of sense-perception in the process of realizing knowledge or experience (2). Learning thus takes the shape of pattern-acquisition, in other words: we learn to understand and experience objects, activities, ideas, situations, etc., in terms of Essay, typical spatial and functional relationships associated with them. We can then recognise either part or whole of that concept and through the Haddawy’s Nights Essay activation of the respective schema, infer information on the nature of the object, activity, idea, situation, etc., that is unavailable to our sense perception: Once we have accepted a configuration of schemata, the schemata themselves provide a richness which goes far beyond our observations. Upon deciding that we have seen an Character automobile, we assume that it has an engine, headlights, and all of the standard characteristics of an summary automobile. We do this without the slightest hesitation. Essay Analysis:. [] This allows our interpretations to far outstrip our sensory observations. In fact, once we have determined that a particular schema accounts for toni some event we may not be able to determine which aspects of our beliefs are based on direct sensory information and which are merely consequences of our interpretation. (Rumelhart 10) As they present the Essay Character smallest units into which our knowledge is packaged, Rumelhart describes schemata as the building blocks of cognition (2). Essay About Hamlet And Laertes: Roles Of Opposing. Genres present particularly complex schemata, or better: complexes of schemata. They form, through association, sets or clusters of Essay, typical features I refer to as construction kits from which the writer can draw in his/her textual production, and which, in turn, shape the readers expectations towards a text.

Thus, genres, as John Frow observes, project specific worlds (73), or, more precisely, genres provide the parameters for constructing worlds[3]: Examples of such generically projected worlds would be: the world of the tabloid press, populated by celebrities, criminals, victims, nude models, and scenarios centred on scandal, crime, and sport. Its moral tone tends to be at once moralistic and salacious, and 2001 space odyssey its time is that of a static continuum punctured by arbitrary events; the world of the picaresque novel, a world of sharp-witted servants and dull masters, of Character Analysis:, confidence tricks, of josie's, hunger and the constant threat of Essay about Character, poverty, of the Essay Movie: Eternal Sunshine Spotless Mind road and the unforeseen adventure, of upward and downward mobility, of a time which is at once episodic and recurrent; the Essay about Ponni world of the Petrarchan sonnet, where lovers are constant and fair mistresses are not, where suffering or bliss are the poles between which love moves, where eyes shoot beams to about Hamlet Roles Foils twine souls together, and where time is that of biological decay and its transcendence in love or in writing []. (Frow 86) These different worlds are evoked by the text through specific markers (Seibel 138). From the moment we pick up or purchase a book and throughout the entire process of reading, we come across numerous generic indicators in different shapes: the designation on the cover, as well as the cover design and the title of the book or text, furthermore characteristic phrases, such as once upon a time, and typical motifs such as space and time travel in the case of science fiction or the shipwreck motif in the case of the robinsonade. Essay About. We recognize these indicators which in turn activate our schematized knowledge and result in summary, a tentative attribution to a specific genre (Hallet 59). This attribution then largely determines the readers expectations. We approach any text (as well as films, plays, paintings, music etc.) with a variety (which is, of course, determined by our socio-cultural context) of schematised world-constructs at hand, trying to find a suitable match a process which is Essay Character Analysis: Ponni, mostly unconscious. Thus, when we read the word cowboy, we draw on our generic knowledge of the western and consequently visualize a characteristic setting in the Old American West, a setting which includes such things as saloons, ranches, stagecoaches, sheriffs, bandits, roulette, cancan, show downs and tumbleweed, to name but a few.

Conversely, entities such as princesses, dragons and aliens do not belong to the genres general repertoire and their appearance would present a striking deviation from the readers expectations. It is normally such surprising combinations that are described in terms of hybridity, while the less glaring combinations go largely unnoticed, as Seibel observes (137). The notion that genres evoke schematized worlds is crucial to understanding the political dimension of genre usage, because these worlds transcend the text. 2001 Space. Firstly, they can in various senses become institutionalized, for example in the form of specialized events, publications and marketing practices, creating specific genre communities on the basis of shared ideas, tastes and interests. Secondly, their structures and conventions respond to specific socio-historical conditions and concerns.

In other words: the constitution of Essay about Ponni, these worlds reflects and/or proposes specific world-views; changes within society consequently also affect these cultural practices and vice versa. Thus, while hybridity describes a textual quality, a cognitive approach conceives of genres as expectations that guide literary production and reception . In order to capture this communicative dimension of genre mixing, I propose to borrow another concept from cognitive literary theory that provides a productive alternative to hybridity: conceptual blending. Conceptual Blending as an Alternative Concept for Genre Mixing Unlike hybridity, blending does not describe the status of a cultural artefact, but a cognitive process a text, genre or culture is or is not hybrid, while blending refers to something one does . Gilles Fauconnier and Mark Turner describe blending as the partial projection of structural elements and schemata from one mental space onto another. Mental spaces are dynamic conceptual structures which we construct for specific purposes and according to specific situations (Fauconnier and Turner 40) and the schematized worlds we associate with particular genres present such mental spaces. For Adolescent Essay. Although Fauconnier and Turners concept clearly suggests itself for an application to Essay about Analysis: literary genres, its potential has so far gone largely unnoticed within genre studies, with the notable exception of Michael Sinding, who, to about Eternal my knowledge is the first and only genre critic to employ blending to genre mixtures. Processes of blending are ubiquitous within all areas of language use; they are involved not only in the creation of parables, metaphors and other tropes, but wherever schemata from a specific realm are transferred to Character Ponni other realms. Thus, for example, the saying [w]hen the cats away, the mice will play can be projected onto stories of the office, the classroom, infidelity, congressional oversight committees, computer antivirus utilities, and so on, over an unlimited range (Turner 87). Most blending remains covert and unobtrusive; we only toni morrison harvard become aware of the blended character of a construction when we come across surprising twists, logical inconsistencies or structural clashes, thus prompting the hybridity diagnosis. Essay About Character Analysis: Ponni. Although the concepts application to genres is, as I have shown, inherently flawed, when and how it is used is nevertheless significant because this provides an important clue as to toni the ways in which the quality of genre mixing in Essay about Character Analysis:, contemporary literature may differ from combinations of genre schemata in other periods: processes of blending are increasingly foregrounded through the Female The Arabian Essay deliberate disappointment of, or confrontation between, generic expectations. Blending involves the following dimensions (Fauconnier and Turner 41-2): Input Spaces : with regard to genre mixing, the Essay Analysis: Ponni mental input spaces are the world-constructs evoked by genre labels.

These include plot structures, typical settings and entities, stock characters and character constellations, expectable actions and outcomes, but also such aspects as linguistic particularities, specific social hierarchies, atmospheres and moral attitudes. Morrison. Cross-Space Mapping : A partial cross-space mapping connects counterparts in the input spaces (Fauconnier and Turner 41). Everything the input spaces have in common is contained in a so-called generic[4] space . Thus, reading a text as the about Character instance of a genre involves identifying counterparts between our construction kit of that genre and the text at hand. Cross-space mapping also enables us to blend different genres because their worlds (that is, the mental spaces we construct in relation to these genre labels) either share, or are compatible with regard to, certain elements and structures. The relevant aspects from the input spaces are then projected onto a fourth space, the blended space , or blend. Through the about Movie: Sunshine of the Spotless Mind composition of Analysis:, particular elements and processes of completion , the blend can develop emergent structure that is not part of the inputs (Fauconnier and Turner 42-3) but results from the interaction of the newly combined elements. About Movie: Of The Mind. This new structure can then partly be projected back onto the input spaces, as will be illustrated with the help of some examples. Unlike hybridity, the concept of blending does not rely on an essentialist model, but describes cognitive constructions, and therefore does not conceive of the input spaces as stable or pure.

Consequently, any blend can provide an input space for new blends. Essay Character Analysis: Ponni. Indeed, the application of the notion of hybridity from biology to colonial and postcolonial discourses to literary genres quite neatly illustrates the multiple stages involved in many processes of blending. Because genres evoke worlds with the about Hamlet of Opposing Foils help of complexes of schemata, genre worlds are themselves already blended spaces and can in turn serve as input spaces for Ponni worlds that combine schemata from different genres. This repeatability of blending, presents the prerequisite for combining elements associated with different genres. Space. Incidentally, this observation also provides a new perspective on generic labels such as gothic thriller or romantic comedy, which are often understood in terms of about Character Ponni, subgenres or modes in the adjectival sense.

Contrary to these ideas, I argue that the josie's summary often ad hoc coinage of such labels can be better and more simply explained as illustrating a blended space, or world, which combines elements or structures associated with two different genres. Generic Blending in Scorseses Taxi Driver. An example will serve illustrate how the Essay Character Analysis: Ponni described multistage process can help us understand different forms and effects of generic mixing Martin Scorseses cult film Taxi Driver , which mixes elements associated with the psychological thriller and such associated with the Eternal Mind western genre. 26-year old ex-soldier Travis Bickle, who suffers from insomnia, witnesses on his nightly cab tours through New York scenes of Essay about Analysis: Ponni, violence, prostitution and drug abuse. Josie's Story. All the animals, Travis contemplates, come out at night whores, skunk-pussies, buggers, queens, fairies, dopers, junkies sick, venal. Someday a rainll come and wash all this scum off the street (qtd. in Ray 352). Disgusted by what he sees and frustrated with his failed courtship of the classy Betsy, he finally decides to take matters into his own hands. He meets the 12-year old prostitute Iris whom he decides to save and kills her pimp and his henchmen in Analysis: Ponni, a dramatic shootout. The film thus exhibits the dark mood and vivid depiction of violence, as well as the narrative perspective and pre-occupation with mental processes characteristic of Reasons for Adolescent Suicide Attempts, many films labelled psychological thriller and a plot structure and character constellation considered typical of the western. Essay About. Before analyzing how the Gender She and The Arabian Nights examples viewer integrates these two different genres, however, I would like to Essay Ponni consider how another blend, namely that between the world of the western and late-70s urban America, is established. The primary input spaces here are New York and the world of the western. The cross-spatial mapping of these spaces connects the Female Roles in Haggard’s She and The Arabian Nights Essay lawlessness, vice and Analysis: corruption associated with the toni Wild West with the lawlessness, vice and corruption Travis sees in the streets of New York.

Once this connection is established, one can identify many more counterparts in the generic space: the Essay Analysis: armed robbery of Reasons Attempts, a convenience store resembles the bank robberies we frequently find in westerns, New Yorks prostitutes present counterparts to the easy girls in frontier towns (Iriss nickname, incidentally, is Easy), Sports long hair and headband recall the stereotypical Indian, and, most importantly, the loner Travis in his taxi recalls the lonesome cowboy, who aimlessly roams the Essay Character wilderness on his horse. These parallels or mappings become so suggestive to Travis that he adapts his behaviour to that of the cowboy: having decided to take matters into his own hands, he buys several revolvers, begins to practise his quick draw and tapes a knife to his cowboy boots. It is at this point that Traviss blend becomes overt. Essay About And Laertes: Of Opposing. This illustrates how blends develop emergent structure: once Travis has recognized key similarities between the input spaces, he begins to complete the structure and identifies an Character Analysis: adequate solution to the perceived problem vigilantism. Scorseses film is particularly interesting, because while the protagonist is quite obviously psychopathic, it is never entirely clear whether his blend is merely the 2001 space delusion of an individual who is losing his grip on reality, or if it indeed corresponds to a widely accepted world-view, as the implausible ending shows Travis being congratulated for his murderous actions. Conversely, some of the insights gained within the blend can be projected back onto the input spaces: the Ponni impressions of brutality and insanity the viewer gains from Scorseses film can be projected back onto the western to reveal the violent logic underlying dominant conceptions of this genre, while the surprising ending can (depending on the viewers interpretation) lead one to assume the lingering influence of the world-view associated with the western within parts of the US.

The concept of blending thus also captures different dimensions of ideological critique involved in genre mixing. Although Taxi Driver effectively evokes the western genre, this does not mean that the viewer identifies the film as a western. Female She And The Arabian Essay Examples. Instead, viewers are more likely to about Ponni understand Scorseses film as a psychological thriller. The reason for josie's story summary this is Essay Ponni, not so much that elements associated with the Female She and Nights examples psychological thriller outweigh those associated with the western, although the contemporary urban setting may, for Essay about Analysis: Ponni some, disqualify the films classification as a western. Summary. The main reason for such a view, however, is the discrepancy between the protagonists world-view and that of the audience.

Travis interprets his surroundings as analogous to Character Analysis: Ponni the world of the western, whereas the viewer, confronted with various signs of the taxi drivers mental decline which somewhat forestalls the toni morrison harvard identification with the protagonist, tends to understand Traviss interpretation as a delusion, a result of his pathological state of mind. Essay About Character. This shows that genre evocation does not necessarily lead to genre attribution. Essay About Movie: Eternal. That the majority of references to a specific genre do not lead to genre attribution is Essay Ponni, a circumstance that is routinely neglected by proponents of generic hybridity, because although Taxi Driver evokes two very different genres the Reasons for Adolescent film can hardly be termed a hybrid of western and thriller. By the same token, the fact that a newspaper article refers to an event as a tragedy does not mean that we classify it as pertaining to that literary tradition. Instead, the Ponni selective projection of schemata we associate with a particular genre enables us to interpret new information with the help of familiar patterns which then also govern our (re)actions, as Taxi Driver dramatically illustrates. As readily available world-constructs genres provide effective models for the structuring of about Movie: Eternal, extra-literary realities (Hallet 60). This presents the true political dimension of generic experimentation, because a texts failure to adhere to our generic expectations leads to Essay about Character Ponni the foregrounding of these expectations, which renders them accessible to rational critique. Reasons For Adolescent Suicide. Moreover, the discrepancy between generic expectations and textual actualizations may result in the adjustment of our genre schemata and therefore ultimately also to Essay Analysis: a revision of our understanding of extra-literary realities. Toni Harvard. This shall be illustrated with some cursory reflections on Essay about Analysis: blends drawing on story the fairy tale, one of the few genres where criticism often explicitly focuses on questions of ideology and pedagogy, or on about Character Analysis: what I call the politics of genre. The tales subsumed under the label classical fairy tale gradually found their way into the households of the literate classes, particularly of the bourgeoisie, in the 18 th and 19 th century.

Counter to common knowledge, the familiar versions read in families and schools, such as those collected by the Brothers Grimm and Charles Perrault, exhibit significant alterations compared to the oral folk versions most of them are based on Reasons Attempts (Zipes Magic Spell 2). About. Far from faithfully reproducing tales that were orally transmitted for generations and generations, the 2001 space classical versions were adapted for a bourgeois audiences with the about purpose of promoting the morals and harvard codes of about Analysis: Ponni, behavior of the patriarchal bourgeois society in order to prepare men and women for their respective roles therein: [T]he male hero learns to be active, competitive, handsome, industrious, cunning, acquisitive. His goal is money, power, and a woman (also associated with chattel). His jurisdiction is the of Opposing Foils open world. His happiness depends on the just use of Essay Character Ponni, power. The female hero learns to be passive, obedient, self-sacrificing, hard-working, patient, and straight-laced. Her goal is wealth, jewels and a man to protect her property rights. Her jurisdiction is the home or castle.

Her happiness depends on conformity to patriarchal rule. (Zipes Fairy Tales 57) I would argue that up until today most peoples conceptions of the fairy tale are shaped mainly by the literary versions by Perrault, the Brothers Grimm and Hans-Christian Andersen, which are still widely read in families, but also circulated as childrens entertainment by the mass media. This means that there is and Laertes:, a relatively limited stock of culturally shared generic schemata, which renders the projection of fairy tale motifs and structures to other genres and world-constructs both appealing and effective. Essay Analysis: Ponni. At the same time, because many of these structures are intimately tied to Gender Roles in Haggard’s She and Haddawy’s Nights an ideology that is increasingly seen as problematic, they are often evoked against themselves, that is, to reveal and critique their ideological bias. Thus, in the last thirty years or so, there have been a growing number of rewritings of fairy tales that renegotiate the fixed gender conceptions promoted by the classical versions, often by portraying the fairy tale heroine as active and ingenious rather than passive and simple-minded.

To name one of many examples, the Snow White in Tarsem Singhs 2012 adaptation Mirror Mirror grows into a proactive heroine who fights the vain and cruel queen alongside the seven dwarves. Character. When the queen enters the forest to kill Snow White, the latter locks up her male helpers, including the prince, in the dwarves dwelling, resolved to confront the about Hamlet and Laertes: of Opposing queen on her own. She tells the prince: You know, all that time locked up in the castle, I did a lot of reading. You read so many stories where the prince saves the princess. I think its time we changed that ending!, at which the prince protests: But its been focused grouped and it works!. This meta-generic quip foregrounds the cognitive process and implications of the completion of the genre schema by linking the Character Ponni gender roles promoted by fairy tale conventions to audience expectations and marketability. Snow Whites fight for a different ending consequently presents an explicit critique of these preconceptions. In order to grasp the real political potential of genre it is paramount to josie's story understand that it is only through the Essay about familiarity with the generic schemata that the emancipatory message of subversive versions becomes effective in the readers mind, leading him/her to revise received genre conceptions, and thus renders the space odyssey summary alterations socially relevant. Jack Zipes provides another intriguing example of a subversive blend: a television advert for a cleaning agent blends the generic input spaces of the fairy tale and of advertising by employing the Cinderella story to illustrate the key sales argument for the product. One older sister: Cinderella, wash the Essay Character Analysis: floor.

Other older sister: Yeah, wash it, and then re-wax it. [Sisters leave for the ball.] Cinderella: Wash, wax, pfui. [Fairy Godmother appears.] Fairy Godmother: Phew, ammonia. That strips wax. But use Mr Clean with no ammonia. Mr Clean gets the dirt but leaves the wax shining and you get a shine. Fairy Godmother: And now off to the ball? Cinderella: Ball-schmall. Tonights my bowling league. Bye. Josie's Story Summary. [authors emphases] (Proctor and Gamble TV ad, qtd. in Zipes Magic Spell xxi)

This blend overtly deconstructs the expectations associated with both genres: firstly, instead of envying and emulating the haughty sisters and subscribing to the upper and upper middle-class ideal of sophistication by attending a formal ball, where she could show off her beauty and find her prince, this self-determined Cinderella chooses a more working-class activity where she can roll up her sleeves and show her skills as part of about Analysis:, a team. The ad thus exposes the gender and class bias of the familiar fairy tale version. Secondly, the emancipatory twist also presents a critique of the conservative image of the happy housewife often evoked in the promotion of household products by the marketing industry, because by using Cinderella as a model, this advert portrays housework not as the womans vocation or a familial duty, but as a chore forced upon her by others, thus subtly hinting at the coercive dimension of role allocation. Despite the increase in critical engagement with the political dimension of folk and fairy tales, it remains largely unexplored how their structures shape particular extra-literary conceptions and discourses. Odyssey. This seems surprising considering the socializing function so often ascribed to them. About Analysis: Ponni. While the scope of this question certainly exceeds this article, I would like to She and Haddawy’s The Arabian Essay examples suggest that they not only continue to Essay Character Analysis: Ponni affect gender conceptions and received notions of beauty and Essay about Hamlet Roles Foils romantic love, but are also blended with other popular genres. Thus, many romantic films evoke, sometimes more, sometimes less explicitly, fairy tale motifs and metaphors, not to mention the happy ever after formula. By the same token, the hierarchical structure of the fairy tale world tangibly inspires celebrity coverage in the popular press and on TV, because in Analysis:, the present age of communication and josie's globalized markets, the Character Analysis: celebrity occupies an elevated position analogous to that of the Essay about Hamlet and Laertes: Roles Foils aristocracy in the feudal world of the fairy tale. Essay Analysis:. Beauty, wealth and prestige structure both world-constructs, rendering the blend as effective as it is unobtrusive. This recourse to fairy tale schemata in parts of the mass media arguably partly accounts for the persistence of the for Adolescent Essay seemingly anachronistic institution of monarchy in so many Western democracies.

As in the time of Perrault and the Grimm Brothers, the fairy tale semantics still imbues the about Ponni royal sphere with glamour and fuels peoples hopes and aspirations of social advancement. In this light, the summary recent crisis of the British monarchy could, to Analysis: Ponni some extent, be attributed to the failure of the projection due to an overt discrepancy between fairy tale conventions and the events surrounding the marriage between Prince Charles and Movie: Eternal of the Diana Spencer portrayed in about Character Ponni, the popular media. This discrepancy becomes starkly apparent precisely because the projection at first seemed to fit very well indeed: although Diana is of noble descent, this is consistently downplayed or altogether neglected in the medias portrayal of her as a Cinderella-figure (Gephart 157), which allows Prince Charles to become Prince Charming and morrison select the beautiful young woman as his princess. Essay Character Analysis:. More important than their fairy tale wedding is the Essay about of Opposing Foils circumstance that the Princess of Wales came to be seen as the embodiment of the very virtues of the heroine of the classical fairy tale tradition: young and beautiful, her initial shyness made her seem both passive and obedient, while the concern she displayed for Essay about Character the sick and poor, and her commitment to the battle against landmines, showed kindness, caring and selflessness. In other words: according to the gender conception associated with the classical fairy tale tradition, Diana Spencer rightfully deserved a happy ending with her Prince Charming. That she was denied this happy ending because the Prince had an affair with a married woman arguably undermines the belief in the validity of the projection of the Essay about Eternal Sunshine of the Spotless Mind fairy tale court, where the adherence to the bourgeois moral code is about Character Ponni, rewarded, onto the British monarchy. The fairy tale happy ending can arguably be considered to represent something of a symbolical contract between nobility and bourgeoisie, according to which the bourgeoisies acceptance of the nobilitys supreme status is premised on the latters acceptance of bourgeois values. In the about Eternal Sunshine Mind aftermath of Character Ponni, Dianas death, the institution of Essay Eternal Sunshine of the Spotless, monarchy in Britain came increasingly under scrutiny, and was openly criticized as outdated. Character. Today, this crisis seems to have been entirely overcome. Again, the reinvigoration of the fairy tale projection can be considered to be of symbolical significance to space the revitalization of Essay about Character Analysis:, monarchism: although the initial blend failed, the Reasons corrected cross-space mapping which substitutes Charles for his son in the role of Prince Charming seems to provide a suitable match including the desired happy ending in the shape of a fairy tale wedding. As I have sought to Analysis: Ponni show, genres are not only relevant in terms of classification, but as complexes of schemata they also present meaningful patterns that govern our interpretation of cultural artifacts, as well as of extra-textual worlds.

In this sense, for Suicide Essay the sake of Character Ponni, monarchism, William and space summary Kate would do well to Essay Character Ponni live up to the generic expectations of the Reasons Suicide Attempts fairy tale, in Essay Analysis: Ponni, other words, happily ever after. [1]Brunetiere conceives of genres as possessing a life-span that can be divided into three stages: birth, maturity, death (13). He then applies this tripartite conception of generic development to literary history, allocating to Essay Roles Foils major works a specific place in the life-cycle of the genre he considers them to represent. [2]David Fishelov, who calls for about Character Ponni a revivification of certain aspects of the evolutionary paradigm ( Life , 616) presents a notable exception. [3] I depart from a constructivist world-concept that defines worlds as structures which are conceived as having defined boundaries, their own specific rules and laws, and exclude certain individuals or entities. [4] Fauconnier and Turner use generic here in a broad sense, not in relation to artistic genres. Acheraiou, Amar. Questioning Hybridity, Postcolonialism and Globalization. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2011. Print. Bhabha, Homi K. The Location of Culture.

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NY: Basic Books, 2003. Print. Fishelov, David. Metaphors of Essay about Analysis: Ponni, Genre: The Role of Analogies in Genre Theory. University Park, Pa.: Pennsylvania State UP, 1993. Print. ---. The Strange Life and Adventures of Biological Concepts in Genre. Periodization. Canadian Review of Comparative Literature 21.4 (1994): 61326.

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3rd ed. Ed. Attempts. Ansgar Nunning. Stuttgart: Metzler, 1998. 22021. Print. Gymnich, Marion, Birgit Neumann, and Ansgar Nunning, eds. Gattungstheorie und Gattungsgeschichte. Trier: WVT Wissenschaftlicher Verlag Trier, 2007. Print.

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Hassan, Ihab. The Postmodern Turn: Essays in Postmodern Theory and Culture. Ohio: Ohio State UP, 1987. Print. Hutcheon, Linda. A Poetics of Postmodernism: History, Theory, Fiction.

NY [a.o.]: Routledge, 1988. Print. Hybrid. The Oxford English Dictionary. Ed. J. A. and E. S. C. Weiner Simpson. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1989. 523. Print. Mirror Mirror. Essay About Character Analysis:. Dir. Tarsem Singh.

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Print. Ryan, Marie-Laure. Possible worlds, artificial intelligence, and narrative theory. Bloomington [u.a.]: Indiana Univ. Press, 1992. Print.. Seibel, Klaudia. Mixing Genres: Levels of Contamination and the Formation of Essay about Character Analysis: Ponni, Generic Hybrids. Gattungstheorie und Gattungsgeschichte.

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Martina Allen was born in 1981 in Female She and Nights, Frankfurt/Germany. Essay Character Ponni. She studied English as well as Theatre, Film and Media Studies at the Goethe-University in Frankfurt and received her Master of Arts with Honours in Female Roles She and Nights Essay, both subjects in 2008. Since 2010, she has had several lectureships at the TU Darmstadt and currently holds a Dissertation Fellowship at the University of Konstanz/Germany. The subject of her dissertation thesis is the significance and discursive functions of genre in contemporary Anglophone literature.