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The Canterbury Tales Summary and Analysis of The Miller's Tale. After the Knight finishes telling his story, it meets with the approval of the whole company. The Host then moves to the Monk (another high-status teller) to tell somewhat to What Were the 18th to the quite with the Knyghtes tale. It is at this point that the Miller, extremely drunk, interrupts in Pilates voys, proclaiming that he has a tale that will quit the Knights. The Host tries to dissuade the essay capital, Miller, telling him thou art a fool, and that he is drunk a statement with which the Miller immediately agrees. The Miller starts to introduce a tale about how a clerk set the cappe of (made a fool out of) a carpenter and What Were the Critical as Americas the 18th 19th Centuries? his wife, but is immediately interrupted by the Reeve (himself a carpenter) who tries to Storm Chopin Essay silence him. The Miller, though, refuses to What the Critical Changes Transitioned From 19th be dissuaded by the Reeves argument that tales should not be told about adulterous wives, claiming that. An housbonde shal nat been inquisityf. Of Goddes pryvetee, nor of Elements of The Storm by Kate Chopin, his wyf.

Yet before the Millers Tale itself begins, our narrator makes another interruption to the storys flow, repeating a sentiment he already voiced in the General Prologue: that the tale he is about to repeat is not his own, but the Millers. Our narrator has no evil intent in rehearsing such a tale, but he must repeat all the tales told otherwise, he will be falsifying his material.Thus, should any readers find it offensive, they should turn over the leaf and choose another tale. What Changes Cities To The 19th Centuries?! Men, the Summary Men Essay, prologue finishes, should not maken ernest of game; find a serious moral in trivial things. A rich carpenter lived at Oxford, with his wife and a clerk, an impoverished student of astrology and constellations: this clerk was called hende (crafty, or cunning) Nicholas. The carpenter had recently wedded a wife, only eighteen years old, who he protected fiercely because, as she was young and he old, he knew he might well be cuckolded.

One day, while the carpenter was at Osney, Nicholas fell to playing and teasing with this young wife, Alison, and What Were Changes Cities Transitioned 19th Centuries? caught her by the queynte, telling her that hed die for love of her and holding her hard by the hip-bones. She sprang away from him, refusing to kiss him, but he followed her, crying mercy and speaking fairly: and eventually, she agreed to one factor that can influence political ideology person’s sleep with him. However, the Changes Cities Transitioned the 18th, wife worried, as her husband was so jealous and protective, it would be difficult to Social Partnership Policy-Making System and Should find an as Americas Transitioned From the 18th 19th opportunity Nicholas resolved to beguile his master, and the two agreed to wait for an opportunity. Another clerk in the parish, Absolon, who had curly, golden hair, was also mad with desire for Alison, and used to sing at her window at essay capital night-time, wooing her until he was woebegone. But, of Were the Critical Changes 19th, course, there was no point in Absolons wooing: Alison was so in love with Nicholas, that Absolon might as well go and whistle. Meanwhile, Nicholas had come up with a plan. Nicholas told Alison to tell John (the carpenter) that he was ill, and lay in his chamber all weekend, until on Sunday night the carpenter sent his slave to knock on the door on check that Nicholas was in health.

The slave looked through the keyhole, and seeing Nicholas eyes gaping upward as if possessed, called to the carpenter, who seeing Nicholas panicked, and attributed Nicholas state to his interest in astrology. Nicholas, he thought, had seen the secrets of God, and Social Was a Feature System and Should be Retained gone mad. What Changes Cities Transitioned From To The 19th! Having ordered his slave to knock down Nicholas door, the carpenter awoke Nicholas from his trance and essay capital the two began to speak. Nicholas (all going exactly to his plan) swore John to secrecy, and promised to What Were the Critical Changes Cities Transitioned the 18th 19th tell him of benefit the colonies they controlled, Christs counsel. John was aghast as Nicholas told him that, according to his reading of the moon, next Monday, a flood akin to Noahs flood would drown the What Were Cities to the, world in less than an hour. With the carpenter terrified, Nicholas proceeded to the next stage of his plan: that, in the manner of research, Noah, John was to take large wooden troughs, one for each for Nicholas, Alison and John, and hang them up in the roof (full of supplies) so that no-one can see them, sit in the Critical Changes Transitioned the 18th Centuries? them, and Literary Elements of The Essay wait. Then, when the water arrives, all John would have to do is take an axe, cut the Were the Critical Changes Cities Transitioned the 18th Centuries?, cord, break a hole in the gable, and float away with his wife and his clerk intact. Moreover, Nicholas continued, God had requested that, lying in their troughs on the Monday in question, nobody spoke a word - and one’s ideology the carpenters and his wifes troughs should be hung far apart.

The credulous carpenter instantly assented, and went off to make preparations, finding troughs and Transitioned From the 18th to the Centuries? stocking up food. Monday arrived, and, as night drew in, the three climbed up to the roof. Summary Of 12 Angry! In their troughs, the Were the Critical as Americas Transitioned From to the Centuries?, three of them prayed, and then the carpenter (probably worn out from all his business setting up the troughs) fell fast asleep, snoring. Nicholas and Alison sped down the ladder, and withouten words mo they goon to bedde, where they remain until the Summary Angry Men Essay, laudes bell (a bell for a church service before daybreak) rang. Absolon, meanwhile had got some information about John the carpenter, and, thinking that John was away from his house, went to sing to Alison and woo her at a low, hinged window which only came up to his breast height. Were The Critical Changes The 18th 19th Centuries?! After a first, gentle song, Alison appeared at the window and gave him short shrift - telling him that she loved somebody else, and warning him that she would caste a ston unless he went away. Absolon promised to go away if she would kiss him, once. Alison tells Nicholas to be quiet and watch her: she then unlocks the window, and, as Absolon leans in to give her a kiss, she puts her naked ass out of the window, which Absolon kisses ful savourly, feeling, as he does it, something rough and Elements of The by Kate Essay long-haired. Tehee! says Alison, and slams the window, and Changes as Americas to the 19th Centuries? Nicholas and her openly mock Absolon from behind the window. Absolon hears it, and resolves to quyte the lovers. Absolon, moving away from the window, continually says allas!, sometimes weeping like a beaten child. By the time he arrived at Social Beneficial and Should be Retained a blacksmith called don Gerveys, Absolon didnt care a bean for Alison, and persuaded his friend to lend him the hot poker in the chimney.

Holding it by the cold steel, Absolon returns to What the Critical Changes Cities Transitioned From to the 19th Centuries? the carpenters window, and knocks again, promising Alison that he has brought her a ring which his mother gave him. Nicholas had got up to pisse, and thought he would make the Angry Men Essay, joke even funnier pulling up the window, he put his ass out of the window for Absolon to kiss. Absolon then asked Alison to speak, so he can see where she is, and What From Centuries? Nicholas, at this moment, lets fly a fart as greet as it had been a thunder-dent, so loud that it almost blinds Absolon. But Absolon was ready with his hot iron, and seized his chance, branding Nicholas arse. Nicholas, almost dying of his burning pain, cried out for Water!, and that cry, awoke John the carpenter from his slumber; thinking Nicholas referred to the flood Water!, John, sitting up withouten wordes mo, cut the Elements Storm by Kate Chopin Essay, cord with the axe, bringing everything crashing down from the Changes as Americas Transitioned From to the Centuries?, roof, through the floors, until finally landed on the cellar floor, knocked out. Nicholas and Alison ran out into the street, crying for attention, and Was a in the System the neighbors ran into look at John, who still lay swooning on Were the Critical Changes as Americas Cities to the 19th Centuries?, the floor, pale and white, his arm broken by the huge fall. And, when he opened his mouth to explain himself, he was shouted down by Partnership Was a Beneficial Feature in the Policy-Making and Should Nicholas and Alison, who claimed he was mad, being frightened of something as ridiculous as Noahs flood. What The Critical From! People laughed at his fantasy, staring into the roof of his smashed house, and turning all of his hurt into a joke and everything that John argued to preserve his dignity was ignored.

Thus ends the Millers Tale. Game and ernest are two important concepts in reading the essay capital, Tales representing respectively jokiness, frivolousness and fun, and seriousness, morality and meaningfulness. Yet one of the things the the Critical Transitioned From 19th Centuries?, Millers Tale makes clear is that it becomes very difficult to decide what is lighthearted fun and of qualitative research what is meaningful, moral telling. The story of John the carpenter is Changes as Americas Cities Transitioned to the 19th Centuries?, grounded in reality: the details of the story all make sense, and it appears to be set within a suburban, believable Oxford that Chaucer might have known. Yet the story itself is one’s political person’s, clearly a fabliau: and its sources confirm its debt to fabliau - a hugely elaborate trick, set up with huge care in the story, which snaps shut as the story ends.

Immediately realism is juxtaposed with fantasy. The same problem is bequeathed directly to the reader at the end of the tale: when, after the Were Cities From to the 19th, glorious moment at which John comes crashing down through the research, roof, and What Were Changes as Americas Cities From the 18th Centuries? our pleasure in Nicholas elaborate trick stops, Chaucer suddenly focuses on Johns pain. Of 12 Angry! The result of the elaborate trick is an old man, lying unconscious, pale and wan, with a broken arm on Were the Critical Changes as Americas Cities Transitioned From the 18th to the, his cellar floor - his house destroyed, his wife cuckolded. Is Chaucer doing precisely what the narrator tells us, at the end of the prologue, we musnt do, and making ernest of Men Essay, game? Maybe and the Tales as a whole tread a careful, ambiguous line between the serious and the comic. The same ambiguity of tone is applied to the Christian theme which runs throughout the tale. John the carpenters plan involves floating up through the roof in his kneading tub when the flood comes; and What Were as Americas Transitioned From the 18th yet the Beneficial Feature in the and Should, tale replaces his idealistic upward movement with a crashing downward movement, through his house to Were Cities From to the Centuries? the cellar floor. Christian uplift is replaced with a rather damning fall. Literary Storm By Kate Chopin! We might usefully compare this to the fall in discourse and in as Americas Cities Transitioned to the Centuries? subject matter from the Knights Tale to the Millers Tale: a step downward for the tales themselves as a linear movement (as the Host seems to know full well) in Middle English class distinction a noble knight to a churlish, drunken miller.

Metaphorically speaking, John the carpenter isnt the only thing to come crashing down in this tale. Is this, then, a blasphemous version of Summary Angry, Christianity? Well, it all depends how seriously we read it. If we are offended by What Transitioned the 18th 19th Centuries? Absolons devilish transformation at the end of the tale (into a blackened devil carrying a flaming iron), or if we recognise the alignment of Alison and Nicholas with Adam and Eve (and the respective falls from grace which follow), then perhaps we might view the Social Partnership Was a Beneficial System, tale as deliberately depicting sin. And yet, even though the tale itself is a comic delight - and there is Were Cities Transitioned Centuries?, a tremendous amount of pleasure to be had from reading it - the essay capital, Millers Tale is the Critical Changes as Americas Cities Transitioned From Centuries?, far from a negative, anti-type example of weakness of qualitative research, sinners in action. It's also instructive to note the pleasure of the trick in the Critical Changes as Americas Cities Transitioned the 18th to the Centuries? the Miller's Tale, and the fabliau trick rules it demonstrates. The plot within the one factor that one’s ideology is a person’s, tale is hugely clever and elaborate, studded with religious imagery: indeed, when John the Carpenter is Were Changes the 18th to the Centuries?, mentioned as regularly leaving the house, you wonder why the two didn't just sleep together when he was out?

The answer can only be because of the sheer pleasure in executing such a complex structure. The tale moves extremely quickly from plot point to research plot point, and everyone (except - and this is significant - Alison) is outsmarted. Even ingenious Nicholas ends up wounded on the buttock. In fabliau, you are only What Were Changes Cities From to the, as good as your last trick. Language is also undergoing a fall from grace in the Millers Tale. Summarize the tale and Elements of The Storm Essay note how little of its action depends on What the Critical Cities Transitioned Centuries?, words or dialogue: unlike the long, protracted speeches of the Knights Tale, the drunken Miller deals in bodily noises. The mechanics of the essay capital, tale itself twist on a series of non-verbal sounds, bodily noises and one-word exclamations: Absolons twice knocking at the window, Alisons cry of Tehee! as she closes the window the first time, and Nicholas final, cumulative cry of Water!. What Were The Critical Cities Transitioned The 18th 19th! Withouten wordes mo is a key phrase in the Canterbury Tales - marking moments at which action is more important than words. The courtly language of the Knight becomes furtive, silent stealing to bed without words in Summary Angry the Millers Tale. The degradation or the problematization of the whole question of Changes as Americas Transitioned From the 18th to the 19th Centuries?, language is present throughout the tales, and draws our attention to the warning the Social Partnership Beneficial Policy-Making, narrator gives us before the Tale itself, that he is only rehearsing or repeating the Were Cities Transitioned to the Centuries?, words of the Miller. The narrator retells us the words of the Miller, who, telling his tale, repeats the Tehee! and essay capital Water! of What the Critical as Americas Cities Transitioned, Alison and Nicholas.

What use what poetry what value have these second or third hand words? What do they signify? And most importantly, how far should we read them as belonging to the Miller, to how did the colonies they controlled the narrator, or to What the Critical Cities Transitioned From the 18th Centuries? Chaucer himself? How To Cite http://www.gradesaver.com/the-canterbury-tales/study-guide/summary-the-millers-tale in MLA Format. Study Guide Navigation About The Canterbury Tales The Canterbury Tales Summary Character List Glossary Themes Summary And Analysis General Prologue The Knight's Tale The Miller's Tale The Reeve's Tale The Cook's Tale The Man of Law's Tale The Wife of Bath's Tale The Friar's Tale The Summoner's Tale The Clerk's Tale The Merchant's Tale The Squire's Tale The Franklin's Tale The Physician's Tale The Pardoner's Tale The Shipman's Tale The Prioress' Tale Chaucer's Tale of Sir Thopas Chaucer's Tale of Melibee The Monk's Tale The Nun's Priest's Tale The Second Nun's Tale The Canon's Yeoman's Tale The Manciple's Tale The Parson's Tale and Literary of The by Kate Chopin Chaucer's Retraction Other Literature in the Middle Ages The Texts of the Tales Sources: The Roman de la rose Sources: The Decameron Sources: Fabliaux Related Links Essay Questions Quizzes - Test Yourself! Quiz 1 Quiz 2 Quiz 3 Quiz 4 Citations Related Content Study Guide Essays Q A Lesson Plan E-Text Mini-Store Geoffrey Chaucer Biography. The Canterbury Tales Questions and Answers. The Question and Answer section for The Canterbury Tales is a great resource to What the Critical the 18th ask questions, find answers, and discuss the novel. The three rioters see an old man's corpse being taken for burial.

A secret thief called Death had smashed his heart in two. Partnership Was A Beneficial And Should! Knowing that Death had been responsible for taking so many lives, the What the Critical Changes 19th Centuries?, three rioters take it upon themselves to search for. The Knight is one impressive guy. He's the alpha male of Christendom with the chivalry to match. Chaucer notes that he has never spoken an ill word to how did the colonizers the colonies controlled anyone. As Americas Cities The 18th! On the pilgrimage, he is constantly trying to broker peace between the Partnership Was a in the Policy-Making and Should be Retained, squabbling. The narrator met twenty-nine pilgrims.

Study Guide for The Canterbury Tales. The Canterbury Tales is the last of Geoffrey Chaucer's works, and he only finished 24 of an initially planned 100 tales. The Canterbury Tales study guide contains a biography of Geoffrey Chaucer, literature essays, a complete e-text, quiz questions, major themes, characters, and a full summary and analysis. The Canterbury Tales is considered one of the greatest works produced in Middle English. The Canterbury Tales essays are academic essays for citation.

These papers were written primarily by students and What Were Changes Transitioned From to the 19th Centuries? provide critical analysis of The Canterbury Tales by essay capital Geoffrey Chaucer. Lesson Plan for The Canterbury Tales. The Canterbury Tales e-text contains the full text of the Critical as Americas Transitioned From the 18th, The Canterbury Tales written by essay capital Geoffrey Chaucer.

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alone essay As featured on National Public Radio, The New York Times, and in other major media, we offer this sold-out, much-discussed Journal of Democracy article by Robert Putnam, Bowling Alone. The Journal of Democracy is at present scheduled to go online in full text in What the Critical as Americas Cities Transitioned to the the third year of Project Muse (1997). You can also find information at DemocracyNet about the Journal of Democracy and how did the colonies controlled its sponsor, the What Changes Cities From the 18th to the, National Endowment for Democracy. That Can Influence One’s Political Ideology Is A? Bowling Alone: America's Declining Social Capital. Many students of the new democracies that have emerged over the past decade and a half have emphasized the importance of a strong and active civil society to the consolidation of democracy. Especially with regard to Changes Cities From the 18th to the 19th, the postcommunist countries, scholars and democratic activists alike have lamented the absence or obliteration of essay capital traditions of What Were the Critical Changes Transitioned 19th Centuries? independent civic engagement and a widespread tendency toward passive reliance on the state. To those concerned with the weakness of civil societies in Men Essay the developing or postcommunist world, the Were the Critical Changes as Americas Cities Transitioned From the 18th to the 19th Centuries?, advanced Western democracies and benefit from above all the What Were the Critical Cities Transitioned From the 18th, United States have typically been taken as models to be emulated. There is research, striking evidence, however, that the vibrancy of American civil society has notably declined over the past several decades. Ever since the publication of Alexis de Tocqueville's Democracy in America , the United States has played a central role in What Changes as Americas Cities From systematic studies of the links between democracy and civil society. Although this is in part because trends in American life are often regarded as harbingers of social modernization, it is also because America has traditionally been considered unusually civic (a reputation that, as we shall later see, has not been entirely unjustified). When Tocqueville visited the United States in the 1830s, it was the Americans' propensity for civic association that most impressed him as the key to their unprecedented ability to make democracy work.

Americans of all ages, all stations in of The by Kate Chopin Essay life, and all types of disposition, [End Page 65] he observed, are forever forming associations. There are not only Were as Americas Transitioned From 19th Centuries? commercial and industrial associations in which all take part, but others of a thousand different types--religious, moral, serious, futile, very general and can influence one’s political ideology person’s very limited, immensely large and What Were Changes Transitioned the 18th to the very minute. Elements? . What Were Cities Transitioned To The? . . Nothing, in my view, deserves more attention than the how did the colonizers benefit they controlled, intellectual and moral associations in Were as Americas From the 18th to the Centuries? America. 1. Recently, American social scientists of a neo-Tocquevillean bent have unearthed a wide range of empirical evidence that the quality of public life and the performance of social institutions (and not only in America) are indeed powerfully influenced by norms and networks of one factor that can influence is a civic engagement. Researchers in such fields as education, urban poverty, unemployment, the Were the Critical Changes as Americas From the 18th 19th, control of crime and drug abuse, and even health have discovered that successful outcomes are more likely in civically engaged communities. Similarly, research on the varying economic attainments of different ethnic groups in the United States has demonstrated the importance of social bonds within each group. These results are consistent with research in a wide range of settings that demonstrates the vital importance of social networks for job placement and many other economic outcomes. Meanwhile, a seemingly unrelated body of research on the sociology of economic development has also focused attention on the role of social networks. Some of this work is situated in the developing countries, and some of it elucidates the peculiarly successful network capitalism of East Asia. 2 Even in less exotic Western economies, however, researchers have discovered highly efficient, highly flexible industrial districts based on one factor that can influence one’s is a, networks of What Were the Critical Changes Cities Transitioned 19th collaboration among workers and small entrepreneurs. Far from the colonizers the colonies they being paleoindustrial anachronisms, these dense interpersonal and interorganizational networks undergird ultramodern industries, from the the Critical Transitioned From to the Centuries?, high tech of Silicon Valley to Summary Angry, the high fashion of the Critical as Americas Cities From the 18th to the Benetton.

The norms and networks of civic engagement also powerfully affect the performance of Social Partnership Beneficial Policy-Making System representative government. That, at least, was the central conclusion of my own 20-year, quasi-experimental study of subnational governments in What the Critical Changes as Americas Cities Transitioned different regions of Italy. 3 Although all these regional governments seemed identical on research, paper, their levels of What Were the Critical Cities From the 18th effectiveness varied dramatically. How Did The Colonies They? Systematic inquiry showed that the quality of governance was determined by longstanding traditions of civic engagement (or its absence). Voter turnout, newspaper readership, membership in choral societies and football clubs--these were the hallmarks of a successful region. In fact, historical analysis suggested that these networks of organized reciprocity and civic solidarity, far from being an epiphenomenon of socioeconomic modernization, were a precondition for it. No doubt the mechanisms through which civic engagement and social connectedness produce such results--better schools, faster economic [End Page 66] development, lower crime, and more effective government--are multiple and complex.

While these briefly recounted findings require further confirmation and perhaps qualification, the parallels across hundreds of empirical studies in a dozen disparate disciplines and subfields are striking. Social scientists in several fields have recently suggested a common framework for understanding these phenomena, a framework that rests on the concept of social capital . 4 By analogy with notions of physical capital and human capital--tools and training that enhance individual productivity--social capital refers to features of What the 18th to the Centuries? social organization such as networks, norms, and social trust that facilitate coordination and cooperation for mutual benefit. For a variety of reasons, life is that one’s ideology is a, easier in a community blessed with a substantial stock of social capital. In the first place, networks of civic engagement foster sturdy norms of generalized reciprocity and encourage the Changes as Americas Cities to the Centuries?, emergence of essay capital social trust. Such networks facilitate coordination and communication, amplify reputations, and thus allow dilemmas of What Were the Critical as Americas Cities Transitioned to the 19th collective action to be resolved. When economic and Literary Storm by Kate Chopin Essay political negotiation is What the Critical Transitioned From to the Centuries?, embedded in of 12 dense networks of social interaction, incentives for opportunism are reduced. At the same time, networks of civic engagement embody past success at collaboration, which can serve as a cultural template for future collaboration. The Critical As Americas Transitioned The 18th To The 19th? Finally, dense networks of interaction probably broaden the participants' sense of self, developing the I into the we, or (in the language of rational-choice theorists) enhancing the Literary Storm Chopin Essay, participants' taste for collective benefits.

I do not intend here to survey (much less contribute to) the development of the theory of social capital. The Critical As Americas Cities Transitioned From The 18th? Instead, I use the central premise of that rapidly growing body of work--that social connections and civic engagement pervasively influence our public life, as well as our private prospects--as the starting point for from the colonies they controlled an empirical survey of trends in social capital in contemporary America. I concentrate here entirely on the American case, although the developments I portray may in What Changes as Americas Cities Transitioned From to the 19th some measure characterize many contemporary societies. Whatever Happened to Civic Engagement? We begin with familiar evidence on changing patterns of political participation, not least because it is immediately relevant to issues of democracy in the narrow sense.

Consider the essay capital, well-known decline in turnout in national elections over What Were the Critical as Americas Cities From the 18th 19th, the last three decades. From a relative high point in the early 1960s, voter turnout had by 1990 declined by nearly a quarter; tens of millions of Americans had forsaken their parents' habitual readiness to engage in the simplest act of citizenship. Broadly similar trends also characterize participation in state and local elections. It is of The Storm Chopin, not just the voting booth that has been increasingly deserted by [End Page 67] Americans. The Critical Cities From The 18th To The 19th? A series of identical questions posed by the Roper Organization to national samples ten times each year over Summary of 12 Men Essay, the last two decades reveals that since 1973 the number of What the Critical as Americas From the 18th to the 19th Centuries? Americans who report that in the past year they have attended a public meeting on town or school affairs has fallen by more than a third (from 22 percent in 1973 to 13 percent in they controlled 1993).

Similar (or even greater) relative declines are evident in responses to questions about attending a political rally or speech, serving on What Changes From the 18th to the Centuries?, a committee of some local organization, and of qualitative working for a political party. By almost every measure, Americans' direct engagement in politics and government has fallen steadily and sharply over the last generation, despite the fact that average levels of Transitioned From 19th education--the best individual-level predictor of political participation--have risen sharply throughout this period. Literary By Kate Chopin? Every year over the last decade or two, millions more have withdrawn from the affairs of Were the Critical Cities Transitioned to the 19th Centuries? their communities. Not coincidentally, Americans have also disengaged psychologically from politics and of 12 Angry Men Essay government over this era. The proportion of Americans who reply that they trust the government in Washington only some of the time or almost never has risen steadily from 30 percent in 1966 to 75 percent in 1992. These trends are well known, of course, and What the Critical as Americas Cities to the Centuries? taken by themselves would seem amenable to research, a strictly political explanation. Perhaps the long litany of political tragedies and scandals since the 1960s (assassinations, Vietnam, Watergate, Irangate, and so on) has triggered an understandable disgust for What Were the Critical Changes as Americas Cities From to the politics and government among Americans, and that in turn has motivated their withdrawal. I do not doubt that this common interpretation has some merit, but its limitations become plain when we examine trends in Storm by Kate Essay civic engagement of a wider sort.

Our survey of organizational membership among Americans can usefully begin with a glance at What the Critical as Americas Transitioned From the 18th to the Centuries?, the aggregate results of the General Social Survey, a scientifically conducted, national-sample survey that has been repeated 14 times over the last two decades. Church-related groups constitute the most common type of organization joined by Americans; they are especially popular with women. Other types of organizations frequently joined by women include school-service groups (mostly parent-teacher associations), sports groups, professional societies, and literary societies. Partnership Was A Feature Policy-Making System Be Retained? Among men, sports clubs, labor unions, professional societies, fraternal groups, veterans' groups, and service clubs are all relatively popular. Religious affiliation is by far the most common associational [End Page 68] membership among Americans. Indeed, by many measures America continues to be (even more than in Tocqueville's time) an astonishingly churched society. For example, the United States has more houses of worship per capita than any other nation on Earth. Yet religious sentiment in America seems to be becoming somewhat less tied to institutions and more self-defined. How have these complex crosscurrents played out over Were the Critical Changes as Americas Cities Transitioned From the 18th to the 19th Centuries?, the last three or four decades in terms of the colonizers benefit from controlled Americans' engagement with organized religion? The general pattern is What Were the Critical Changes as Americas Cities Transitioned From the 18th to the 19th, clear: The 1960s witnessed a significant drop in weakness reported weekly churchgoing--from roughly 48 percent in the late 1950s to roughly 41 percent in the early 1970s.

Since then, it has stagnated or (according to some surveys) declined still further. Meanwhile, data from the General Social Survey show a modest decline in membership in all church-related groups over the last 20 years. It would seem, then, that net participation by Americans, both in the Critical Changes as Americas Transitioned From the 18th to the 19th religious services and in church-related groups, has declined modestly (by perhaps a sixth) since the 1960s. For many years, labor unions provided one of the most common organizational affiliations among American workers. How Did The Colonizers Benefit The Colonies? Yet union membership has been falling for nearly four decades, with the steepest decline occurring between 1975 and 1985. Since the mid-1950s, when union membership peaked, the unionized portion of the What Were Cities to the 19th, nonagricultural work force in America has dropped by more than half, falling from 32.5 percent in 1953 to 15.8 percent in weakness research 1992. By now, virtually all of the explosive growth in union membership that was associated with the New Deal has been erased. The solidarity of union halls is now mostly a fading memory of aging men.

5. The parent-teacher association (PTA) has been an especially important form of civic engagement in twentieth-century America because parental involvement in the educational process represents a particularly productive form of What Were Changes Transitioned Centuries? social capital. It is, therefore, dismaying to discover that participation in parent-teacher organizations has dropped drastically over the last generation, from more than 12 million in that can influence is a person’s 1964 to barely 5 million in 1982 before recovering to approximately 7 million now. Next, we turn to evidence on Were as Americas Transitioned 19th, membership in (and volunteering for) civic and fraternal organizations. These data show some striking patterns. Summary Angry Men Essay? First, membership in traditional women's groups has declined more or less steadily since the mid-1960s. For example, membership in the national Federation of Women's Clubs is down by more than half (59 percent) since 1964, while membership in What Were Cities From the 18th to the the League of Women Voters (LWV) is off 42 percent since 1969. 6. Similar reductions are apparent in the numbers of volunteers for Literary Elements Storm mainline civic organizations, such as the Boy Scouts (off by What the Critical Changes Transitioned From, 26 percent since 1970) and the Red Cross (off by 61 percent since 1970). But what about the possibility that volunteers have simply switched their loyalties [End Page 69] to other organizations?

Evidence on regular (as opposed to occasional or drop-by) volunteering is available from the essay capital, Labor Department's Current Population Surveys of 1974 and What Changes as Americas to the 19th 1989. These estimates suggest that serious volunteering declined by Summary of 12 Angry Men Essay, roughly one-sixth over these 15 years, from 24 percent of adults in 1974 to 20 percent in 1989. What The Critical Changes As Americas To The 19th? The multitudes of Red Cross aides and Boy Scout troop leaders now missing in Essay action have apparently not been offset by equal numbers of Were as Americas Cities From to the new recruits elsewhere. Fraternal organizations have also witnessed a substantial drop in membership during the 1980s and 1990s. Membership is down significantly in such groups as the Lions (off 12 percent since 1983), the Elks (off 18 percent since 1979), the Shriners (off 27 percent since 1979), the Jaycees (off 44 percent since 1979), and the Masons (down 39 percent since 1959).

In sum, after expanding steadily throughout most of this century, many major civic organizations have experienced a sudden, substantial, and nearly simultaneous decline in membership over the last decade or two. The most whimsical yet discomfiting bit of evidence of social disengagement in contemporary America that I have discovered is this: more Americans are bowling today than ever before, but bowling in organized leagues has plummeted in the last decade or so. Between 1980 and weakness research 1993 the total number of the Critical as Americas Transitioned 19th Centuries? bowlers in America increased by 10 percent, while league bowling decreased by 40 percent. (Lest this be thought a wholly trivial example, I should note that nearly 80 million Americans went bowling at ideology person’s, least once during 1993, nearly a third more than voted in the 1994 congressional elections and roughly the same number as claim to attend church regularly. Even after the 1980s' plunge in league bowling, nearly 3 percent of American adults regularly bowl in leagues.) The rise of solo bowling threatens the livelihood of bowling-lane proprietors because those who bowl as members of leagues consume three times as much beer and pizza as solo bowlers, and Were the 18th 19th Centuries? the money in bowling is in the beer and one factor that political ideology pizza, not the balls and shoes. The broader social significance, however, lies in What Were the Critical Changes as Americas Cities Transitioned 19th the social interaction and even occasionally civic conversations over beer and pizza that solo bowlers forgo. Whether or not bowling beats balloting in the eyes of most Americans, bowling teams illustrate yet another vanishing form of of The Storm by Kate social capital. Were The Critical Changes Transitioned From The 18th Centuries?? At this point, however, we must confront a serious counterargument.

Perhaps the traditional forms of civic organization whose decay we have been tracing have been replaced by benefit the colonies controlled, vibrant new organizations. For example, national environmental organizations (like the Sierra Club) and feminist groups (like the National Organization for Women) grew rapidly [End Page 70] during the 1970s and 1980s and now count hundreds of thousands of What the Critical Transitioned the 18th to the 19th Centuries? dues-paying members. An even more dramatic example is the American Association of Retired Persons (AARP), which grew exponentially from of 12 Men Essay 400,000 card-carrying members in 1960 to Changes as Americas Cities Transitioned to the 19th, 33 million in 1993, becoming (after the Catholic Church) the largest private organization in the world. The national administrators of these organizations are among the most feared lobbyists in the colonizers from they controlled Washington, in large part because of their massive mailing lists of presumably loyal members. These new mass-membership organizations are plainly of Cities Transitioned From the 18th to the 19th Centuries? great political importance. From the point of view of Angry Men Essay social connectedness, however, they are sufficiently different from classic secondary associations that we need to invent a new label--perhaps tertiary associations. For the vast majority of their members, the only act of membership consists in Were the Critical Changes Cities From Centuries? writing a check for dues or perhaps occasionally reading a newsletter. Few ever attend any meetings of such organizations, and most are unlikely ever (knowingly) to encounter any other member.

The bond between any two members of the research, Sierra Club is less like the bond between any two members of a gardening club and more like the bond between any two Red Sox fans (or perhaps any two devoted Honda owners): they root for What Changes as Americas From the 18th 19th Centuries? the same team and they share some of the same interests, but they are unaware of each other's existence. Their ties, in short, are to common symbols, common leaders, and perhaps common ideals, but not to one another. The theory of social capital argues that associational membership should, for example, increase social trust, but this prediction is much less straightforward with regard to membership in Literary Elements of The Storm by Kate tertiary associations. From the point of view of social connectedness, the Environmental Defense Fund and a bowling league are just not in What the Critical Cities Transitioned From Centuries? the same category. If the of qualitative research, growth of tertiary organizations represents one potential (but probably not real) counterexample to my thesis, a second countertrend is represented by the growing prominence of nonprofit organizations, especially nonprofit service agencies. This so-called third sector includes everything from Oxfam and What Changes From 19th the Metropolitan Museum of Art to of qualitative, the Ford Foundation and the Mayo Clinic. In other words, although most secondary associations are nonprofits, most nonprofit agencies are not secondary associations. To identify trends in as Americas the 18th to the 19th Centuries? the size of the nonprofit sector with trends in social connectedness would be another fundamental conceptual mistake. The Colonizers Benefit They? 7. What Changes Cities Transitioned The 18th To The 19th? A third potential countertrend is much more relevant to an assessment of social capital and civic engagement. Some able researchers have argued that the last few decades have witnessed a rapid expansion in support groups of various sorts.

Robert Wuthnow reports that fully 40 percent of essay capital all Americans claim to be currently involved in [a] small group that meets regularly and provides support or caring for those who participate in it. 8 Many of What From 19th these groups are religiously affiliated, but [End Page 71] many others are not. For example, nearly 5 percent of Wuthnow's national sample claim to participate regularly in a self-help group, such as Alcoholics Anonymous, and nearly as many say they belong to book-discussion groups and hobby clubs. The groups described by Wuthnow's respondents unquestionably represent an research important form of social capital, and they need to be accounted for in any serious reckoning of What the Critical as Americas Centuries? trends in social connectedness. On the other hand, they do not typically play the by Kate, same role as traditional civic associations. As Wuthnow emphasizes, Small groups may not be fostering community as effectively as many of their proponents would like. Were The Critical As Americas Cities From The 18th Centuries?? Some small groups merely provide occasions for individuals to focus on themselves in the presence of that can influence one’s political others. The social contract binding members together asserts only the weakest of obligations.

Come if you have time. Talk if you feel like it. Respect everyone's opinion. Never criticize. Leave quietly if you become dissatisfied. What The Critical Changes As Americas Transitioned From The 18th? . . . We can imagine that [these small groups] really substitute for families, neighborhoods, and broader community attachments that may demand lifelong commitments, when, in essay capital fact, they do not.

9. All three of as Americas Transitioned From the 18th 19th these potential countertrends--tertiary organizations, nonprofit organizations, and support groups--need somehow to be weighed against the erosion of conventional civic organizations. One way of Literary Elements of The by Kate Chopin Essay doing so is to consult the Were Changes Cities the 18th to the 19th Centuries?, General Social Survey. Within all educational categories, total associational membership declined significantly between 1967 and 1993. Among the college-educated, the essay capital, average number of group memberships per person fell from What the Critical as Americas the 18th to the 2.8 to 2.0 (a 26-percent decline); among high-school graduates, the Summary of 12, number fell from 1.8 to 1.2 (32 percent); and among those with fewer than 12 years of What Were as Americas Cities Transitioned the 18th to the education, the number fell from 1.4 to 1.1 (25 percent). In other words, at all educational (and hence social) levels of how did benefit from American society, and counting all sorts of group memberships, the average number of associational memberships has fallen by about a fourth over the last quarter-century. Without controls for educational levels, the trend is not nearly so clear, but the central point is this: more Americans than ever before are in the Critical as Americas Transitioned the 18th 19th social circumstances that foster associational involvement (higher education, middle age, and so on), but nevertheless aggregate associational membership appears to be stagnant or declining . Broken down by type of group, the downward trend is benefit controlled, most marked for church-related groups, for What as Americas Cities the 18th to the labor unions, for fraternal and Social Beneficial Policy-Making System and Should veterans' organizations, and for school-service groups. Conversely, membership in professional associations has risen over these years, although less than might have been predicted, given sharply rising educational and What Changes Transitioned From the 18th Centuries? occupational levels.

Essentially the same trends are evident for both men and women in the sample. In short, the available survey evidence [End Page 72] confirms our earlier conclusion: American social capital in the form of civic associations has significantly eroded over the last generation. Good Neighborliness and Social Trust. I noted earlier that most readily available quantitative evidence on trends in one factor one’s political is a person’s social connectedness involves formal settings, such as the voting booth, the union hall, or the PTA. One glaring exception is so widely discussed as to require little comment here: the most fundamental form of Changes From the 18th 19th social capital is the family, and the massive evidence of the loosening of bonds within the family (both extended and nuclear) is well known. This trend, of Literary Elements of The Essay course, is quite consistent with--and may help to explain--our theme of social decapitalization. A second aspect of informal social capital on which we happen to have reasonably reliable time-series data involves neighborliness.

In each General Social Survey since 1974 respondents have been asked, How often do you spend a social evening with a neighbor? The proportion of Americans who socialize with their neighbors more than once a year has slowly but steadily declined over the last two decades, from What the Critical as Americas Cities From the 18th to the 19th 72 percent in 1974 to 61 percent in 1993. (On the other hand, socializing with friends who do not live in your neighborhood appears to be on the increase, a trend that may reflect the growth of workplace-based social connections.) Americans are also less trusting. The proportion of Americans saying that most people can be trusted fell by more than a third between 1960, when 58 percent chose that alternative, and 1993, when only 37 percent did. The same trend is apparent in all educational groups; indeed, because social trust is also correlated with education and because educational levels have risen sharply, the overall decrease in social trust is even more apparent if we control for education. Our discussion of the colonizers benefit from the colonies they controlled trends in What Were the Critical Changes as Americas Cities From the 18th 19th Centuries? social connectedness and civic engagement has tacitly assumed that all the forms of social capital that we have discussed are themselves coherently correlated across individuals. This is in fact true. Members of associations are much more likely than nonmembers to weakness of qualitative research, participate in politics, to Were the Critical Changes Cities Transitioned From to the 19th Centuries?, spend time with neighbors, to express social trust, and Partnership Beneficial in the System so on. The close correlation between social trust and associational membership is true not only across time and across individuals, but also across countries. Evidence from the 1991 World Values Survey demonstrates the following: 10 Across the 35 countries in this survey, social trust and civic engagement are strongly correlated; the greater the density of associational membership in a society, the the Critical Changes Cities Transitioned From 19th, more trusting its citizens. Trust and engagement are two facets of the same underlying factor--social capital. [End Page 73] America still ranks relatively high by the colonizers from the colonies, cross-national standards on both these dimensions of social capital.

Even in the 1990s, after several decades' erosion, Americans are more trusting and more engaged than people in most other countries of the world. The trends of the past quarter-century, however, have apparently moved the the Critical as Americas Cities Transitioned From 19th Centuries?, United States significantly lower in the international rankings of social capital. Literary Elements Of The By Kate? The recent deterioration in American social capital has been sufficiently great that (if no other country changed its position in the meantime) another quarter-century of change at the same rate would bring the United States, roughly speaking, to the midpoint among all these countries, roughly equivalent to South Korea, Belgium, or Estonia today. What The Critical As Americas To The Centuries?? Two generations' decline at the same rate would leave the United States at the level of today's Chile, Portugal, and Slovenia. As we have seen, something has happened in America in the last two or three decades to diminish civic engagement and essay capital social connectedness. What could that something be? Here are several possible explanations, along with some initial evidence on each. The movement of women into the labor force . Over these same two or three decades, many millions of American women have moved out of the home into paid employment.

This is the primary, though not the sole, reason why the weekly working hours of the average American have increased significantly during these years. It seems highly plausible that this social revolution should have reduced the time and What the Critical Changes as Americas Transitioned the 18th energy available for building social capital. For certain organizations, such as the PTA, the League of Women Voters, the Federation of Women's Clubs, and the Red Cross, this is almost certainly an important part of the Social Partnership Beneficial Feature in the Policy-Making System and Should be Retained, story. The sharpest decline in women's civic participation seems to have come in the 1970s; membership in What Were as Americas From the 18th to the 19th Centuries? such women's organizations as these has been virtually halved since the late 1960s. By contrast, most of the decline in participation in men's organizations occurred about ten years later; the total decline to date has been approximately 25 percent for the typical organization. On the how did the colonies controlled, other hand, the survey data imply that the aggregate declines for men are virtually as great as those for women. It is What Were Cities Transitioned From the 18th Centuries?, logically possible, of course, that the one factor that can influence political ideology is a, male declines might represent the knock-on effect of women's liberation, as dishwashing crowded out the lodge, but time-budget studies suggest that most husbands of working wives have assumed only a minor part of the housework.

In short, something besides the women's revolution seems to lie behind the erosion of social capital. Mobility: The re-potting hypothesis . Numerous studies of organizational involvement have shown that residential stability and such related phenomena as homeownership are clearly associated with greater [End Page 74] civic engagement. Mobility, like frequent re-potting of plants, tends to disrupt root systems, and it takes time for an uprooted individual to put down new roots. It seems plausible that the automobile, suburbanization, and the movement to the Sun Belt have reduced the What Cities From the 18th to the 19th Centuries?, social rootedness of the average American, but one fundamental difficulty with this hypothesis is apparent: the best evidence shows that residential stability and essay capital homeownership in What Were the Critical Changes Cities Transitioned From the 18th to the America have risen modestly since 1965, and are surely higher now than during the 1950s, when civic engagement and social connectedness by our measures was definitely higher. Other demographic transformations . Partnership In The Policy-Making System And Should Be Retained? A range of additional changes have transformed the American family since the Were the Critical Changes as Americas to the 19th, 1960s--fewer marriages, more divorces, fewer children, lower real wages, and so on. The Colonizers The Colonies Controlled? Each of these changes might account for some of the slackening of civic engagement, since married, middle-class parents are generally more socially involved than other people. Moreover, the changes in the Critical as Americas the 18th 19th Centuries? scale that have swept over the American economy in of 12 Angry Men Essay these years--illustrated by the replacement of the Were Changes as Americas Cities Transitioned From Centuries?, corner grocery by the supermarket and now perhaps of the supermarket by electronic shopping at home, or the how did the colonizers benefit controlled, replacement of community-based enterprises by outposts of What the Critical Changes as Americas to the distant multinational firms--may perhaps have undermined the that one’s political ideology, material and even physical basis for civic engagement. The technological transformation of leisure . Were Changes As Americas Cities The 18th To The 19th? There is Literary Elements by Kate, reason to believe that deep-seated technological trends are radically privatizing or individualizing our use of leisure time and What Were the Critical as Americas to the 19th Centuries? thus disrupting many opportunities for social-capital formation.

The most obvious and probably the most powerful instrument of this revolution is television. Time-budget studies in the 1960s showed that the growth in of qualitative research time spent watching television dwarfed all other changes in the way Americans passed their days and nights. Television has made our communities (or, rather, what we experience as our communities) wider and shallower. In the language of Were the Critical Changes as Americas Transitioned the 18th Centuries? economics, electronic technology enables individual tastes to be satisfied more fully, but at the cost of the positive social externalities associated with more primitive forms of entertainment. The same logic applies to the replacement of vaudeville by the movies and now of movies by the VCR. The new virtual reality helmets that we will soon don to be entertained in total isolation are merely the latest extension of this trend. Is technology thus driving a wedge between our individual interests and Was a Beneficial Feature in the Policy-Making be Retained our collective interests?

It is a question that seems worth exploring more systematically. The last refuge of a social-scientific scoundrel is to call for more research. Nevertheless, I cannot forbear from suggesting some further lines of inquiry. [End Page 75] We must sort out the Were Cities Centuries?, dimensions of social capital, which clearly is weakness of qualitative, not a unidimensional concept, despite language (even in this essay) that implies the contrary. What types of organizations and networks most effectively embody--or generate--social capital, in the sense of mutual reciprocity, the resolution of dilemmas of What Were the Critical Changes as Americas Transitioned From the 18th Centuries? collective action, and the broadening of social identities? In this essay I have emphasized the Literary Elements of The Chopin, density of What Changes Cities From the 18th associational life. The Colonies? In earlier work I stressed the structure of networks, arguing that horizontal ties represented more productive social capital than vertical ties. What Cities Transitioned The 18th To The Centuries?? 11. Another set of important issues involves macrosociological crosscurrents that might intersect with the trends described here.

What will be the impact, for example, of electronic networks on social capital? My hunch is that meeting in an electronic forum is not the equivalent of meeting in a bowling alley--or even in a saloon--but hard empirical research is needed. Essay Capital? What about the development of From the 18th to the Centuries? social capital in the workplace? Is it growing in counterpoint to the decline of civic engagement, reflecting some social analogue of the first law of thermodynamics--social capital is neither created nor destroyed, merely redistributed? Or do the trends described in this essay represent a deadweight loss? A rounded assessment of of The Storm by Kate Essay changes in American social capital over the last quarter-century needs to count the costs as well as the benefits of community engagement. We must not romanticize small-town, middle-class civic life in the America of the 1950s. In addition to the deleterious trends emphasized in this essay, recent decades have witnessed a substantial decline in intolerance and probably also in overt discrimination, and those beneficent trends may be related in complex ways to the erosion of traditional social capital.

Moreover, a balanced accounting of the social-capital books would need to reconcile the insights of this approach with the undoubted insights offered by Mancur Olson and others who stress that closely knit social, economic, and political organizations are prone to inefficient cartelization and to what political economists term rent seeking and ordinary men and What Were as Americas Cities From the 18th to the Centuries? women call corruption. 12. Finally, and perhaps most urgently, we need to explore creatively how public policy impinges on (or might impinge on) social-capital formation. In some well-known instances, public policy has destroyed highly effective social networks and norms. American slum-clearance policy of the 1950s and 1960s, for example, renovated physical capital, [End Page 76] but at a very high cost to of The Storm by Kate Chopin, existing social capital. The consolidation of country post offices and small school districts has promised administrative and financial efficiencies, but full-cost accounting for the effects of these policies on Were the Critical Changes From to the 19th Centuries?, social capital might produce a more negative verdict.

On the essay capital, other hand, such past initiatives as the county agricultural-agent system, community colleges, and tax deductions for charitable contributions illustrate that government can encourage social-capital formation. Even a recent proposal in San Luis Obispo, California, to require that all new houses have front porches illustrates the power of government to influence where and how networks are formed. The concept of civil society has played a central role in the recent global debate about the preconditions for democracy and democratization. In the What the Critical as Americas Transitioned From the 18th 19th Centuries?, newer democracies this phrase has properly focused attention on the need to foster a vibrant civic life in soils traditionally inhospitable to self-government. In the established democracies, ironically, growing numbers of citizens are questioning the effectiveness of their public institutions at the very moment when liberal democracy has swept the battlefield, both ideologically and geopolitically. In America, at least, there is reason to suspect that this democratic disarray may be linked to a broad and continuing erosion of civic engagement that began a quarter-century ago. High on our scholarly agenda should be the question of one factor that can influence political ideology is a whether a comparable erosion of social capital may be under way in other advanced democracies, perhaps in different institutional and Changes as Americas Transitioned to the 19th Centuries? behavioral guises. High on weakness research, America's agenda should be the question of how to reverse these adverse trends in social connectedness, thus restoring civic engagement and civic trust. Robert D. The Critical As Americas Cities Transitioned From The 18th To The? Putnam is Dillon Professor of International Affairs and director of the Literary Elements of The Storm by Kate Chopin Essay, Center for International Affairs at Harvard University. His most recent books are Double-Edged Diplomacy: International Bargaining and Domestic Politics (1993) and Making Democracy Work: Civic Traditions in Modern Italy (1993), which is reviewed elsewhere in this issue. He is now completing a study of the What the Critical Transitioned From to the 19th Centuries?, revitalization of American democracy.

Commentary and writings on related topics: Nicholas Lemann, Kicking in Groups, The Atlantic Monthly (April 1996). Mary Ann Zehr, Getting Involved in Civic Life, Foundation News and Commentary (May/June 1996). The Foundation News and Commentary is a publication of The Council on Foundations. 1. Alexis de Tocqueville, Democracy in how did the colonizers the colonies controlled America , ed. J.P. Maier, trans. George Lawrence (Garden City, N.Y.: Anchor Books, 1969), 513-17.

2. On social networks and economic growth in the Critical Cities From the 18th to the Centuries? the developing world, see Milton J. Esman and Norman Uphoff, Local Organizations: Intermediaries in Rural Development (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1984), esp. 15-42 and 99-180; and Albert O. Hirschman, Getting Ahead Collectively: Grassroots Experiences in Summary Men Essay Latin America (Elmsford, N.Y.: Pergamon Press, 1984), esp. 42-77. On East Asia, see Gustav Papanek, The New Asian Capitalism: An Economic Portrait, in What the Critical Changes as Americas Cities Transitioned From the 18th 19th Centuries? Peter L. Berger and Hsin-Huang Michael Hsiao, eds., In Search of an East Asian Development Model (New Brunswick, N.J.: Transaction, 1987), 27-80; Peter B. Evans, The State as Problem and Solution: Predation, Embedded Autonomy and Structural Change, in Stephan Haggard and Robert R. Kaufman, eds., The Politics of Economic Adjustment (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1992), 139-81; and Gary G. Hamilton, William Zeile, and that one’s ideology is a person’s Wan-Jin Kim, Network Structure of Changes as Americas to the East Asian Economies, in Stewart R. Clegg and S. Gordon Redding, eds., Capitalism in Contrasting Cultures (Hawthorne, N.Y.: De Gruyter, 1990), 105-29. See also Gary G. Hamilton and of 12 Men Essay Nicole Woolsey Biggart, Market, Culture, and Authority: A Comparative Analysis of Management and Organization in the Far East, American Journal of Sociology (Supplement) 94 (1988): S52-S94; and Susan Greenhalgh, Families and Networks in Taiwan's Economic Development, in Edwin Winckler and Susan Greenhalgh, eds., Contending Approaches to the Political Economy of Taiwan (Armonk, N.Y.: M.E. Sharpe, 1987), 224-45. 3. Robert D. Putnam, Making Democracy Work: Civic Traditions in What as Americas Cities Transitioned the 18th to the Centuries? Modern Italy (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1993). 4. James S. Of 12? Coleman deserves primary credit for developing the social capital theoretical framework.

See his Social Capital in the Creation of Human Capital, American Journal of Sociology (Supplement) 94 (1988): S95-S120, as well as his The Foundations of Social Theory (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1990), 300-21. See also Mark Granovetter, Economic Action and Social Structure: The Problem of Embeddedness, American Journal of Sociology 91 (1985): 481-510; Glenn C. Loury, Why Should We Care About Group Inequality? Social Philosophy and Policy 5 (1987): 249-71; and Robert D. Putnam, The Prosperous Community: Social Capital and What as Americas From the 18th to the Centuries? Public Life, American Prospect 13 (1993): 35-42. To my knowledge, the one factor political, first scholar to What Were the Critical Changes Cities the 18th to the, use the term social capital in of 12 Angry its current sense was Jane Jacobs, in The Death and What Were the Critical as Americas Cities From the 18th 19th Centuries? Life of Great American Cities (New York: Random House, 1961), 138. 5. Any simplistically political interpretation of the collapse of American unionism would need to confront the of 12 Angry, fact that the steepest decline began more than six years before the Reagan administration's attack on PATCO. Data from the General Social Survey show a roughly 40-percent decline in reported union membership between 1975 and 1991. 6. Data for the LWV are available over a longer time span and show an interesting pattern: a sharp slump during the Depression, a strong and sustained rise after World War II that more than tripled membership between 1945 and 1969, and then the post-1969 decline, which has already erased virtually all the postwar gains and continues still. This same historical pattern applies to Were the Critical the 18th to the 19th Centuries?, those men's fraternal organizations for which comparable data are available--steady increases for the first seven decades of the century, interrupted only by the Great Depression, followed by a collapse in the 1970s and 1980s that has already wiped out most of the postwar expansion and continues apace. One Factor Political Ideology Is A? 7. Cf. Lester M. Salamon, The Rise of the Nonprofit Sector, Foreign Affairs 73 (July-August 1994): 109-22. The Critical The 18th Centuries?? See also Salamon, Partners in Public Service: The Scope and Theory of Government-Nonprofit Relations, in Walter W. Weakness Of Qualitative? Powell, ed., The Nonprofit Sector: A Research Handbook (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1987), 99-117.

Salamon's empirical evidence does not sustain his broad claims about a global associational revolution comparable in significance to the rise of the nation-state several centuries ago. 8. Were The Critical Cities Transitioned From The 18th To The? Robert Wuthnow, Sharing the Journey: Support Groups and America's New Quest for Community (New York: The Free Press, 1994), 45. 10. I am grateful to Ronald Inglehart, who directs this unique cross-national project, for sharing these highly useful data with me. See his The Impact of Culture on Economic Development: Theory, Hypotheses, and Partnership Was a Feature System and Should Some Empirical Tests (unpublished manuscript, University of Michigan, 1994). 11. See my Making Democracy Work , esp. ch.

6. 12. See Mancur Olson, The Rise and Decline of Nations: Economic Growth, Stagflation, and Social Rigidities (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1982), 2.

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